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1.
Innovation (Camb) ; 5(4): 100612, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756954

RESUMO

Environmental pollution is escalating due to rapid global development that often prioritizes human needs over planetary health. Despite global efforts to mitigate legacy pollutants, the continuous introduction of new substances remains a major threat to both people and the planet. In response, global initiatives are focusing on risk assessment and regulation of emerging contaminants, as demonstrated by the ongoing efforts to establish the UN's Intergovernmental Science-Policy Panel on Chemicals, Waste, and Pollution Prevention. This review identifies the sources and impacts of emerging contaminants on planetary health, emphasizing the importance of adopting a One Health approach. Strategies for monitoring and addressing these pollutants are discussed, underscoring the need for robust and socially equitable environmental policies at both regional and international levels. Urgent actions are needed to transition toward sustainable pollution management practices to safeguard our planet for future generations.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758620

RESUMO

Due to its marvelous performance and remarkable scalability, a broad learning system (BLS) has aroused a wide range of attention. However, its incremental learning suffers from low accuracy and long training time, especially when dealing with unstable data streams, making it difficult to apply in real-world scenarios. To overcome these issues and enrich its relevant research, a robust incremental BLS (RI-BLS) is proposed. In this method, the proposed weight update strategy introduces two memory matrices to store the learned information, thus the computational procedure of ridge regression is decomposed, resulting in precomputed ridge regression. During incremental learning, RI-BLS updates two memory matrices and renews weights via precomputed ridge regression efficiently. In addition, this update strategy is theoretically analyzed in error, time complexity, and space complexity compared with existing incremental BLSs. Different from Greville's method used in the original incremental BLS, its results are closer to the solution of one-shot calculation. Compared with the existing incremental BLSs, the proposed method exhibits more stable time complexity and superior space complexity. The experiments prove that RI-BLS outperforms other incremental BLSs when handling both stable and unstable data streams. Furthermore, experiments demonstrate that the proposed weight update strategy applies to other random neural networks as well.

3.
Phytomedicine ; 129: 155698, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes could elevate the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) in infants, and effective preventive and therapeutic medications are currently lacking. Atractylenolide-I (AT-I) is the active ingredient of Atractylodes Macrocephala Koidz (known as Baizhu in China), which is a traditional pregnancy-supporting Chinese herb. PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the protective effect of AT-I on the development of CHD in embryos exposed to high glucose (HG). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: First, systematic review search results revealed associations between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and cardiovascular malformations. Subsequently, a second systematic review indicated that heart malformations were consistently associated with oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. We assessed the cytotoxic impacts of Atractylenolide compounds (AT-I, AT-II, and AT-III) on H9c2 cells and chick embryos, determining an optimal concentration of AT-I for further investigation. Second, immunofluorescence, western blot, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and flow cytometry were utilized to delve into the mechanisms through which AT-I mitigates oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac cells. Molecular docking was employed to investigate whether AT-I exerts cardioprotective effects via the STAT3 pathway. Then, we developed a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (PGDM) mouse model to evaluate AT-I's protective efficacy in mammals. Finally, we explored how AT-I protects hyperglycemia-induced abnormal fetal heart development through microbiota analysis and untargeted metabolomics analysis. RESULTS: The study showed the protective effect of AT-I on embryonic development using a chick embryo model which rescued the increase in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in cell survival induced by HG. We also provided evidence suggesting that AT-I might directly interact with STAT3, inhibiting its phosphorylation. Further, in the PGDM mouse model, we observed that AT-I not only partially alleviated PGDM-related blood glucose issues and complications but also mitigated hyperglycemia-induced abnormal fetal heart development in pregnant mice. This effect is hypothesized to be mediated through alterations in gut microbiota composition. We proposed that dysregulation in microbiota metabolism could influence the downstream STAT3 signaling pathway via EGFR, consequently impacting cardiac development and formation. CONCLUSIONS: This study marks the first documented instance of AT-I's effectiveness in reducing the risk of early cardiac developmental anomalies in fetuses affected by gestational diabetes. AT-I achieves this by inhibiting the STAT3 pathway activated by ROS during gestational diabetes, significantly reducing the risk of fetal cardiac abnormalities. Notably, AT-I also indirectly safeguards normal fetal cardiac development by influencing the maternal gut microbiota and suppressing the EGFR/STAT3 pathway.

4.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 84, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an important threat to global health. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are some of the key components to define bacterial resistance and their spread in different environments. Identification of ARGs, particularly from high-throughput sequencing data of the specimens, is the state-of-the-art method for comprehensively monitoring their spread and evolution. Current computational methods to identify ARGs mainly rely on alignment-based sequence similarities with known ARGs. Such approaches are limited by choice of reference databases and may potentially miss novel ARGs. The similarity thresholds are usually simple and could not accommodate variations across different gene families and regions. It is also difficult to scale up when sequence data are increasing. RESULTS: In this study, we developed ARGNet, a deep neural network that incorporates an unsupervised learning autoencoder model to identify ARGs and a multiclass classification convolutional neural network to classify ARGs that do not depend on sequence alignment. This approach enables a more efficient discovery of both known and novel ARGs. ARGNet accepts both amino acid and nucleotide sequences of variable lengths, from partial (30-50 aa; 100-150 nt) sequences to full-length protein or genes, allowing its application in both target sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. Our performance evaluation showed that ARGNet outperformed other deep learning models including DeepARG and HMD-ARG in most of the application scenarios especially quasi-negative test and the analysis of prediction consistency with phylogenetic tree. ARGNet has a reduced inference runtime by up to 57% relative to DeepARG. CONCLUSIONS: ARGNet is flexible, efficient, and accurate at predicting a broad range of ARGs from the sequencing data. ARGNet is freely available at https://github.com/id-bioinfo/ARGNet , with an online service provided at https://ARGNet.hku.hk . Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Redes Neurais de Computação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Aprendizado Profundo
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078018, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in myopia prevalence and ocular biometry in children and adolescents in Chongqing and Tibet, China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study included children and adolescents aged 6-18 years in Chongqing, a low-altitude region, and in Qamdo, a high-altitude region of Tibet. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 448 participants in Qamdo, Tibet, and 748 participants in Chongqing were enrolled in this study. METHODS: All participants underwent uncorrected visual acuity assessment, non-cycloplegic refraction, axial length (AL) measurement, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and corneal tomography. And the participants were grouped according to age (6-8, 9-11, 12-14 and 15-18 years group), and altitude of location (primary school students: group A (average altitude: 325 m), group B (average altitude: 2300 m), group C (average altitude: 3250 and 3170 m) and group D (average altitude: 3870 m)). RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in mean age (12.09±3.15 vs 12.2±3.10, p=0.549) and sex distribution (males, 50.4% vs 47.6%, p=0.339) between the two groups. The Tibet group presented greater spherical equivalent (SE, -0.63 (-2.00, 0.13) vs -0.88 (-2.88, -0.13), p<0.001), shorter AL (23.45±1.02 vs 23.92±1.19, p<0.001), lower prevalence of myopia (39.7% vs 47.6%, p=0.008) and flatter mean curvature power of the cornea (Km, 43.06±1.4 vs 43.26±1.36, p=0.014) than the Chongqing group. Further analysis based on age subgroups revealed that the Tibet group had a lower prevalence of myopia and higher SE in the 12-14, and 15-18 years old groups, shorter AL in the 9-11, 12-14 and 15-18 years old groups, and lower AL to corneal radius of curvature ratio (AL/CR) in all age subgroups compared with the Chongqing group, while Km was similar between the two groups in each age subgroup. Simple linear regression analysis showed that SE decreased with age in both the Tibet and Chongqing groups, with the Tibet group exhibiting a slower rate of decrease (p<0.001). AL and AL/CR increased with age in both the Tibet and Chongqing groups, but the rate of increase was slower in the Tibet group (p<0.001 of both). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that AL had the greatest effect on SE in both groups, followed by Km. In addition, the children and adolescents in Tibet presented thinner corneal thickness (CCT, p<0.001), smaller white to white distance (WTW, p<0.001), lower IOP (p<0.001) and deeper anterior chamber depth (ACD, p=0.015) than in Chongqing. Comparison of altitude subgroups showed that the prevalence of myopia (p=0.002), SE (p=0.031), AL (p=0.001) and AL/CR (p<0.001) of children at different altitudes was statistically different but the Km (p=0.189) were similar. The highest altitude, Tengchen County, exhibited the lowest prevalence of myopia and greatest SE among children, and the mean AL also decreased with increasing altitude. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia prevalence in Tibet was comparable with that in Chongqing for students aged 6-8 and 9-11 years but was lower and myopia progressed more slowly for students aged 12-14 and 15-18 years than in Chongqing, and AL was the main contributor for this difference, which may be related to higher ultraviolet radiation exposure and lower IOP in children and adolescents at high altitude in Tibet. Differences in AL and AL/CR between Tibet and Chongqing children and adolescents manifested earlier than in SE, underscoring the importance of AL measurement in myopia screening.


Assuntos
Altitude , Biometria , Miopia , Refração Ocular , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Tibet/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , China/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Comprimento Axial do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/patologia , Córnea/anatomia & histologia
6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1272475, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711795

RESUMO

Aim: Coronary artery lesion (CAL) is a common yet serious complication in children with Kawasaki disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influencing factors of CAL in children with Kawasaki disease, to provide reference for the clinical treatment and care of children with Kawasaki disease. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Methods: Children with Kawasaki disease treated in a tertiary hospital in China between 1 January 2021 and 31 December 2022 were selected. The characteristics and clinical data of children with Kawasaki disease were analyzed. Spearman's correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between CAL and the characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease. A logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of CAL in children with Kawasaki disease. Results: In total, 185 children with Kawasaki disease were included; the incidence of CAL in children with Kawasaki disease was 18.38%. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that gender (r = 0.504), age (r = 0.611), duration of fever ≥10 days (r = 0.579), hemoglobin (Hb) (r = 0.623), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.558) were all correlated with the CAL in children with Kawasaki disease (all p < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed that male [odds ratio (OR) = 2.543, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.801-3.077, p = 0.040], age ≤2 years (OR = 3.002, 95% CI: 2.744-3.641, p = 0.012), duration of fever ≥10 days (OR = 2.089, 95% CI: 1.624-2.515, p = 0.028), Hb ≤105 g/L (OR = 1.914, 95% CI: 1.431-2.406, p = 0.013), and CRP ≥100 mg/L (OR = 2.168, 95% CI: 1.893-2.531, p = 0.035) were the risk factors of CAL in children with Kawasaki disease (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The incidence of CAL in children with Kawasaki disease is high and there are many related risk factors. Clinical medical workers should take early warning and carry out interventions and nursing care according to these risk factors to improve the prognosis of children with Kawasaki disease.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 338, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to perform a prenatal genetic diagnosis of a high-risk fetus with trisomy 7 identified by noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and to evaluate the efficacy of different genetic testing techniques for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy mosaicism. METHODS: For prenatal diagnosis of a pregnant woman with a high risk of trisomy 7 suggested by NIPT, karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were performed on an amniotic fluid sample. Low-depth whole-genome copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to clarify the results further. In addition, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) was performed to analyze the possibility of uniparental disomy(UPD). RESULTS: Amniotic fluid karyotype analysis revealed a 46, XX result. Approximately 20% mosaic trisomy 7 was detected according to the CMA result. About 16% and 4% of mosaicism was detected by CNV-seq and FISH, respectively. MS-MLPA showed no methylation abnormalities. The fetal ultrasound did not show any detectable abnormalities except for mild intrauterine growth retardation seen at 39 weeks of gestation. After receiving genetic counseling, the expectant mother decided to continue the pregnancy, and follow-up within three months of delivery was normal. CONCLUSION: In high-risk NIPT diagnosis, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular genetic techniques proves fruitful in detecting low-level mosaicism. Furthermore, the exclusion of UPD on chromosome 7 remains crucial when NIPT indicates a positive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 7.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Mosaicismo , Trissomia , Dissomia Uniparental , Humanos , Feminino , Mosaicismo/embriologia , Gravidez , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Trissomia/genética , Cariotipagem/métodos , Adulto , Dissomia Uniparental/diagnóstico , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Teste Pré-Natal não Invasivo/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Líquido Amniótico
8.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930241255031, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have explored the impact of body mass index (BMI) on stroke prognosis, yet findings remain inconsistent. AIMS: The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses to summarize the existing evidence on BMI and stroke outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang Database and VIP Database were systematically searched from inception to Jan.1st, 2023. Cohort studies were included if they reported on a population of patients with stroke, evaluated BMI on stroke outcomes (mortality/recurrence/score of mRs) and reported original data. Data extraction and quality assessment were independently undertaken by two reviewers. Stata 16.0 software was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: 32 studies involving 330,353 patients (5 Chinese language articles) were included in the analysis. The proportion of underweight, overweight, and obese patients was 1.85%, 18.2%, and 15.6%, respectively. Compared with normal weight, being underweight was associated with an increased risk of mortality (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.60-1.96), poor functional outcomes defined as modified Rankin scale ≥3 (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.22-1.45), and stroke recurrence (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.37). Being overweight but not obese was associated with reduced mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.89) and better functional outcomes (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.89-0.96), but did not alter the risk of stroke recurrence (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.90-1.17). Obesity was associated with lower risk of mortality (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81), and better functional outcomes (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in patients with stroke, being underweight is associated with an increased risk of mortality, poor functional outcomes, and stroke recurrence. In contrast, being overweight but not obese, or being obese, was associated with a decreased risk of mortality and better functional outcomes. This are consistent with the obesity paradox in stroke, whereby obesity increases stroke risk in the general population but is associated with improved outcome in patients suffering stroke.Key Words body mass index; stroke; prognosis; meta-analysis.

9.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 202, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Determine the prevalence and influencing factors of patient delay in stroke patients and explore variation in prevalence by country and delayed time. METHODS: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Weipu database, and Wanfang database were comprehensively searched for observational studies from inception to April, 2023. The pooled prevalence, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with Stata 16.0 software. RESULTS: In total, 2721 articles were screened and data from 70 studies involving 85,468 subjects were used in meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of patient delay in stroke patients was 59% (95% CI, 0.54-0.64). The estimates of pooled prevalence calculated for African, Asian, and European patient delay in stroke patients were 55% (0.29-0.81), 61% (0.56-0.66), and 49% (0.34-0.64).According to the patient delay time, the prevalence of 6 h, 5 h, 4.5 h, 3.5 h, 3 h and 2 h were 54% (0.47-0.61), 73% (0.61-0.86), 60% (0.49-0.71), 81% (0.68-0.93), 52% (0.42-0.62), 63% (0.19-1.07). Distance from the place of onset to the hospital > 10 km [OR=2.49, 95%CI (1.92, 3.24)], having medical insurance [OR = 0.45, 95%CI (0.26,0.80)], lack of stroke-related knowledge [OR = 1.56, 95%CI (1.08,2.26)], education level below junior high school [OR = 1.69, 95%CI (1.22,2.36)], non-emergency medical services (Non-EMS) [OR = 2.10, 95%CI (1.49,2.97)], living in rural areas [OR = 1.54, 95%CI (1.15,2.07)], disturbance of consciousness [OR = 0.60, 95%CI (0.39,0.93)], history of atrial fibrillation [OR = 0.53, 95%CI (0.47,0.59)], age ≥ 65 years [OR = 1.18, 95%CI (1.02,1.37)], National institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) ≤ 4 points [OR= 2.26, 95%CI (1.06,4.79)]were factors for patient delay in stroke patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of patient delay in stroke patients is high, we should pay attention to the influencing factors of patient delay in stroke patients and provide a theoretical basis for shortening the treatment time of stroke patients.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tempo para o Tratamento , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Small Methods ; : e2301778, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741551

RESUMO

With the rapid development and maturity of electrochemical CO2 conversion involving cathodic CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) and anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER), conventional ex situ characterizations gradually fall behind in detecting real-time products distribution, tracking intermediates, and monitoring structural evolution, etc. Nevertheless, advanced in situ techniques, with intriguing merits like good reproducibility, facile operability, high sensitivity, and short response time, can realize in situ detection and recording of dynamic data, and observe materials structural evolution in real time. As an emerging visual technique, scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) presents local electrochemical signals on various materials surface through capturing micro-current caused by reactants oxidation and reduction. Importantly, SECM holds particular potentials in visualizing reactive intermediates at active sites and obtaining instantaneous morphology evolution images to reveal the intrinsic reactivity of active sites. Therefore, this review focuses on SECM fundamentals and its specific applications toward CO2RR and OER, mainly including electrochemical behavior observation on local regions of various materials, target products and onset potentials identification in real-time, reaction pathways clarification, reaction kinetics exploration under steady-state conditions, electroactive materials screening and multi-techniques coupling for a joint utilization. This review undoubtedly provides a leading guidance to extend various SECM applications to other energy-related fields.

11.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In facial plastic surgery, patients with nasal deformity are often treated by rib cartilage transplantation. In recent years, cartilage tissue engineering has developed as an alternative to complex surgery for patients with minor nasal defects via injection of nasal filler material. In this study, we prepared an injectable nasal filler material containing poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) porous microspheres (PMs), hyaluronic acid (HA) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). METHODS: We seeded ADMSCs into as-prepared PLLA PMs using our newly invented centrifugation perfusion technique. Then, HA was mixed with ADMSC-incorporated PLLA PMs to form a hydrophilic and injectable cell delivery system (ADMSC-incorporated PMH). RESULTS: We evaluated the biocompatibility of PMH in vitro and in vivo. PMH has good injectability and provides a favorable environment for the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADMSCs. In vivo experiments, we observed that PMH has good biocompatibility and cartilage regeneration ability. CONCLUSION: In this study, a injectable cell delivery system was successfully constructed. We believe that PMH has potential application in cartilage tissue engineering, especially in nasal cartilage regeneration.

12.
Front Nutr ; 11: 1341827, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765811

RESUMO

Essential oils have been recognized for their strong antibacterial property, making them an innovative approach for preserving meat. However, their chemical instability and direct impact on meat proteins limit their application. To overcome these limitations, various loading systems have been explored. This study aimed to compare the effect of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) loaded in a liposome and emulsion system on the proteolysis of minced pork and to evaluate the advantages of each delivery system in preventing microorganism-induced quality deterioration of meat. Minced pork treated with CEO-liposomes exhibited lower pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and total viable count (TVC) values than CEO-emulsions and provided better protection against microorganisms. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis confirmed that CEO-liposome was more effective in protecting proteins from degradation. Moreover, CEO-liposome produced lower amount of bitter amino acids and harmful biogenic amines. Antibacterial mechanisms indicated that CEO-liposome exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect against major spoilage bacteria in meat products by increasing cell membrane permeability. The membrane damage was further supported by an increase in conductivity and the leakage of nucleic acids. Compared to the CEO-emulsion system, CEO-liposome emerged as an effective preservative for minced pork. These results provided important theoretical support for using a bioactive compound delivery system to prevent microorganism-induced quality deterioration in meat.

13.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731590

RESUMO

Waterborne polyurethane, renowned for its lightweight properties, excellent insulation capabilities, and corrosion resistance, has found extensive application in fields such as construction, automotive, leather, and thermal insulation. Nevertheless, during operational usage, waterborne polyurethane materials, akin to other polymeric substances, are susceptible to oxidative aging manifestations like yellowing, cracking, and diminished mechanical performance, significantly curtailing their utility. Consequently, the synthesis of yellowing-resistant polyurethane assumes pivotal significance. This study integrates dynamic reversible reactions into the synthesis process of polyurethane by introducing the dynamic reversible compound 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a chain extender, alongside the incorporation of a UV absorber to enhance the polyurethane's resistance to yellowing. When the disulfide bonds absorb heat, they undergo cleavage, yielding thiols that spontaneously recombine into disulfide bonds at ambient temperatures, allowing for the continuous breaking and reformation of disulfide bonds to absorb heat. Concurrently, in collaboration with the UV absorber, the detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation on the polyurethane material are mitigated, thereby augmenting its resistance to yellowing. This study scrutinizes the positioning of UV absorber addition, the quantity of UV absorber, and the molar ratio of 1,4-butanediol to 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide, characterizing the functional groups of polyurethane through infrared and Raman spectroscopy. It is observed that the successful preparation of yellowing-resistant polyurethane is achieved, and evaluations on the modified polyurethane through color difference, tensile, and centrifugal tests reveal that the optimal yellowing resistance is attained by adding a UV absorber at a mass fraction of 1% to 3% prior to chain extension, resulting in a color change grade of 2, denoting slight discoloration. Simultaneously, the other properties of polyurethane exhibit relative stability. Notably, when the molar ratio of 1,4-butanediol to 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide is 3:2, the overall performance of the polyurethane remains stable, with exceptional yellowing resistance capabilities attaining a color change grade of 2.

14.
Discov Oncol ; 15(1): 155, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS) is known for its propensity for local recurrence and short survival time. We aimed to identify a credible and specific prognostic biomarker for RPLS. METHODS: Cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sarcoma dataset were included as the training group. Co-expression modules were constructed using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to explore associations between modules and survival. Survival analysis of hub genes was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. In addition, independent external validation was performed on a cohort of 135 Chinese RPLS patients from the REtroperitoneal SArcoma Registry (RESAR) study (NCT03838718). RESULTS: A total of 19 co-expression modules were constructed based on the expression levels of 26,497 RNAs in the TCGA cohort. Among these modules, the green module exhibited a positive correlation with overall survival (OS, p = 0.10) and disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.06). Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the green module was associated with endocytosis and soft-tissue sarcomas. Survival analysis demonstrated that NINJ1, a hub gene within the green module, was positively associated with OS (p = 0.019) in the TCGA cohort. Moreover, in the validation cohort, patients with higher NINJ1 expression levels displayed a higher probability of survival for both OS (p = 0.023) and DFS (p = 0.012). Multivariable Cox analysis further confirmed the independent prognostic significance of NINJ1. CONCLUSIONS: We here provide a foundation for the establishment of a consensus prognostic biomarker for RPLS, which should not only facilitate medical treatment but also guide the development of novel targeted drugs.

15.
Int J Pharm ; : 124250, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777304

RESUMO

The smart oral administration Insulin device has the potential to improve glycemic management. It can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia associated with exogenous Insulin (INS) therapy while also avoiding many of the disadvantages associated with subcutaneous injections. Furthermore, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrine illness characterized by inflammation, and it is critical to minimize the amount of inflammatory markers in diabetic patients while maintaining average blood glucose. In this study, a responsive nanosystem vitamin B12-Fucoidan-Concanavalin A (VB12-FU-ConA NPs) with anti-inflammatory action was developed for smart oral delivery of Insulin. Con A has high sensitivity and strong specificity as a glucose-responsive material. Fucoidan has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and hypoglycemic functions, and it can bind to Con A to form a reversible complex. Under high glucose conditions, free glucose competitively binds to Con A, which swells the nanocarrier and promotes Insulin release. Furthermore, in the low pH environment of the gastrointestinal tract, positively charged VB12 and anionic fucoidan bind tightly to protect the Insulin wrapped in the carrier, and VB12 can also bind to intestinal epithelial factors to improve transit rate, thereby promoting INS absorption. In vitro tests showed that the release of nanoparticles in hyperglycemic solutions was significantly higher than the drug release in normoglycemic conditions. Oral delivery of the nanosystems dramatically lowered blood glucose levels in type I diabetic mice (T1DM) during in vivo pharmacodynamics, minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. Blood glucose levels reached a minimum of 8.1 ±â€¯0.4 mmol/L after 8 h. Administering the nanosystem orally notably decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in diabetic mice. The nano delivery system can be degraded and metabolized in the intestinal tract after being taken orally, demonstrating good biodegradability and biosafety. In conclusion, the present study showed that VB12-FU-ConA nanocarriers are expected to be a novel system for rationalizing blood glucose.

16.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777621

RESUMO

Skin tissue engineering (STE) is widely regarded as an effective approach for skin regeneration. Several synthetic biomaterials utilized for STE have demonstrated favorable fibrillar characteristics, facilitating the regeneration of skin tissue at the site of injury, yet they have exhibited a lack of in situ degradation. Various types of skin regenerative materials, such as hydrogels, nanofiber scaffolds, and 3D-printing composite scaffolds, have recently emerged for use in STE. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds possess distinct advantages, such as their wide availability, similarity to natural structures, and notable tissue regenerative capabilities, which have garnered the attention of researchers. Hence, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds may serve as innovative biological materials possessing the necessary characteristics and potential for use in tissue engineering. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds to facilitate regeneration of skin tissues. Nevertheless, there is a need to enhance the rapid degradation and limited mechanical properties of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in order to strengthen their effectiveness in soft tissue engineering applications in clinical settings. This Review centers on advanced research into electrospun nanofiber scaffolds, encompassing preparation methods, materials, fundamental research, and preclinical applications in the field of science, technology, and engineering. The existing challenges and prospects of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in STE are also addressed.

17.
Food Funct ; 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764333

RESUMO

Constipation is a major gastrointestinal (GI) symptom worldwide, with diverse causes of formation, and requires effective and safe therapeutic measures. In the present study, we used loperamide hydrochloride to establish a constipation model and assessed the effect of Bifidobacterium on constipation and its possible mechanism of relief. The results showed that B. longum S3 exerted a constipation-relieving effect primarily by improving the gut microbiota, enriching genera including Lactobacillus, Alistipes, and Ruminococcaceae UCG-007, and decreasing the bacteria Lachnospiraceae NK4B4 group. These changes may thereby increase acetic acid and stearic acid (C18:0) levels, which significantly increase the expression levels of ZO-1 and MUC-2, repair intestinal barrier damage and reduce inflammation (IL-6). Furthermore, it also inhibited oxidative stress levels (SOD and CAT), decreased the expression of water channel proteins (AQP4 and AQP8), significantly elevated the Gas, 5-HT, PGE2, and Ach levels, and reduced nNOS and VIP levels to improve the intestinal luminal transit time and fecal water content. Collectively, these changes resulted in the alleviation of constipation.

18.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2400046, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767575

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) featuring high relapses and metastasis showed limited clinical therapeutic efficiency with chemotherapy for the extremely complex tumor microenvironment (TME), especially angiogenesis and immunosuppression. Combination of anti-angiogenesis and immunotherapy holds promise for effective inhibition of tumor proliferation and invasion, while it remains challenging for specific targeting drug delivery to tumors and metastatic lesions. Here, a multifunctional biomimetic liposome loading Gambogic acid (G/R-MLP) was developed using Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) to substitute cholesterol and cancer cell membrane coating, which was designed to increase long-circulating action by a low immunogenicity and specifically deliver Gambogic acid (GA) to tumor site and metastatic lesions by homologous targeting and glucose transporter (GLUT) targeting. After G/R-MLP accumulated in the primary tumors and metastatic nodules, it synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of GA, effectively suppressing the tumor growth and lung metastasis by killing tumor cells, inhibiting tumor cell migration and invasion, achieving anti-angiogenesis and improving the anti-tumor immunity. All in all, the strategy combining chemotherapy, anti-angiogenesis and immunotherapy improved therapeutic efficiency and prolonged survival, providing a new perspective for the clinical treatment of TNBC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775679

RESUMO

Mercury is a ubiquitous heavy-metal pollutant and poses serious ecological and human-health risks. There is an ever-growing demand for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of mercury in natural waters, particularly for regions lacking infrastructure specialized for mercury analysis. Here, we show that a sensor based on multi-emission carbon dots (M-CDs) exhibits ultrahigh sensing selectivity toward Hg(II) in complex environmental matrices, tested in the presence of a range of environmentally relevant metal/metalloid ions as well as natural and artificial ligands, using various real water samples. By incorporating structural features of calcein and folic acid that enable tunable emissions, the M-CDs couple an emission enhancement at 432 nm and a simultaneous reduction at 521 nm, with the intensity ratio linearly related to the Hg(II) concentration up to 1200 µg/L, independent of matrix compositions. The M-CDs have a detection limit of 5.6 µg/L, a response time of 1 min, and a spike recovery of 94 ± 3.7%. The intensified emission is attributed to proton transfer and aggregation-induced emission enhancement, whereas the quenching is due to proton and electron transfer. These findings also have important implications for mercury identification in other complex matrices for routine, screening-level food safety and health management practices.

20.
Front Pediatr ; 12: 1385938, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742240

RESUMO

Purpose: Camptodactyly, clasped thumbs, and windblown hands are distinctive features of distal arthrogryposis (DA). Current therapeutic interventions often yield suboptimal effects, predisposing patients to relapses and complications. This study explicates a corrective approach involving a progressive extension brace for the management of DA and evaluates its clinical outcomes. Methods: Between 2015 and 2023, progressive extension braces were used in 32 DA patients, with an average follow-up of 4.8 years. Patients were stratified by age into four groups: 0-1, 1-3, 3-7, and above 7 years. The correction of camptodactyly was assessed based on the total active movement (TAM) of metacarpophalangeal joints (MPJ) and proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPJ), as well as the extensor lag of PIPJ. Clasped thumb correction was evaluated by measuring the thumb-to-index finger metacarpal angle (M1M2 angle) and the degree of deviation at the first MPJ (M1P1 angle). The quality of life for the children was measured using PedsQL 4.0, while parental satisfaction was gauged using the FACE questionnaire. Results: Earlier intervention with a progressive extension brace yielded superior corrective results. Infants aged 0-1 year and toddlers aged 1-3 years achieved average TAM scores of 152° and 126° after correction; however, patients older than 3 years experienced a significant decrease in TAM with the same treatment. Infants and toddlers with DA showed improvement in the average extensor lag from 46° to 6°. The M1M2 angle increased from an average of 38° to 65°, with the M1P1 angle decreasing from an average of 43° to 5°. After the treatment, average PedsQL scores of 94.7 (parent-reported) and 89.3 (child-reported) were achieved. Among the 32 parents, 24 expressed high satisfaction, 5 expressed moderate satisfaction, and 3 expressed fair satisfaction. Conclusion: The early, progressive, and consistent use of an extension brace significantly improved joint mobility and corrected camptodactyly and clasped thumbs. It can be an effective approach to addressing hand deformities in patients with DA.

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