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1.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; : 960327120914971, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228195

RESUMO

Lidocaine, a typical local anesthetic, has been shown to directly induce neurotoxicity in clinical settings. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist that has been used as anxiolytic, sedative, and analgesic agent which has recently found to protect against lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)/forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) signaling is critical for maintaining neuronal function and regulation of the apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we designed in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the potential effects of lidocaine and DEX on SIRT1 and FOXO3a and to verify whether SIRT1/FOXO3a-mediated regulation of apoptosis is involved in DEX-induced neuroprotective effects against lidocaine. We found that in both PC12 cells and brains of mice, lidocaine decreased SIRT1 level through promoting the degradation of SIRT1 protein. Lidocaine also increased FOXO3a protein level and increased the acetylation of SIRT1 through inhibiting SIRT1. Upregulation of SIRT1 or downregulation of FOXO3a significantly inhibited lidocaine-induced changes in both cell viability and apoptosis. DEX significantly inhibited the lidocaine-induced decrease of SIRT1 protein level and increase of FOXO3a protein level and acetylation of FOXO3a. Downregulation of SIRT1 or upregulation of FOXO3a suppressed DEX-induced neuroprotective effects against lidocaine. The data suggest that SIRT1/FOXO3a is a potential novel target for alleviating lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity and provide more theoretical support for the use of DEX as an effective adjunct to alleviate chronic neurotoxicity induced by lidocaine.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(5): 2239-2247, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small RNAs involving in pathological regulation. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-29c-3p is a tumor-suppressor gene. However, the role of microRNA-29c-3p in osteosarcoma (OS) has not been reported. This study aims to investigate the potential influence of microRNA-29c-3p on the progression of OS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied to examine microRNA-29c-3p levels in 40 matched pairs of OS tumor tissues and adjacent ones. The correlation between microRNA-29c-3p expression and clinical indicators in OS patient was analyzed. At the same time, qRT-PCR was used to detect microRNA-29c-3p level in OS cell lines. In addition, microRNA-29c-3p knockdown and the overexpression models were constructed in OS cell lines. The effects of microRNA-29c-3p on the biological functions of OS cells were analyzed via cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and transwell assays. Finally, the potential mechanism underlying microRNA-29c-3p in OS was explored by Western Blot and cell recovery experiment. RESULTS: QRT-PCR results revealed that microRNA-29c-3p level in OS tumor tissues was conspicuously lower than that in adjacent tissues. Compared with OS patients with the high expression of microRNA-29c-3p, those with low expression of microRNA-29c-3p had a higher incidence of distant metastasis and worse overall survival. Cell proliferative capacity and invasiveness in OS were enhanced after knockdown of microRNA-29c-3p; while the opposite results were observed after the overexpression of microRNA-29c-3p. QRT-PCR results revealed that microRNA-29c-3p negatively regulated PIK3R3 expression in OS cells. Moreover, microRNA-29c-3p and PIK3R3 levels were confirmed to be negatively correlated in OS tissues. In addition, cell reverse experiment demonstrated that PIK3R3 was responsible for the malignant progression of OS regulated by microRNA-29c-3p. CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNA-29c-3p expression was reduced in OS, and conspicuously associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis. MicroRNA-29c-3p might inhibit the malignant progression of OS by modulating PIK3R3 expression.

3.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(3): 161-165, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187943

RESUMO

On the occasion of the 70(th) anniversary of the founding of Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology, we review the establishment and development of Chinese Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (CAPOS) and the major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric eye diseases in China since 1949, so as to remember our predecessors and inspire young generations, and to provide important reference for the future clinical and scientific research. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56:161-165).

4.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(3): 166-170, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187944

RESUMO

There are many pathogenic factors of strabismus. In addition to the changes of alignment and ocular movement, there may be abnormal pathways and development of extraocular muscles, abnormalities of orbital and intraorbital connective tissue, paralysis of cranial nerves (oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abductor nerve), and nuclear and supranuclear lesions, accompanied by other cerebral dysplasia sometimes. In recent years, advances in imaging technology and its application in the professional field of strabismus have made it possible to clearly observe the eye, orbital, intracranial, and innervation changes, which is helpful to clarify the etiology of strabismus and extraocular muscle-related diseases, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of strabismus. Strabismus specialists should learn and pay attention to the application of imaging examination, so as to achieve in-depth understanding and accurate treatment. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 166-170).

5.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(3): 183-188, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187946

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effect of extraocular muscle surgery in treating secondary esotropia with diplopia after orbital decompression for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: Retrospective case series study. Eleven secondary esotropic patients with diplopia after orbital decompression for TAO who underwent extraocular muscle surgery during March 2016 and October 2018 in Tianjin Eye Hospital were included. All patients had new onset esotropia after decompression surgery and underwent strabismus surgery. Deviation angle, diplopia, and ocular movement were observed preoperatively and postoperatively. Surgeries were carried out under the monitored anesthesia care combined with local anesthesia, and the eye alignment was adjusted to orthotropia with no diplopia in the operation with the technique of intraoperative adjustable suture and forced duction test results. All the patients were followed up. Results: The ages of the patients were from 26 to 42 years (1 male and 10 females). The deviation angles were 10-98 prism diopter. Orbital CT scan showed that the horizontal rectus thickness was increased at different levels, and the thickness of the medial rectus was increased more than that of the lateral rectus. Two patients had monocular medial rectus recession only, 2 had bilateral medial rectus recession only, 2 had monocular medial rectus recession combined with lateral rectus resection, and the other 5 had bilateral medial rectus recession with monocular lateral rectus resection. The recession of medial rectus muscle was 3.5 to 7.5 mm in 11 patients and 2.0 to 6.0 mm in 7 patients with the resection of lateral rectus muscle. Diplopia of the 11 patients disappeared with orthotropia at primary gaze position after the extraocular muscle surgery. The limitation of abduction changed from preoperative (-1.91±1.04) to postoperative (-0.64±0.81). All the patients were satisfied with the surgical results. At the end of the follow-up (6 to 24 months), the results of the patients were stable, and no over-correction was found. Conclusion: Extraocular muscle surgery with intraoperative adjustable suture technique can effectively treat TAO patients with secondary esotropia with diplopia after orbital decompression. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 183-188).

6.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 50, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193671

RESUMO

This study compares the results of computed tomography X-ray absorptiometry (CTXA) hip volumetric BMD (vBMD) analyses of cortical and trabecular bone with and without partial volume correction. For cortical bone in some circumstances, corrected cortical volumes were negative and corrected vBMD was very high. For trabecular bone, the correction effects are smaller. CTXA volumetric data should be interpreted with caution. PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported concerns about the reliability of CTXA hip cortical vBMD measurements generated using partial volume (PV) correction (the "default" analysis, with cortical PV correction). To date, no studies have examined the results of the alternative ("new") analysis (with trabecular PV correction). This study presents in vivo and phantom data comparing the corrected and uncorrected data for cortical and trabecular bone respectively. METHODS: We used the commercial QCTPro CTXA software to analyze CT scans of 129 elderly Chinese men and women and an anthropomorphic European Proximal Femur phantom (EPFP) and accessed data for two alternative scan analyses using the database dump utility. The CTXA software gives the user two methods of performing the PV correction: (1) a default analysis in which only cortical bone results are corrected; (2) a new analysis in which only trabecular bone results are corrected. Both methods are based on a numerical recalculation of vBMD values without any change in volume of interest (VOI) placement. RESULT: In vivo, the results of the two analyses for integral bone were the same while cortical and trabecular results were different. PV correction of cortical bone led to a decrease of cortical volume for all four VOIs: total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), trochanter (TR), and intertrochanter (IT) volumes were reduced on average by 7.8 cm3, 0.9 cm3, 2.5 cm3, and 4.3 cm3 respectively. For TR, where cortex was thinnest, average corrected cortical volume was negative (- 0.4± 1.3 cm3). Corrected cortical vBMD values were much larger than uncorrected ones for TH, FN, and IT. Scatter plots of corrected cortical vBMD against cortical bone thickness showed that elevated results correlated with thinner cortices. When trabecular bone was corrected for the PV effect, trabecular volumes of TH, FN, TR, and IT were reduced on average by 7.9 cm3, 0.8 cm3, 2.6 cm3, and 4.4 cm3 respectively, while vBMD measurements were increased correspondingly. The trabecular volume and vBMD measurements of the two datasets both had highly positive correlations. For the EPFP, the PV-corrected FN data deviated from the nominal phantom value, but was closer for the TR and IT VOIs. Both corrected and uncorrected data overestimated trabecular vBMD, with the corrected results showing greater deviation from nominal values. CONCLUSION: The default and new CTXA analyses for volumetric data generate different results, both for cortical and trabecular bone. For cortical bone, the uncorrected results are subject to partial volume effects but the correction method of the default analysis overcorrects the effect leading to in part unreasonable results for cortical bone volume and BMD. For trabecular bone, the correction effects are smaller. CTXA volumetric data should be interpreted with caution.

7.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(2): 139-144, 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135649

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the prognostic factors of T1-2N0M0 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with definitive radiotherapy. Methods: The clinical data of 196 patients with T1-2N0M0 ESCC who were treated with definitive radiotherapy in 10 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. All sites were members of Jing-Jin-Ji Esophageal and Esophagogastric Cancer Radiotherapy Oncology Group (3JECROG). Radiochemotherapy were applied to 78 patients, while the other 118 patients received radiotherapy only. 96 patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and 100 treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The median dose of plan target volume(PTV) and gross target volume(GTV) were both 60 Gy. The median follow-up time was 59.2 months. Log rank test and Cox regression analysis were used for univariat and multivariate analysis, respectively. Results: The percentage of normal lung receiving at least 20 Gy (V(20)) was (18.65±7.20)%, with average dose of (10.81±42.05) Gy. The percentage of normal heart receiving at least 30 Gy (V(30)) was (14.21±12.28)%. The maximum dose of exposure in spinal cord was (39.65±8.13) Gy. The incidence of radiation pneumonia and radiation esophagitis were 14.80%(29/196) and 65.82%(129/196), respectively. The adverse events were mostly grade 1-2, without grade 4 toxicity. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 70.1 months and 62.3 months, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year OS rates of all patients were 75.1%、57.4% and 53.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year PFS rates were 75.1%、57.4% and 53.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients'age (HR=1.023, P=0.038) and tumor diameter (HR=1.243, P=0.028)were the independent prognostic factors for OS, while tumor volume were the independent prognostic factor for PFS. Conclusions: Definitive radiotherapy is a promising therapeutic method in patients with T1-2N0M0 ESCC. Patients' age, tumor diameter and tumor volume may impact patients' prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/radioterapia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(7): 533-537, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164106

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) combined with AngioJet mechanical thrombectomy for liver cirrhosis with extensive portal vein thrombosis. Methods: From March 2018 to April 2019, a total of 11 patients with liver cirrhosis and extensive portal vein thrombosis were treated by TIPS combined with AngioJet mechanical thrombectomy, including 6 males and 5 females, with the age of 37-71 (46±9) years old, 3 cases of Child-Pugh grade A, 8 cases of grade B and 0 cases of grade C. The intraoperative immediate thrombus clearance rate, perioperative complication rate, postoperative thrombus recurrence rate, rebleeding rate, the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and the rate of stent patency of all cases were collected and analyzed. Results: All the patients were treated successfully. The immediate complete thrombus clearance (grade Ⅲ) rate of portal vein trunk was 9/11, and grade Ⅱ was 2/11, The average dose of urokinase was 30-60 (40±5) ten thousand U, slight puncture point bleeding occurred in 3 cases, and recurrence of PVT in portal vein trunk occurred in 1 case with Ⅱ grade clearance rate after operation, rebleeding occurred in 1 case, hepatic encephalopathy occurred in 2 cases, the primary patency rate of stents was 9 cases. Conclusion: TIPS combined with AngioJet mechanical thrombectomy can treat the liver cirrhosis with extensive portal vein thrombosis effectively and safely, and postoperative portal vein patency rate and intrahepatic shunt patency rate are high.

11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(8): 614-618, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164117

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the clinical features and outcomes of pneumocystic pneumonia (PCP) in patients treated with rituximab for autoimmune diseases. Methods: PCP patients with autoimmune diseases as underlying diseases from January 2009 to April 2019 in Peking University First Hospital (male 67 cases, female 35 cases, age 17-79) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped as rituximab group and non-rituximab group based on the fact if they were treated with rituximab before the onset of PCP. Demographic data, clinical features, and outcomes of the two groups were analyzed. Results: There were 102 cases altogether, and 7 patients were treated with rituximab before the onset of PCP. Patients in rituximab group were relatively younger than that in non-rituximab group [(32.0±18.7) vs (52.4±14.9) years, P=0.010]. Patients in rituximab group had more CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+)T lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples than that in non-rituximab group [(1 306±596) vs (546±439)/µl, (674±401) vs (243±232)/µl, (616±249) vs (282±256)/µl, respectively, all P<0.01]. However, the B lymphocyte count and plasma level of IgG and IgM were significantly lower in rituximab group than that in non-rituximab group [0 (0, 0.2) vs 72 (50.0, 124.4)/µl, 4.0 (2.6, 5.8) vs 9.4 (5.3, 12.0) g/L, 0.3 (0.2, 1.0) vs 1.1 (0.6, 1.8) g/L, respectively, all P<0.05]. The incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia was significantly lower in rituximab group (0/7 and 57/95, P=0.007). Other demographic data, the use of corticosteroids, the incidence of severe PCP, mechanical ventilation, intubation, pneumothorax and mediastinal emphysema complications, as well as hospital mortality and length of stay in hospital in the two groups were comparable. Conclusions: In patients treated with rituximab for autoimmune diseases, the number of B lymphocytes in peripheral blood and the plasma level of immunoglobulins but not CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+)T lymphocyte counts may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCP. These patients are not vulnerable to be complicated with CMV pneumonia.

12.
Lupus ; : 961203320909432, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151180

RESUMO

Associations of polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor (VDR) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have already been explored by many studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to better clarify associations between polymorphisms in VDR and RA/SLE by combing the results of all relevant studies. Eligible studies were searched from Pubmed, Embase, WOS and CNKI. We used Review Manager to combine the results of eligible studies. Thirty-seven studies were included in this meta-analysis. VDR rs1544410 (recessive comparison: odds ratio (OR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.76; over-dominant comparison: OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.93) and rs731236 (over-dominant comparison: OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.94) polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with RA in overall combined analyses. Besides, VDR rs1544410 (dominant comparison: OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46-0.82; over-dominant comparison: OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.16-1.81; allele comparison: OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.92), rs2228570 (dominant comparison: OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.50-0.67; recessive comparison: OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.21-2.03; allele comparison: OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.80) and rs731236 (dominant comparison: OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.96; allele comparison: OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.90) polymorphisms were also found to be significantly associated with SLE in overall combined analyses. Subgroup analyses revealed that significant associations for VDR polymorphisms and RA/SLE were mainly driven by Asians. Collectively, this meta-analysis proved that VDR rs7975232, rs1544410, rs2228570 and rs731236 polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to RA and SLE, especially for Asians.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185610

RESUMO

Exposure to prenatal stress increases offspring risk for long-term neurobehavioral impairments and psychopathology, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Epigenetic regulation of glucocorticoid pathway genes may be a potential underlying mechanism by which maternal conditions 'program' the fetal brain for downstream vulnerabilities. The present study aims to investigate whether mRNA expression of glucocorticoid pathway genes in the placenta predict offspring negative affect during early childhood (between 6 and 24 months). Participants include 318 mother-child dyads participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Placental mRNA expression of glucocorticoid pathway genes (HSD11B1, HSD11B2, NR3C1, NCOR2) were profiled and negative affect traits of the offspring were measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. HSD11B1 mRNA expression significantly predicted negative affect (ß = -.09, SE = .04; p = .036), and Distress to Limitations trajectories (ß = -.13, SE = .06; p = .016). NCOR2 mRNA expression significantly predicted Distress to Limitations (ß = .43, SE = .21; p = .047), and marginally predicted Sadness trajectories (ß = .39, SE = .21; p = .068). HSD11B2 and NR3C1 did not predict trajectories of Negative Affect or subscale scores. Infant negative affect traits were assessed via maternal self-report, and deviated from linearity across follow-up. mRNA expression of glucocorticoid pathway genes in the placenta may be a potentially novel tool for early identification of infants at greater risk for elevated negative affect. Further study is needed to validate the utility of mRNA expression of glucocorticoid pathway genes in the placenta.

15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(4): 1970-1978, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to research the potential mechanism of INHBC and CSF1R in diabetic nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 SD rats were selected and randomly divided into Con group, Sham group, and DN group. In the DN group, intraperitoneal injection of the streptozotocin-citrate solution was conducted to construct the DN model. In the Sham group, intraperitoneal injection of equal citrate solution was conducted. The Con group did not do anything. After successful modeling, blood glucose, insulin, biochemical indexes, and levels of inflammatory cytokines in blood samples were detected. The expression levels of INHBC, CSF1R, apoptosis-related proteins and IGF-1 were detected by Western blot. MRNA expression levels of INHBC, CSF1R, IGF-1 and inflammatory cytokines were detected by qPCR. RESULTS: Compared with the Con group, the expression levels of blood glucose, insulin, biochemical indexes, INHBC, CSF1R, IGF-1, IL-6, TNF-α and Bcl2 increased in the DN group, while the expression levels of IL-10, Caspase 3, Caspase 9, and Bax decreased. INHBC mRNA was positively correlated with IGF-1 mRNA. CSF1R was negatively correlated with Caspase 3, Caspase 9, Bax, and IL-10, and positively correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and Bcl2. CONCLUSIONS: NHBC and CSF1R induced the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, inhibited the production of IL-10, inhibited apoptosis of cells, and promoted the proliferation of renal cells during DN disease. Therefore, INHBC and CSF1R can be used as target objects of DN treatment strategies.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(7): 076402, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142308

RESUMO

The bulk electronic structure of T_{d}-MoTe_{2} features large hole Fermi pockets at the Brillouin zone center (Γ) and two electron Fermi surfaces along the Γ-X direction. However, the large hole pockets, whose existence has important implications for the Weyl physics of T_{d}-MoTe_{2}, has never been conclusively detected in quantum oscillations. This raises doubt about the realizability of Majorana states in T_{d}-MoTe_{2}, because these exotic states rely on the existence of Weyl points, which originated from the same band structure predicted by density functional theory (DFT). Here, we report an unambiguous detection of these elusive hole pockets via Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) quantum oscillations. At ambient pressure, the quantum oscillation frequencies for these pockets are 988 and 1513 T, when the magnetic field is applied along the c axis. The quasiparticle effective masses m^{*} associated with these frequencies are 1.50 and 2.77 m_{e}, respectively, indicating the importance of Coulomb interactions in this system. We further measure the SdH oscillations under pressure. At 13 kbar, we detected a peak at 1798 T with m^{*}=2.86m_{e}. Relative to the oscillation data at a lower pressure, the amplitude of this peak experienced an enhancement, which can be attributed to the reduced curvature of the hole pockets under pressure. Combining our experimental data with DFT+U calculations, where U is the Hubbard parameter, our results shed light on why these important hole pockets have not been detected until now.

17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(0): 623-628, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145716

RESUMO

Since December 2019, Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a new emerging infection disease occurred in Wuhan, has spread in 27 countries and regions. The clusters of many cases were reported with the epidemic progresses. We collected currently available information for 377 COVID-19 clusters (1 719 cases), excluded the hospital clusters and Hubei cases, during the period from January 1, 2020 to February 20, 2020. There were 297 family clusters (79%), case median 4; 39 clusters of dining (10%), case median 5; 23 clusters of shopping malls or supermarkets (6%), case median 13; 12 clusters of work units (3%), case median 6, and 6 clusters of transportation. We selected 325 cases to estimate the incubation period and found its range is 1 to 20 days, median was 7 days, and mode was 4 days. The analysis of the epidemic situation in a department store in China indicates that there is a possibility of patients as the source of infection during the incubation period of the epidemic. From February 5, 2020 to February 21, 2020, 634 persons were infected in the Diamond Princess Liner. All persons are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. The older, patients during the incubation period and the worse environment may be the cause of the cases rising. The progress of the two typical outbreaks clearly demonstrates the spread of the early cases in Wuhan. Whatever happens, screening and isolating close contacts remains essential except for clinical treatment during the epidemic. Especially for the healthy people in the epidemic area, isolation is the key.

18.
J Microsc ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118288

RESUMO

Geometrical phase analysis (GPA) is typically a powerful tool to investigate the deformation in high resolution transmission electron microscopy images and has been used in various fields. During GPA, strain components are calculated relative to an undistorted reference region. In the present work, the effect of reference region size on strain measurements has been investigated. Experimental measurements on a locally distorted gold nanoparticle exhibited that a small reference region below the GPA spatial resolution can introduce an inaccuracy in the measured displacement field, which appears as a significant increase in measured strains and severe fluctuation in phase images. The inaccuracy may be ascribed to an error of insufficient sampling. Our results suggest that a small reference region below the GPA spatial resolution should be avoided during GPA. This prerequisite should be paid more attention to during strain measurement on nanoparticles.

19.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(4): 269-276, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209192

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocyte proliferation and progressive exocrine gland damage. In China, standardized diagnosis and treatment for Sjögren's syndrome lags behind other common rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Based on the evidence and guidelines from China and other countries, Chinese Sjögren's Syndrome Collaborative Research Group together with stomatologist and ophthalmologist developed Standardization of diagnosis and treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome. The purposes are: (1) to standardize the detection and interpretation of key indicators for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome, including serum anti SSA antibody and labial gland pathology; (2) to suggest using widely accepted disease activity index in evaluation of the disease; (3) to standardize rational management for Sjögren's syndrome patients with topical and systemic diseases.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the incidence and prevalence of OA in the UK in 2017 and their trends from 1997 to 2017 using a large nationally representative primary care database. DESIGN: The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) comprising data on nearly 17.5 million patients was used for the study. The incidence and prevalence of general practitioner diagnosed OA over a 20 years period (1997-2017) were estimated and age-sex and length of data contribution standardized using the 2017 CPRD population structure. Cohort effects were examined through Age-period-cohort analysis. RESULTS: During 1997-2017, there were 494,716 incident OA cases aged ≥20 years. The standardised incidence of any OA in 2017 was 6.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6.7 to 6.9) and prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI 10.7-10.8%). Both incidence and prevalence were higher in women than men. The incidence of any-OA decreased gradually in the past 20 years at an annual rate of -1.6% (95%CI -2.0 to -1.1%), and the reduction speeded up for people born after 1960. The prevalence of any-OA increased gradually at an annual rate of 1.4% (95% CI 1.3-1.6%). Although the prevalence was highest in Scotland and Northern Ireland, incidence was highest in the East Midlands. Both incidence and prevalence reported highest in the knee followed by hip, wrist/hand and ankle/foot. CONCLUSION: In the UK approximately one in 10 adults have symptomatic clinically diagnosed OA, the knee being the commonest. While prevalence has increased and become static after 2008, incidence is slowly declining. Further research is required to understand these changes.

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