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1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 122, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy stands to be one of the primary approaches in the clinical treatment of malignant tumors. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, a malignancy predominantly treated with radiation therapy, provides an invaluable model for investigating the mechanisms underlying radiation therapy resistance in cancer. While some reports have suggested the involvement of circRNAs in modulating resistance to radiation therapy, the underpinning mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization were used to detect the expression level of circCDYL2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue samples. The effect of circCDYL2 on radiotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma was demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo functional experiments. The HR-GFP reporter assay determined that circCDYL2 affected homologous recombination repair. RNA pull down, RIP, western blotting, IF, and polysome profiling assays were used to verify that circCDYL2 promoted the translation of RAD51 by binding to EIF3D protein. RESULTS: We have identified circCDYL2 as highly expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, and it was closely associated with poor prognosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that circCDYL2 plays a pivotal role in promoting radiotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our investigation unveils a specific mechanism by which circCDYL2, acting as a scaffold molecule, recruits eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D protein (EIF3D) to the 5'-UTR of RAD51 mRNA, a crucial component of the DNA damage repair pathway to facilitate the initiation of RAD51 translation and enhance homologous recombination repair capability, and ultimately leads to radiotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a novel role of the circCDYL2/EIF3D/RAD51 axis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy resistance. Our work not only sheds light on the underlying molecular mechanism but also highlights the potential of circCDYL2 as a therapeutic sensitization target and a promising prognostic molecular marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Rad51 Recombinase , Tolerância a Radiação , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Camundongos , Animais , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Masculino , Prognóstico , Camundongos Nus
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687500

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Spirometry reference equations that are derived from a large, nationally representative, general population are warranted in China and the impact of using pre- and post-BD spirometry reference values has yet to be assessed in Chinese populations. OBJECTIVES: To present both the pre-BD and post-BD spirometry reference values for Chinese adults using the China Pulmonary Health (CPH) study. METHODS: A reference population of 17969 healthy, non-smoking participants in the CPH study was used to calculate the pre- and post-BD reference values for the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC. Both pre- and post-BD reference values were applied to the entire CPH population (50991 individuals) to illustrate the divergence between the use of references in determining the disease prevalence and severity grading. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of airflow limitation was 5.36% using pre-BD reference and 8.02% using the post-BD reference. Individuals who had post-BD FEV1/FVC below post-BD but higher than pre-BD reference values were found to have significantly higher rates of self-reported respiratory symptoms, and significantly lower values in spirometry indicators than those above post-BD reference values. An additional 3.51% of participants were identified as grade II-IV COPD using the post-BD FEV1 predicted values. CONCLUSION: This study generated and applied pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry reference values in a nationally representative Chinese adult population. Post-BD reference values may serve as an additional criterion in identifying individuals at risk for obstructive pulmonary diseases, its diagnostic and prognostic values should be further investigated.

3.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507020

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is regarded as a potent cancer treatment, with DC vaccines playing a crucial role. Although clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of DC vaccines, loading antigens in vitro is challenging, and their therapeutic effects remain unpredictable. Moreover, the diverse subtypes and maturity states of DCs in the body could induce both immune responses and immune tolerance, potentially affecting the vaccine's efficacy. Hence, the optimization of DC vaccines remains imperative. Our study discovered a new therapeutic strategy by using CT26 and MC38 mouse colon cancer models, as well as LLC mouse lung cancer models. The strategy involved the synergistic activation of DCs through intertumoral administration of TLR4 agonist high-mobility group nucleosome binding protein 1 (HMGN1) and TLR7/8 agonist (R848/resiquimod), combined with intraperitoneal administration of TNFR2 immunosuppressant antibody. The experimental results indicated that the combined use of HMGN1, R848, and α-TNFR2 had no effect on LLC cold tumors. However, it was effective in eradicating CT26 and MC38 colon cancer and inducing long-term immune memory. The combination of these three drugs altered the TME and promoted an increase in anti-tumor immune components. This may provide a promising new treatment strategy for colon cancer.

4.
Insects ; 15(3)2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535379

RESUMO

Estimating the age of pupa during the development time of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is of forensic significance as it assists in determining the time of colonization (TOC), which could help to determine the postmortem interval (PMI). However, establishing an objective, accurate, and efficient method for pupa age inference is still a leading matter of concern among forensic entomologists. In this study, we utilized hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology to analyze the reflectance changes of pupa development under different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C). The spectrograms showed a downtrend under all temperatures. We used PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data, and then machine learning models (RF, SVR-RBF, SVR-POLY, XGBR, and Lasso) were built. RF, SVR with RBF kernel, and XGBR could show promise in accurate developmental time estimation using accumulated degree days. Among these, the XGBR model consistently exhibited the most minor errors, ranging between 3.9156 and 7.3951 (MAE). This study has identified the value of further refinement of HSI in forensic applications involving entomological specimens, and identified the considerable potential of HSI in forensic practice.

5.
Toxicon ; 243: 107705, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Ferroptosis pitches in pneumonia. Long noncoding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (lncRNA NEAT1) regulates ferroptosis in various cells. Therefore, this study probed the mechanism of lncRNA NEAT1 on SP-induced ferroptosis in AECs. METHODS: Serum lncRNA NEAT1 level in 36 streptococcus pneumonia patients were retrospectively detected, with its correlations with inflammatory factor (TNF-α/IL-1ß/IL-6) levels analyzed. Human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiC) were transfected with sh-NEAT1 and induced by SP. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was assessed. Iron content, and levels of TNF-α/IL-1ß/IL-6/IL-10/lncRNA NEAT1/lipid peroxidation products [malondialdehyde (MDA)/glutathione (GSH)/reactive oxygen species/(ROS)]/ferroptosis-related proteins [Cyclooxgenase 2 (COX2)/recombinant solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11)/total nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/cytoplasmic Nrf2 (C-Nrf2)/nuclear Nrf2 (N-Nrf2)/GPX4)] were determined by kit/ELISA/RT-qPCR/kits/Western blot. Nrf2 nuclear translocation was detected by immunofluorescence assay. On top of lncRNA NEAT1 knockdown, SP-induced HPAEpiC were treated with ML385. RESULTS: Serum lncRNA NEAT1 level was elevated in streptococcus pneumonia patients, and were positively interrelated with TNF-α/IL-1ß/IL-6 levels. SP promoted cell HPAEpiC injury and inflammatory response, and up-regulated lncRNA NEAT1 level. LncRNA NEAT1 knockdown suppressed HPAEpiC injury/inflammatory response (reduced LDH activity and TNF-α/IL-1ß/IL-6 levels, elevated IL-10) and suppressed ferroptosis (decreased iron/MDA/ROS contents and COX2 level, increased GSH/SLC7A11), facilitated Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and up-regulated GPX4. Nrf2-GPX4 pathway inhibition annulled NEAT1 knockdown-mediated improvement on SP-induced HPAEpiC ferroptosis/injury/inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA NEAT1 knockdown suppressed SP-induced HPAEpiC ferroptosis by activating Nrf2-GPX4 pathway, thereby alleviating cell injury and inflammatory response.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion due to the complexity of its etiology and pathology, which is a chronic disease with an unknown etiology. To our knowledge, few studies were performed to identify predictive biomarkers for interstitial cystitis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and validate potential biomarkers for Interstitial Cystitis (IC). METHODS: The interstitial cystitis datasets were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by using the R package and were subjected to functional and pathway enrichment analysis. Key biomarkers of interstitial cystitis were identified by using Lasso regression analysis and the SVM-RFE algorithm. The diagnostic value of key biomarkers was validated in internal and external datasets, and pathways that relate to biomarkers of interstitial cystitis were screened. The ssGSEA was employed to identify the immune cells closely related to biomarkers. The expression of PLAC8 in patients with interstitial cystitis was detected by Immune-Histochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Sixteen differentially expressed genes associated with interstitial cystitis were identified, which were primarily linked to the biological process of the chemokine signaling pathway. PLAC8, identified as a biomarker for interstitial cystitis, was validated to express a significantly different between IC and normal bladder tissues. PLAC8-related pathways were analyzed, with a focus on NF-κB, TNF, Toll-like receptor, chemokine, IL-17, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. PLAC8 was proved to be closely related to immune activations, which is similar to the pathogenesis of IC, which is a chronic dysregulated immune disease. Meanwhile, we also observed a higher level of PLAC8 in IC tissues. CONCLUSION: PLAC8 has promising application prospects as a biomarker for interstitial cystitis diagnosis. These findings could aid in the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e53170, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is a known risk factor for offspring developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether the increased COPD risk associated with MSDP could be attributed to tobacco dependence (TD). METHODS: This case-control study used data from the nationwide cross-sectional China Pulmonary Health study, with controls matched for age, sex, and smoking status. TD was defined as smoking within 30 minutes of waking, and the severity of TD was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. COPD was diagnosed when the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was <0.7 in a postbronchodilator pulmonary function test according to the 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlation between MSDP and COPD, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, educational attainment, place of residence, ethnic background, occupation, childhood passive smoking, residential fine particulate matter, history of childhood pneumonia or bronchitis, average annual household income, and medical history (coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes). Mediation analysis examined TD as a potential mediator in the link between MSDP and COPD risk. The significance of the indirect effect was assessed through 1000 iterations of the "bootstrap" method. RESULTS: The study included 5943 participants (2991 with COPD and 2952 controls). Mothers of the COPD group had higher pregnancy smoking rates (COPD: n=305, 10.20%; controls: n=211, 7.10%; P<.001). TD was more prevalent in the COPD group (COPD: n=582, 40.40%; controls: n=478, 33.90%; P<.001). After adjusting for covariates, MSDP had a significant effect on COPD (ß=.097; P<.001). There was an association between MSDP and TD (ß=.074; P<.001) as well as between TD and COPD (ß=.048; P=.007). Mediation analysis of TD in the MSDP-COPD association showed significant direct and indirect effects (direct: ß=.094; P<.001 and indirect: ß=.004; P=.03). The indirect effect remains present in the smoking population (direct: ß=.120; P<.001 and indirect: ß=.002; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the potential association between MSDP and the risk of COPD in offspring, revealing the mediating role of TD in this association. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure on lung health, laying the groundwork for the development of relevant prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Tabagismo , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Fumar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia
8.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 45: 101021, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352242

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence, epidemiological and clinical heterogeneities, and impact profiles of individuals with preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm), pre-COPD, young COPD, and mild COPD in general Chinese population were not known yet. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Pulmonary Health study (2012-2015), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that recruited 50,991 adults aged 20 years or older. Definitions of the four early disease status were consistent with the latest publications and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Findings: The age-standardised prevalences of PRISm, pre-COPD, young COPD, and mild COPD were 5.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.3-6.9), 7.2% (5.9-8.8), 1.1% (0.7-1.8), and 3.1% (2.5-3.8), respectively. In summary, mild COPD was under more direct or established impact factor exposures, such as older age, male gender, lower education level, lower family income, biomass use, air pollution, and more accumulative cigarette exposures; young COPD and pre-COPD experienced more personal and parents' events in earlier lives, such as history of bronchitis or pneumonia in childhood, frequent chronic cough in childhood, parental history of respiratory diseases, passive smoke exposure in childhood, and mother exposed to passive smoke while pregnant; pre-COPD coexisted with heavier symptoms and comorbidities burdens; young COPD exhibited worse airway obstruction; and most of the four early disease status harbored small airway dysfunction. Overall, older age, male gender, lower education level, living in the urban area, occupational exposure, frequent chronic cough in childhood, more accumulated cigarette exposure, comorbid with cardiovascular disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease were all associated with increased presence of the four early COPD status; different impact profiles were additionally observed with distinct entities. Over the four categories, less than 10% had ever taken pulmonary function test; less than 1% reported a previously diagnosed COPD; and no more than 13% had received pharmaceutical treatment. Interpretation: Significant heterogeneities in prevalence, epidemiological and clinical features, and impact profiles were noted under varied defining criteria of early COPD; a unified and validated definition for an early disease stage is warranted. Closer attention, better management, and further research need to be administrated to these population. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Institute of Respiratory Medicine Grant for Young Scholars (No. 2023-ZF-9); China International Medical Foundation (No. Z-2017-24-2301); Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (No. 2021-I2M-1-049); National High Level Hospital Clinical Research Funding (No. 2022-NHLHCRF-LX-01); Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 82090011).

9.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 9(2): 242-246, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317664

RESUMO

Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) angarosinica (Rohdendorf, 1937) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) is a species of both medical and ecological significance. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of S. angarosinica was sequenced and characterized. The mitogenome has a total length of 15,215 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and an adenine and thymine-rich region. This mitogenome comprises 39.5% adenine, 9.4% guanine, 14.4% cytosine, and 36.8% thymine. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. angarosinica is closely related to Sarcophaga similis. This study enriches the genetic data on S. angarosinica and will contribute to establishing the phylogenetic relationships among flesh flies.

10.
J Periodontal Res ; 59(1): 140-150, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37885312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease linked to pyroptosis, an inflammatory cell death process. Macrophages are essential for maintaining microenvironment homeostasis, which is crucial for periodontal health. This study explores the mechanisms underlying the relationship between macrophage pyroptosis and periodontitis. METHODS: Expression of the pyroptosis marker gasdermin E (GSDME) and the macrophage surface marker CD68 was examined by immunofluorescence double staining in healthy and periodontitis gingival tissues. In an in vitro pyroptosis model, RAW264.7 cells were irritated using Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) after treatment with either a nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) agonist or inhibitor. The mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB, caspase-3, GSDME, and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) were evaluated through qRT-PCR, western blotting, and ELISA techniques. RESULTS: GSDME and CD68 were heavily elevated in inflamed gingival tissues compared to healthy tissues and co-localized in the same region. Furthermore, exposure to P. gingivalis-LPS resulted in a significant upregulation of NF-κB, caspase-3, GSDME, and IL-1ß at both the mRNA and protein levels in RAW264.7 cells. NF-κB agonist or inhibitor pretreatment enhanced or inhibited these effects. CONCLUSIONS: GSDME-mediated macrophage pyroptosis is implicated in periodontitis. Based on in vitro experiments, P. gingivalis-LPS causes pyroptosis in RAW264.7 cells through the caspase-3/GSDME pathway. Furthermore, NF-κB regulates this pyroptotic pathway.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Periodontite , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Gasderminas , Piroptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(3): 1139-1148, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38047927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a rapid, sensitive, and non-destructive auxiliary approach for postmortem diagnosis of SCD, addressing the challenges faced in forensic practice. METHODS: ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was employed to collect spectral features of blood samples from different cases, combined with pathological changes. Mixed datasets were analyzed using ANN, KNN, RF, and SVM algorithms. Evaluation metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score and confusion matrix were used to select the optimal algorithm and construct the postmortem diagnosis model for SCD. RESULTS: A total of 77 cases were collected, including 43 cases in the SCD group and 34 cases in the non-SCD group. A total of 693 spectrogram were obtained. Compared to other algorithms, the SVM algorithm demonstrated the highest accuracy, reaching 95.83% based on spectral biomarkers. Furthermore, by combing spectral biomarkers with age, gender, and cardiac histopathological changes, the accuracy of the SVM model could get 100%. CONCLUSION: Integrating artificial intelligence technology, pathology, and physical chemistry analysis of blood components can serve as an effective auxiliary method for postmortem diagnosis of SCD.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Biomarcadores , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 308: 123713, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056185

RESUMO

Accurate identification of insect species holds paramount significance in diverse fields as it facilitates a comprehensive understanding of their ecological habits, distribution range, and impact on both the environment and humans. While morphological characteristics have traditionally been employed for species identification, the utilization of empty pupariums for this purpose remains relatively limited. In this study, ATR-FTIR was employed to acquire spectral information from empty pupariums of five fly species, subjecting the data to spectral pre-processing to obtain average spectra for preliminary analysis. Subsequently, PCA and OPLS-DA were utilized for clustering and classification. Notably, two wavebands (3000-2800 cm-1 and 1800-1300 cm-1) were found to be significant in distinguishing A. grahami. Further, we established three machine learning models, including SVM, KNN, and RF, to analyze spectra from different waveband groups. The biological fingerprint region (1800-1300 cm-1) demonstrated a substantial advantage in identifying empty puparium species. Remarkably, the SVM model exhibited an impressive accuracy of 100 % in identifying all five fly species. This study represents the first instance of employing infrared spectroscopy and machine learning methods for identifying insect species using empty pupariums, providing a robust research foundation for future investigations in this area.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 354: 111916, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141350

RESUMO

Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blowfly species widely studied in medical, veterinary, and entomological research. Our study examined the impact of constant (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) and variable (ranging from 21.0 to 25.4 °C, with an average of 23.31 °C) temperatures on the development and larval body length of C. megacephala. Additionally, we analyzed the age of the adult C. megacephala through pteridine content and related metabolic genes analysis. Our findings revealed three distinct growth patterns: isomorphen diagram, isomegalen diagram, and thermal accumulated models. At constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C, egg-hatching times were 44.5 ± 8.9, 26.7 ± 4.6, 12.6 ± 1.1, 11.0 ± 1.0, and 9.9 ± 1.9 h, respectively, while it was 15.3 ± 5.9 h at variable temperatures. The total development times from oviposition to adult eclosion in C. megacephala required 858.1 ± 69.2, 362.3 ± 5.9, 289.6 ± 17.8, 207.3 ± 9.3, and 184.7 ± 12.1 h at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C, respectively. This duration was extended to 282.0 ± 64.1 h under variable temperatures. However, no significant differences were found in hatching times and the total developmental durations between 25 °C and variable temperatures. A developmental threshold temperature (D0) of 9.90 ± 0.77 °C and a thermal summation constant (K) of 4244.0 ± 347.0° hours were ascertained. Pteridine content patterns varied significantly across constant temperatures, but not between 25 °C and variable temperatures. Sex and temperature were identified as the primary factors influencing pteridine levels in the head of C. megacephala. Gene expression associated with pteridine metabolism decreased following adult eclosion, matching with increased pteridine concentration. Further investigations are needed to explore the use of pteridine cofactors for age-grading adult necrophagous flies. These findings provide valuable insights into the lifespan of C. megacephala, thereby offering valuable groundwork for forthcoming investigations and PMImin determination.


Assuntos
Besouros , Dípteros , Animais , Feminino , Dípteros/genética , Calliphoridae , Temperatura , Longevidade , Larva , Expressão Gênica
14.
Microorganisms ; 11(12)2023 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38138011

RESUMO

The intestinal bacteria of insects are crucial to the growth and development of the host. It has been found that various physiological processes of insects, such as immune response, metabolism, reproductive ability, and growth and development, involve the gastrointestinal flora. However, many external factors affect the composition of insects' intestinal microorganisms, such as the type of dietary substrate. Sarcophaga peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) is of great significance in medicine and forensic science. In this study, we investigated the effects of ciprofloxacin on the growth and gut microbiota of S. peregrina. The results demonstrated that the maximum body length of larvae was not affected by ciprofloxacin, while the growth rate of body length quickened as the concentration of the drug increased. The weight of the pupa and adult was reduced significantly due to the effect of ciprofloxacin. After analyzing the gut microbiota composition of S. peregrina in different drug groups, it was indicated that Ignatzschineria, Providencia, Wohlfahrtiimonas, Proteus, Myroides, and Bacteroides play important roles in the growth of S. peregrina. However, they still need to be further studied. In general, ciprofloxacin can affect the gut microbial community structure, which in turn affects the fitness of the host.

15.
Microorganisms ; 11(11)2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38004822

RESUMO

Microbial communities can undergo significant successional changes during decay and decomposition, potentially providing valuable insights for determining the postmortem interval (PMI). The microbiota produce various gases that cause cadaver bloating, and rupture releases nutrient-rich bodily fluids into the environment, altering the soil microbiota around the carcasses. In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying principles governing the succession of microbial communities during the decomposition of pig carcasses and the soil beneath the carcasses. At early decay, the phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidota were the most abundant in both the winter and summer pig rectum. However, Proteobacteria became the most abundant in the winter pig rectum in late decay. Using genus as a biomarker to estimate the PMI could get the MAE from 1.375 days to 2.478 days based on the RF model. The abundance of bacterial communities showed a decreasing trend with prolonged decomposition time. There were statistically significant differences in microbial diversity in the two periods (pre-rupture and post-rupture) of the four groups (WPG 0-8Dvs. WPG 16-40D, p < 0.0001; WPS 0-16Dvs. WPS 24-40D, p = 0.003; SPG 0D vs. SPG 8-40D, p = 0.0005; and SPS 0D vs. SPS 8-40D, p = 0.0208). Most of the biomarkers in the pre-rupture period belong to obligate anaerobes. In contrast, the biomarkers in the post-rupture period belong to aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, the genus Vagococcus shows a similar increase trend, whether in winter or summer. Together, these results suggest that microbial succession was predictable and can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating the PMI.

16.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 364, 2023 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat tolerance is a distinct abiotic factor affecting the distribution and abundance of insects. Gut microbiota can contribute to host fitness, thereby increasing resistance to abiotic stress conditions. In this study, Sarcophaga peregrina is closely associated with human life in ecological habits and shows remarkable adaptability to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. To date, the role of gut microbiota in S. peregrina response to heat stress and its influence on the host phenotypic variability remain poorly studied. METHODS: We exposed S. peregrina to heat stress at 40 °C for 3 h every day throughout the developmental stages from newly hatched larva to adult, after which gut DNA was extracted from third-instar larvae, early pupal stage, late pupal stage, and newly emerged adults, respectively. Then, 16S rRNA microbial community analyses were performed. RESULTS: Firstly, we analyzed whether heat stress could have an impact on the life history traits of S. peregrina and showed that the growth rate of larvae was higher and the developmental time was significantly shorter after heat stress. We then proposed the role of the gut microbiota in the heat tolerance of S. peregrina, which indicated that the bacterial abundance and community structure changed significantly after heat tolerance. In particular, the relative abundance of Wohlfahrtiimonas and Ignatzschineria was higher in the third-instar larval larvae; the former increased and the latter decreased significantly after heat stress. To further explore the effect of disturbing the microbial community on thermotolerant phenotype, newly hatched larvae were fed with amikacin under heat stress, which indicated that the larval length and the whole developmental cycle was significantly shorter. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that Wohlfahrtiimonas and Ignatzschineria should play an important role in the post-feeding stage under heat stress, but further study is still needed. In general, heat tolerance can affect the gut microbial community structure, which in turn affects the fitness of the host.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Características de História de Vida , Sarcofagídeos , Termotolerância , Animais , Humanos , Dípteros/genética , Sarcofagídeos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Larva/fisiologia
17.
Eur J Med Res ; 28(1): 460, 2023 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37880804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypomethylation of the perforin gene promoter in CD4 + T cells, inflammation and oxidative stress, might be involved in alveolar septal cell apoptosis associated with emphysema in rats. This study aimed to investigate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) on this kind of apoptosis in rats with autoimmune emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups: a normal control group, a model group, and a SAM group. Pathological changes in lung tissues were observed, and the mean linear intercept (MLI) and mean alveolar number (MAN) were measured. The levels of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in serum, alveolar septal cell apoptosis, perforin gene promotor methylation in CD4 + T cells in the spleen, and the levels of cytokines, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were investigated. RESULTS: The MLI, apoptosis index (AI) of alveolar septal cells, levels of AECA in serum, and levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MDA in BALF were increased, while the MAN, methylation levels, and the activities of GSH, SOD and GSH-Px in BALF were decreased in the model group compared with those in the normal control group and the SAM group (all P < 0.05). The levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in BALF were greater in the model group than in the normal control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SAM protects against alveolar septal cell apoptosis, airway inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with autoimmune emphysema possibly by partly reversing the hypomethylation of the perforin gene promoter in CD4 + T cells.


Assuntos
Enfisema , Enfisema Pulmonar , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , S-Adenosilmetionina/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Perforina/farmacologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Enfisema/patologia , Apoptose , Glutationa/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase
18.
iScience ; 26(11): 108142, 2023 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37867947

RESUMO

ALDH1A1 is one of the classical stem cell markers for bladder cancer. Lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib) is a newfound modification to modulate the protein expression, and the underlying mechanisms of how ALDH1A1 was regulated by Khib modification in bladder cancer remains unknown. Here, ALDH1A1 showed a decreased K260hib modification, as identified by protein modification omics in bladder cancer. Decreasing ALDH1A1 expression significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells. Moreover, K260hib modification is responsible for the activity of ALDH1A1 in bladder cancer, which is regulated by HDAC2/3. Higher K260hib modification on ALDH1A1 promotes protein degradation through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), and ALDH1A1 K260hib could sensitize bladder cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Higher ALDH1A1 expression with a lower K260hib modification indicates a poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer. Overall, we demonstrated that K260hib of ALDH1A1 can be used as a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer treatment.

19.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(15)2023 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37570212

RESUMO

Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are regarded as significant in medical and veterinary entomology, and their development models can be utilized as considerable markers to ascertain the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). In this research, we explored the growth cycle and larval body length of Sarcophaga crassipalpis Macquart 1839 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) reared under variable temperatures ranging from 15.7 to 31.1 °C, with an average of 24.55 °C and relative humidity ranges from 31.4 to 82.8% and at six fixed temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 32, and then 35 °C. Moreover, pteridine from the head was used to assess adult age grading. Our results allowed us to provide three development models: the isomorphen chart, the isomegalen chart, and the thermal summation models. The time taken for S. crassipalpis to complete its development from larviposition to adult emergence at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 32, and 35 °C was 1256.3 ± 124.2, 698.6 ± 15.1, 481.8 ± 35.7, 366.0 ± 13.5, and 295.8 ± 20.5 h, respectively, except 35 °C, where all pupae were unable to attain adulthood. They lasted 485.8 ± 5.4 h under variable temperatures. The minimum developmental limit (D0) temperature and the thermal summation constant (K) of S. crassipalpis were 9.31 ± 0.55 °C and 7290.0 ± 388.4 degree hours, respectively. The increase in pteridine content exhibited variations across different temperatures. There was quite a considerable distinction in the pteridine contents of male and female S. crassipalpis at 15 °C (p = 0.0075) and 25 °C (p = 0.0213). At 32 °C and variable temperatures, the pteridine content between female and male S. crassipalpis was not statistically divergent. However, temperature and gender remain the main factors influencing the pteridine content in the head of S. crassipalpis. We aim to provide detailed developmental data on S. crassipalpis that can be used as a valuable resource for future research and PMI estimation.

20.
Microorganisms ; 11(6)2023 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37374954

RESUMO

A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can increase the risk of neurodegenerative-related disease, and serious long-term outcomes are often overlooked. In forensic science, the accurate identification of mTBIs can directly affect the application of evidence in practice cases. Recent research has revealed that the oral cavity and fecal microbiota play a fundamental role in deeply interconnecting the gut and brain injury. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the temporal changes of the oral cavity and fecal bacterial communities with damage identification and post-injury time estimation after mTBI. In this study, we analyzed the oral cavity and fecal bacterial communities in mTBI rats under 12 different post-injury times (sham, 0 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d, and 14 d post-injury) using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. The sequence results revealed bacteria belonging to 36 phyla, 82 classes, 211 orders, 360 families, 751 genera, and 1398 species. Compared to the sham group, the relative abundance of the bacterial communities varied markedly in the post-injury groups. Importantly, our data demonstrated that Fusobacteria, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae might be the potential candidates for mTBI identification, and 2 h post-injury was a critical time point to explore the temporal changes of mTBI injury-time estimation. The results also provide new ideas for mTBI treatment in the clinic.

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