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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109703, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062551

RESUMO

High rate of glycolysis supports hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth even in a hypoxic environment. However, the mechanism underlying glycolysis under hypoxia remains largely unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play essential roles in regulating glucose metabolism in cancers. This study aimed to explore the role of lncRNA homeobox transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) in HCC glycolysis under hypoxia. Thirty-eight HCC patients were recruited. HepG2 and Huh7 cells were used for study in vitro. The expression levels of HOTAIR, microRNA-130a-3p (miR-130a-3p) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. The glycolysis under hypoxia (1 % O2) condition was investigated by glucose consumption, lactate production and hexokinase 2 (HK2) level. The target interaction between miR-130a-3p and HOTIR or HIF1A was analyzed by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay, RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation. We found that HOTAIR expression was enhanced in HCC tissues and cells. Under hypoxia condition, HOTAIR expression was increased and its knockdown inhibited glycolysis in HCC cells. HOTAIR was validated as a decoy of miR-130a-3p and miR-130a-3p deficiency reversed the suppressive effect of HOTAIR silence on glycolysis under hypoxia. HIF1A was indicated as a target of miR-130a-3p and miR-130a-3p overexpression repressed glycolysis under hypoxia by targeting HIF1A. Moreover, HIF1A expression was regulated by HOTAIR and miR-130a-3p. In conclusion, knockdown of HOTAIR suppressed glycolysis by regulating miR-130a-3p and HIF1A in HCC cells treated by hypoxia, elucidating a novel mechanism in HCC glycolysis.

2.
Andrologia ; : e13531, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048324

RESUMO

Sox8, encoding a SRY-related HMG box transcription factor, is essential in Sertoli cells for germ cell differentiation via regulation of integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) as well as Sertoli-germ cell adhesion. Inactivation of Sox8 gene in mice causes postnatal progressive spermatogenic failure, resulting in male infertility. This study aims to investigate whether variants of SOX8 contribute to pathogenesis of idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) or oligozoospermia. A case-control genetic study was conducted in which all exons and exon-intron boundaries of SOX8 gene were screened in 190 NOA and 139 oligozoospermia cases by Sanger sequencing. The detected variants were examined in 284 normospermic controls. Nine known single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SOX8 gene were identified, and four of them exist simultaneously in oligo/azoospermia patients. A comparison of allele/genotype frequencies of these variants showed no significant difference between oligo/azoospermia cases and controls. The results indicate that deleterious variants in SOX8 gene may not be a common cause for oligo/azoospermia in Chinese men. Considering ethnic diversity, SOX8 could not be ruled out as a candidate gene for male infertility. The role of SOX8-mediated Sertoli cell function and BTB integrity played in the pathogenesis of male infertility needs to be further explored in other populations.

3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e25, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036802

RESUMO

Chickenpox is caused by varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and is highly contagious. Immigration detention settings are a high-risk environment for primary VZV transmission, with large, rapidly-changing populations in close quarters, and higher susceptibility among non-UK-born individuals. During outbreaks, operational challenges occur in detention settings because of high-turnover and the potential need to implement population movement restriction for prolonged periods. Between December 2017 and February 2018, four cases of chickenpox were notified amongst 799 detainees in an immigration removal centre (IRC). Microbiological investigations included case confirmation by vesicular fluid polymerase chain reaction, and VZV serology for susceptibility testing. Control measures involved movement restrictions, isolation of cases, quarantining and cohorting of non-immune contacts and extending VZV immunity testing to the wider detainee population to support outbreak management. Immunity was tested for 301/532 (57%) detainees, of whom 24 (8%) were non-immune. The level of non-immunity was lower than expected based on the existing literature on VZV seroprevalence in detained populations in England. Serology results identified non-immune contacts who could be cohorted and, due to the lack of isolation capacity, allowed the placement of cases with immune detainees. The widespread immunity testing of all detainees was proving challenging to sustain because it required significant resources and was having a severe impact on operational capacity and the ability to maintain core business activities at the IRC. Therefore, mathematical modelling was used to assess the impact of scaling back mass immunity testing. Modelling demonstrated that interrupting testing posed a risk of one additional case compared to continuing with testing. As such, the decision was made to stop testing, and the outbreak was successfully controlled without excessive strain on resources. Operational challenges generated learning for future outbreaks, with implications for a local and national policy on IRC staff occupational health requirements, and proposed reception screening of detainees for VZV immunity.

4.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-17, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013796

RESUMO

The integrated motivational-volitional model of suicidal behavior (IMV; O'Connor & Kirtley, 2018) integrates some key factors of suicidal behavior (e.g., defeat and entrapment) to explain the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. This study aimed to empirically test this model in a sample of Chinese adolescents. A number of 1,239 Chinese adolescents (679 girls; Mage = 14.07, SD = 1.54) completed self-report questionnaires. Results showed that defeat was associated with entrapment, which, in turn, was related to suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. In addition, the relationship between entrapment and suicidal ideation was significant at high levels of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, and low levels of resilience. These findings support the application of the IMV model in Chinese adolescents, and might help mental health organizations and educational agencies formulate effective suicidal prevention programs geared toward Chinese adolescents.

5.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has been proven to be a safe and advantageous procedure. To ensure that resections of appropriate difficulty are selected, an objective preoperative grading of difficulty is required. We aimed to develop a predictive difficulty grading of LS based on intraoperative complications. METHODS: A total of 272 non-traumatic patients who underwent LS were identified from a regional medical center. Patients were randomized into a training cohort (n = 222) and a validation cohort (n = 50). Data on demographics, medical and surgical history, operative and pathological characteristics, and postoperative outcome details were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for intraoperative complications were performed to develop a difficulty scoring system. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between the difficulty grading score and intraoperative outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the discriminatory power of this scoring system. RESULTS: Three preoperative factors (spleen weight, esophagogastric varices, and INR) had a significant effect on operative time, bleeding, and conversion to open surgery. We created a difficulty grading score with three levels of difficulty: low (≤ 4 points), medium (5-6 points), and high (≥ 7 points), based on the three preoperative parameters. The correlation was highly significant (P < 0.01) according to Spearman's correlation. The area under the ROC curve was 0.695 (95% CI 0.630-0.755). The external validation showed significant correlations with the present model, with an AUC of 0.725 (95% CI 0.580-0.842). The comparison between our difficulty score and the previous grading system in the 272-patient cohort presented a significant difference in the AUC (0.701, 95% CI 0.643-0.755 vs. 0.644, 95% CI 0.584-0.701, P = 0.0452). CONCLUSION: The present difficulty scoring system, based on preoperative factors, has good performance in predicting the risk of intraoperative complications of LS and could be helpful for enabling appropriate case selection with respect to the current experience of a surgeon.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017343

RESUMO

Hybrid solid/liquid electrolyte with superior security facilitates the implementation of high-energy-density storage devices, while suffers from inferior chemical compatibility with cathodes. Herein, an optimal lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate salt was introduced to in situ build an amorphous cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) between Ni-rich cathodes and hybrid electrolyte. The formed CEI preserves the surface structure with high compatibility, leading to enhanced interfacial stability. Meanwhile, the space-charge layer can be prominently mitigated at the solid/solid interface via harmonized chemical potentials, acquiring promoted interfacial dynamics that revealed by COMSOL simulation. Consequently, the amorphous CEI integrates the bifunctionality to provide an excellent cycling stability, high Coulombic efficiency and favourable rate capability in high-voltage Li-metal batteries, innovating the design philosophy of functional CEI strategy for future high-energy-density batteries.

7.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 42, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted intense interest due to their powerful intrinsic properties of self-regeneration, immunomodulation and multi-potency, as well as being readily available and easy to isolate and culture. Notwithstanding, MSC based therapy suffers reduced efficacy due to several challenges which include unfavorable microenvironmental factors in vitro and in vivo. BODY: In the quest to circumvent these challenges, several modification techniques have been applied to the naïve MSC to improve its inherent therapeutic properties. These modification approaches can be broadly divided into two groups to include genetic modification and preconditioning modification (using drugs, growth factors and other molecules). This field has witnessed great progress and continues to gather interest and novelty. We review these innovative approaches in not only maintaining, but also enhancing the inherent biological activities and therapeutics of MSCs with respect to migration, homing to target site, adhesion, survival and reduced premature senescence. We discuss the application of the improved modified MSC in some selected human diseases. Possible ways of yet better enhancing the therapeutic outcome and overcoming challenges of MSC modification in the future are also elaborated. CONCLUSION: The importance of prosurvival and promigratory abilities of MSCs in their therapeutic applications can never be overemphasized. These abilities are maintained and even further enhanced via MSC modifications against the inhospitable microenvironment during culture and transplantation. This is a turning point in MSC-based therapy with promising preclinical studies and higher future prospect.

8.
Fitoterapia ; : 104503, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061909

RESUMO

Two novel nortriterpenoids together with 7 known compounds were isolated from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 1 is the first example of triterpenoid with a 27 (17 → 12)-abeo-five-ring skeleton. In turn, compound 2 possesses a unique C/D/E linear fused ring system and a methyl on C-21. Plausible biogenetic pathway for the new compounds 1 and 2 are also proposed. Compound 1 exhibited significantly antitumor activity against A549 and LoVo cells with IC50 values of 2.0 µM and 1.9 µM, respectively. Colony formation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of compound 1 were also evaluated. Compound 2, 6, 7 and 9 showed potent neuroprotective activities against serum-deprivation induced P12 cell damage.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017524

RESUMO

Magnetically actuated micro/nanoscale pillars have attracted significant research interest recently because of their dynamic properties. These structures can be used for various applications, such as dry adhesion, cell manipulation, and sensors or actuators in microfluidics. Magnetically actuated structures can be fabricated by mixing magnetic particles and polymers to yield a favorable combination of magnetic permeability and mechanical compliance. However, the pillar density of demonstrated structures is relatively low, which limits the potential applications in active surface manipulation of microscale objects. Here, we demonstrate active periodic nanostructures with a pillar density of 0.25 pillar/µm2, which is the highest density for magnetically actuated pillars so far. Having a structure period of 2 µm, diameter of 600 nm, and high aspect ratio of up to 11, this structure can be magnetically actuated with a displacement of up to 200 nm. The behaviors of the pillars under various cyclic actuation modes have been characterized, demonstrating that the actuation can be well controlled. This work can find potential applications in particle manipulation and tunable photonic elements.

10.
Lab Invest ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051532

RESUMO

Novel molecular mechanisms of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) are continuously being discovered, including epigenetic regulation. Among epigenetic marks, the role of DNA hypomethylation in shaping heart morphology and function in vivo and the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy and/or HF, especially in adults, has not been clearly established. Here we show that the strong expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is obviously downregulated in the WT adult rat heart with age. By contrast, the expression of Dnmt1 is upregulated suddenly in heart tissues from pressure overload-induced HF mice and adriamycin-induced cardiac injury and HF mice, consistent with the increased expression of Dnmt1 observed in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM) patients. To further assess the role of Dnmt1, we generated myocardium-specific Dnmt1 knockout (Dnmt1 KO) rats using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Echocardiographic and histopathological examinations demonstrated that Dnmt1 deficiency is associated with resistance to cardiac pathological changes and protection at the global and organization levels in response to pathological stress. Furthermore, Dnmt1 deficiency in the myocardium restricts the expressional reprogramming of genes and activates pathways involved in myocardial protection and anti-apoptosis in response to pathological stress. Transcriptome and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses revealed that these changes in regulation are linked to alterations in the methylation status of genes due to Dnmt1 knockout. The present study is the first to investigate in vivo the impact of genome-wide cardiac DNA methyltransferase deficiency on physiological development and the pathological processes of heart tissues in response to stress. The exploration of the role of epigenetics in the development, modification, and prevention of cardiomyopathy and HF is in a very preliminary stage but has an infinite future.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068900

RESUMO

Glycerophospholipids (GPs) and sphingolipids (SPs) are important lipid components in the body and play biological functions. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are important nutrients, and their supplements are commonly used for preventing some diseases. However, the effect of n-3 PUFAs on the human glycerophospholipidome and sphingolipidome is unclear. We used targeted lipidomics to study the GP and SP profile of healthy individuals after supplementation with n-3 PUFAs for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Fuzzy c-means clustering was used to cluster the lipid species into 6 classes reflecting different changed-content patterns after n-3 PUFA supplementation. Among the species with significantly changed content, lysophospholipids were the most sensitive; their content started to increase on day 3. The content of phosphatidylserines increased at a later stage. The content of most of the phosphatidylcholines and alkylphosphatidylcholines decreased on day 21. A correlation network analysis of lipid species suggested that some enzymes involved in the metabolism of lysophospholipids and phosphatidylserines were regulated by n-3 PUFAs. Levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), urea, glucose, triglycerides and total bilirubin were altered by n-3 PUFA at 21 days. Correlation analysis revealed that the level of CK-MB was negatively correlated with those of species in lysophosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine classes, which were increased by n-3 PUFA supplementation. With the analysis in this work, we demonstrated the regular pattern of n-3 PUFAs on GP and SP metabolism, which provides a pharmacological basis for n-3 PUFAs for clinical application.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2639, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060329

RESUMO

Plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with coronary atherosclerotic plaque and cardiovascular disease risk, but associations between gut microbes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and post-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (post-STEMI) events are unknown. We investigated associations between gut microbial taxa and systemic TMAO levels and the possible TMAO contribution to incident post-STEMI cardiovascular events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients, including 30 with unstable angina pectoris (UAP), 30 post-STEMI and 30 healthy controls, were enrolled from June to November 2017. Metagenomic sequencing was performed and TMAO and IL-6 were detected. RESULTS: Minimal discriminators of gut microbial taxa (top 40) distinguished ACS patients from controls. Serum TMAO levels were positively associated with increased abundance of Aerococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae_UCG.005, Ruminococcaceae_UCC.014 and X. Eubacterium_fissicatena, and decreased abundance of Lachnospiraceae_FCS020 (P < 0.05). Elevated serum TMAO levels correlated independently with ACS (P < 0.05). Risk stratification for incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) improved at one year in patients with serum TMAO levels ≦2.19 µM. Serum interleukin-6 levels were not significantly increased in patients with ACS and post-STEMI MACE. CONCLUSIONS: ACS and incident post-STEMI MACE may be associated with the gut bacteria choline metabolite TMAO. The specific gut microbial taxa identified in association with serum TMAO levels may be potential predictive biomarkers for accurate diagnosis of ACS onset.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077179

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) has been used to treat diabetes, pertussis, bacillary dysentery, sore throat, eczema, and aphtha for thousands of years. Alkaloids are the major components in RC, and its curative effect is achieved by oral administration. However, information on its composition in vivo is weak. METHODS: In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) was used to analyze the major active components and their metabolites in rat plasma, urine and feces after oral administration of RC extract. RESULTS: A total of 96 compounds including 8 prototype compounds and 88 metabolites were identified, and hydroxylation, reduction, demethylenation, demethylation, dehydrogenation, sulfation, glucuronidation and methylation were the major metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This study analyzed metabolic processes of the major active components in RC in vivo, which provided important information for its active composition and in vivo mechanism research. Meanwhile, metabolic profile studies on representative compounds provided valuable reference material to elucidate the full-scale metabolites of RC.

18.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 16, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in activated sludge (AS) play key roles in the wastewater treatment processes. However, their ecological behaviors and differences from microorganisms in other environments have mainly been studied using the 16S rRNA gene that may not truly represent in situ functions. RESULTS: Here, we present 2045 archaeal and bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from 1.35 Tb of metagenomic data generated from 114 AS samples of 23 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We found that the AS MAGs have obvious plant-specific features and that few proteins are shared by different WWTPs, especially for WWTPs located in geographically distant areas. Further, we developed a novel machine learning approach that can distinguish between AS MAGs and MAGs from other environments based on the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins with an accuracy of 96%. With the aid of machine learning, we also identified some functional features (e.g., functions related to aerobic metabolism, nutrient sensing/acquisition, and biofilm formation) that are likely vital for AS bacteria to adapt themselves in wastewater treatment bioreactors. CONCLUSIONS: Our work reveals that, although the bacterial species in different municipal WWTPs could be different, they may have similar deterministic functional features that allow them to adapt to the AS systems. Also, we provide valuable genome resources and a novel approach for future investigation and better understanding of the microbiome of AS and other ecosystems. Video Abtract.

19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030426

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important biological tuners. Here, we reveal the role of an uncharacterized lncRNA we call SENEBLOC that is expressed by both normal and transformed cells under homeostatic conditions. SENEBLOC was shown to block the induction of cellular senescence through dual mechanisms that converge to repress the expression of p21. SENEBLOC facilitates the association of p53 with MDM2 by acting as a scaffold to promote p53 turnover and decrease p21 transactivation. Alternatively, SENEBLOC was shown to affect epigenetic silencing of the p21 gene promoter through regulation of HDAC5. Thus SENEBLOC drives both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms that contribute to p21 repression. Moreover, SENEBLOC was shown to be involved in both oncogenic and replicative senescence, and from the perspective of senolytic agents we show that the antagonistic actions of rapamycin on senescence are dependent on SENEBLOC expression.

20.
J Endourol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To introduce our vessel and tension-free reconstruction technique and discuss the perioperative, functional and mid-term oncological outcomes of RAPN for hilar tumors in a large cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 286 consecutive patients with hilar tumors who underwent RAPN from June 2013 to December 2016 in our center. Our anatomy-based ''Garland'' technique specialized in protecting the large hilar vessels and minimizing the tension of suturing the defect via trans/retroperitoneal approach for anterior/posterior lip hilar tumors respectively. RESULTS: "Garland" technique was successfully applied in 286 patients, the warm ischemia time (WIT) was (18.2±4.1 min). Median estimated blood loss (EBL) for RAPN was 100ml (interquartile range [IQR]: 50-200ml). Median operative time was 120 min (IQR: 90-150 min). No patient was converted to open surgery. Post-hospital stay was 4.0 d (IQR: 4.0-5.0d). Three patients (1.1%) had positive surgical margin. Two patients (0.7%) received blood transfusion. Complications occurred in 20 patients (7.0%), in which 18 patients were Clavien one and two. Three patients (1.1%) had local recurrence. All patients were alive at a 48-mo median follow-up (range: 24-66 mo). CONCLUSIONS: "Garland" technique is safe and feasible for hilar tumor resection and kidney reconstruction. The trans/retroperitoneal approaches are capable for anterior/posterior hilar tumors. Longer follow-up involving more patients is needed.

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