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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111673, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396005

RESUMO

In the present research, a bioremediation process was developed using solid complex bacterial agents (SCBA) through a combined two-step biodegradation process. Four isolated strains showed high efficiency for the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the reduction of COD of the oily sludge, at 96.6% and 92.6%, respectively. The mixed strains together with bran prepared in form of SCBA exhibited improved performance compared to individual strains, all of which had an optimal temperature of around 35 °C. The use of SCBA provided advantages over commonly used liquid media for storage and transportation. The two-step process, consisting of firstly biosurfactant-assisted oil recovery and secondly biodegradation of the remaining TPH with SCBA, demonstrated the capability for treating oily sludge with high TPH content (>10 wt%) and short process period (60 days). The large-scale (5 tons oily sludge) field test, achieving a TPH removal efficiency of 93.8% and COD reduction of 91.5%, respectively, confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the technology for industrial applications.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(1): 160-168, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291866

RESUMO

The study investigates the spatial pattern of black carbon (BC) at a high spatial resolution in Augsburg, Germany. Sixty two walks were performed to assess the concentrations of equivalent black carbon (eBC), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), and equivalent brown carbon (eBrC) in different seasons and at different times of the day with a mobile platform (i.e., trolley). Along with BC measurements, images of street microenvironments were recorded. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, were monitored. The BC concentrations showed significant spatial heterogeneity and diurnal variations peaking in the morning and at night. The highest BC concentrations were observed near dense traffic. The correlations between BC and street views (buildings, roads, cars, and vegetation) were weak but highly significant. Moreover, meteorological factors also influenced the BC concentration. A model based on street view images and meteorological data was developed to examine the driving factors of the spatial variability of BC concentrations at a higher spatial resolution as different microenvironments based on traffic density. The best results were obtained for UVPM and eBC (71 and 70% explained variability). eBrC (53%), to which other sources besides road traffic can also make significant contributions, is modeled less well.

3.
Small ; : e2006002, 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373103

RESUMO

The advanced energy storage of an Li metal substituted for graphite anode can provide a significant enhancement in a battery's energy density. Nevertheless, the practical implementation of metallic Li has seriously been fettered by the notorious Li dendrite growth and the huge volumetric variation of Li metal inducing poor cycling performance and safety concerns. In this regard, constructing a robust SEI layer combined with a 3D host to stabilize the Li metal is strongly in demand. Herein, a highly stable hosted Li with an LiF dominated SEI has successfully been achieved through metal-free fluorinated carbon fibers (FCF) with strong lithiophilicity. The metal-free design is cost-effective and can retain the energy density of the Li metal, minimizing the unnecessary energy sacrifice from the extra high gravimetric density lithiophilic sites. The FCF hosted Li delivers a promoted high Coulombic efficiency, homogeneous Li deposition, and ultrahigh rate stable cycling over 1000 cycles at 20 mA cm-2 with a much lower voltage polarization (≈220 mV). Moreover, half cells coupled with LiNi0.8 Co0.1 Mn0.1 O2 , sulfur or even thick LiCoO2 cathode demonstrate superior rate performances and enhanced cycling stability even under a lean electrolyte. This work proves the feasibility of FCF hosted Li for practical usage and provides a novel approach toward cost-effective and high performance lithium metal batteries.

4.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-14, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319623

RESUMO

Several studies have reported the preoperative control nutritional status (CONUT) score as an independent prognostic factor for the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease usually have high cholesterol levels, cachexia, and muscle atrophy. Abnormal nutritional status and lymphopenia were also related to poor prognosis. We explored the relationship between the preoperative CONUT score and patient prognosis and predicted the efficacy of pembrolizumab in lung cancer treatment. A systematic literature search was performed to identify qualified articles reporting the prognostic prediction potential of CONUT scores in lung cancer patients. A meta-analysis was performed for the association between CONUT scores and survival outcomes and clinic-pathological parameters. Overall, eight articles and 1,220 cases were included. Abnormal preoperative CONUT scores were a poor prognostic factor for elderly lung cancer patients. Finally, higher CONUT scores of pembrolizumab were associated with poor survival. CONUT was an independent prognostic indicator of lung cancer, successfully predicting the efficacy and prognosis of pembrolizumab in lung cancer treatment.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 170: 447-458, 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352159

RESUMO

The objective of present research was to explore whether Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide (SFP) could partly replace acarbose against type 2 diabetes in rats. Results indicated that SFP co-administered with low-dose acarbose intervention typically mitigated diabetic symptoms and serum profiles and exhibited better anti-diabetic effects than single acarbose treatment in controlling fasting blood glucose, improving insulin resistance and mitigating kidney injuries. The RT-qPCR analysis indicated that SFP co-administered with low-dose acarbose administration distinctly activated the IRS/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway compared with single acarbose treatment. Moreover, the co-administration also restrained liver fat accumulation via affecting the expression of HMGCR and SREBP-1c genes. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that SFP co-administered with low-dose acarbose significantly restored beneficial composition of gut flora in diabetic rats, such as the increase of Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Ruminococcus_1, Romboutsia, Eggerthellaceae, Alistipes and Faecalibaculum, and the decrease of Escherichia-Shigella. These results suggested that SFP, the novel natural adjuvant of acarbose, displayed the desirable benefits in minimizing the dose of drug, while improving the anti-diabetic efficiency.

6.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 406, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colposcopy diagnosis and directed biopsy are the key components in cervical cancer screening programs. However, their performance is limited by the requirement for experienced colposcopists. This study aimed to develop and validate a Colposcopic Artificial Intelligence Auxiliary Diagnostic System (CAIADS) for grading colposcopic impressions and guiding biopsies. METHODS: Anonymized digital records of 19,435 patients were obtained from six hospitals across China. These records included colposcopic images, clinical information, and pathological results (gold standard). The data were randomly assigned (7:1:2) to a training and a tuning set for developing CAIADS and to a validation set for evaluating performance. RESULTS: The agreement between CAIADS-graded colposcopic impressions and pathology findings was higher than that of colposcopies interpreted by colposcopists (82.2% versus 65.9%, kappa 0.750 versus 0.516, p < 0.001). For detecting pathological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+), CAIADS showed higher sensitivity than the use of colposcopies interpreted by colposcopists at either biopsy threshold (low-grade or worse 90.5%, 95% CI 88.9-91.4% versus 83.5%, 81.5-85.3%; high-grade or worse 71.9%, 69.5-74.2% versus 60.4%, 57.9-62.9%; all p < 0.001), whereas the specificities were similar (low-grade or worse 51.8%, 49.8-53.8% versus 52.0%, 50.0-54.1%; high-grade or worse 93.9%, 92.9-94.9% versus 94.9%, 93.9-95.7%; all p > 0.05). The CAIADS also demonstrated a superior ability in predicting biopsy sites, with a median mean-intersection-over-union (mIoU) of 0.758. CONCLUSIONS: The CAIADS has potential in assisting beginners and for improving the diagnostic quality of colposcopy and biopsy in the detection of cervical precancer/cancer.

7.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coordinated endothelial control of cardiovascular function is proposed to occur by endothelial cell communication via gap junctions and connexins. To study intercellular communication, the pharmacological agents carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18ß glycyrrhetinic acid (18ßGA) are used widely as connexin inhibitors and gap junction blockers. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the effects of CBX and 18ßGA on IP3 -evoked intercellular Ca2+ waves in the endothelium of intact mesenteric resistance arteries. KEY RESULTS: Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked IP3 -mediated Ca2+ release and propagated waves were inhibited by CBX (100µM) and 18ßGA (40µM). Unexpectedly, the Ca2+ signals were inhibited uniformly in all cells, suggesting that CBX and 18ßGA reduced Ca2+ release. Localised photolysis of caged IP3 (cIP3 ) was used to provide precise spatiotemporal control of site of cell activation. Local cIP3 photolysis generated reproducible Ca2+ increases and Ca2+ waves that propagated across cells distant to the photolysis site. CBX and 18ßGA each blocked Ca2+ waves in a time dependent manner by inhibiting the initiating IP3 -evoked Ca2+ release event rather than block of gap junctions. This effect was reversed on drug washout, and was unaffected by small or intermediate K+ -channel blockers. Furthermore, CBX and 18ßGA each rapidly and reversibly collapsed the mitochondrial membrane potential. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: CBX and 18ßGA inhibit IP3 -mediated Ca2+ release and depolarise the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that CBX and 18ßGA may block cell-cell communication by acting at sites that are unrelated to gap junctions.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303694

RESUMO

Women are anticipated to go through more than two rounds of cervical screening in their lifetime. Human papillomavirus(HPV) testing is increasingly used as the primary cervical cancer screening test. However, triage strategies for HPV positive women were usually evaluated at baseline screening. We assessed the effect of sequential rounds of cervical screening on several algorithms for HPV triage. 1997 women aged 35-45 years were enrolled in 1999 in Shanxi, China and followed up three times at approximately five-year intervals. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse(CIN2+) prevalence by prior HPV results and performance of twelve triage algorithms with cytology, genotyping and prior HPV were examined among 229 HPV positive women at the fourth round. CIN2+ prevalence varied from 56.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 36.8-74.4%) following 15 years HPV persistence to 3.5% (1.2-9.9%) with an incident HPV within 15 years. Triage with cytology (with threshold of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) yielded positive predictive value(PPV) of 21.4%(13.8-29.0%), entailing immediate colposcopic referral, and negative predictive value(NPV) of 97.4%(94.6-100.0%), permitting re-testing at short intervals. Triage with genotyping (16/18/31/33/45/52/58) or prior HPV results showed comparable performance to cytology. Among 11 triage algorithms with similar NPV to cytology, triage with prior HPV results and reflex genotyping (16/18) achieved highest PPV of 28.9% (18.8-39.1%) and lowest colposcopy referral of 33.2% (27.4-39.5%). HPV persistence across rounds is an effective risk stratifier in HPV positive women. Mainstream cytology and genotyping, with or without consideration of prior HPV results, remain effective for HPV triage at fourth round.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 13730-13741, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180478

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is a common disorder of vascular homeostasis in hypertension characterized by oxidative stress, malignant migration, inflammatory response, and active adhesion response of endothelial cells. The extracellular vesicles (EVs), a vital participant in vascular cell communication, have been considered responsible for vascular disease progression. However, the potential mechanism of antihypertensive peptides against the EVs-induced endothelial dysfunction is still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the antihypertensive peptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) ameliorate the effects of EVs from Ang II-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMCs) on the endothelial dysfunction. The dihydroethidium staining, wound healing assay, 3D cell culture, and co-culture with U937 monocyte were used to investigate the oxidant/antioxidant balance, migration, tube formation, and cell adhesion in EV-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells. VPP and IPP treatment reduced the level of reactive oxygen species and EV-induced expression of adhesion molecules and restored the ability of tube formation by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. VPP and IPP reduced the protein levels of IL-6 to 227.34 ± 10.56 and 273.84 ± 22.28 pg/mL, of IL-1ß protein to 131.56 ± 23.18 and 221.14 ± 13.8 pg/mL, and of MCP-1 to 301.48 ± 19.75 and 428.68 ± 9.59 pg/mL. These results suggested that the VPP and IPP are potential agents that can improve the endothelial dysfunction caused by EVs from Ang II-induced VSMCs.

10.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235271

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) secretes extracellular vesicle (EV)-encapsulated microRNAs (miRNAs) which have been underlined great promise for therapeutic target for diseases and cancers. Our study aimed to explore the role of EV-encapsulated miR-10a-5p from CAFs in angiogenesis in cervical cancer. Expression of miR-10a-5p in clinical samples of cervical cancer and cancer cells was detected by in situ hybridization and RT-qPCR. Results demonstrated that miR-10a-5p expression was upregulated in both cancer tissues and cells. CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from cervical cancer patient tissues were characterized under transmission electron microscopy, followed by EV isolation from CAFs. The EVs labeled with PKH67 were cultured with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) cell line (SiHa) and HUVECs. Data indicated that CAF-EVs were internalized by cancer cells and promoted cell proliferation and tube formation. CAF-EVs then were transfected with miR-10a-5p inhibitor and then injected into nude mice. While injection of CAF-EVs promoted tumor growth and increased VEGFR and CD31 expression level, miR-10a-5p inhibitor-treated CAF-EVs resulted in decreased tumor volume and amount of vessel around tumor. Of note, dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and bioinformatic analysis indicated TBX5 as a target gene of miR-10a-5p. Moreover, EV-derived miR-10a-5p promoted angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro through activation of Hedgehog signaling via downregulation of TBX5. Taken altogether, miR-10a-5p in CAF-EVs promoted CSCC cell angiogenesis and tumorigenicity via activation of Hh signaling by inhibition of TBX5, providing insight into novel treatment based on miR-10a-5p against CSCC.

11.
Trials ; 21(1): 954, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is an important cause of significant systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). In patients with arch vessel involvement, extensive surgical repairs often necessitate prolonged use of CPB and results in extensive inflammatory responses. Cytokines and chemokines released during CPB contribute to the progression of SIRS, increase perioperative complications, and negatively impact surgical outcomes. A cytokine adsorber (HA380) is expected to reduce the level of cytokines during CPB, which may decrease both intraoperative and postoperative inflammation. The purpose of this study is to investigate if HA380 is able to reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines and decrease perioperative complications in ATAAD patients undergoing CPB and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). METHODS: This study is a single-center, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. The study aims to recruit 88 patients with ATAAD and aortic arch involvement who will undergo CPB and DHCA to repair the dissected aorta. Patients will be randomized equally into the CPB/DHCA only group (control group) and the CPB/DHCA + HA380 hemoperfusion group (intervention group), with 44 patients each. Patients in the control group will undergo CPB and DHCA only, while patients in the intervention group will undergo continuous hemoperfusion with HA380, in addition to CPB and DHCA. The primary outcome is a composite of major perioperative complications. The secondary outcomes include related inflammatory markers, coagulation parameters, and minor perioperative complications. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of hemoperfusion on the perioperative outcomes, we will also determine if there are differences in perioperative all-cause mortality, length of ICU stay, and total hospitalization costs. DISCUSSION: In the current trial, hemoperfusion will be applied in patients undergoing CPB and DHCA for repair of the aorta involving the aortic arch. This trial aims to test the safety and efficacy of our hemoperfusion device (HA380) in such settings. Upon completion of the trial, we will determine if HA380 is effective in reducing perioperative proinflammatory cytokine levels. Further, we will also verify if reduction in the proinflammatory cytokine levels, if present, translates to improvement in patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04007484 . Registered on 1 July 2019 (retrospectively registered).

12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180670

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are efficacious against HPV infections and associated lesions in women HPV-naïve at vaccination. However, vaccine efficacy (VE) against oncogenic, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types in women infected with any other HR-HPV type at first vaccination (baseline) remains unclear. This post-hoc analysis of a phase II/III study (NCT00779766) evaluated AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) VE against HR-HPV type infection in 871 Chinese women aged 18-25 years over a 72-month follow-up period. Study participants were DNA-negative at baseline to HR-HPV type(s) considered for VE and DNA-positive to any other HR-HPV type. Initial serostatus was not considered. Baseline DNA prevalence was 14.6% for any HR-HPV type and 10.6% excluding HPV-16/18. In the total vaccinated cohort for efficacy, VE against 6-month and 12-month HPV-16/18 persistent infections (PIs) in women DNA-negative to HPV-16/18 but DNA-positive to any other HR-HPV type at baseline was 100.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 79.8-100.0) and 100.0% (95%CI: 47.2-100.0), respectively. VE against HPV-16/18 incident infections in women DNA-positive to one vaccine type but DNA-negative to the other one at baseline was 66.8% (95%CI: -18.9-92.5). VE against HPV-31/33/45 incident infections, in women DNA-positive to HPV-16/18 and DNA-negative to the considered HPV type at baseline was 71.0% (95%CI: 27.3-89.8). No HPV-16/18 PIs were observed in vaccinated women with non-vaccine HPV A7/A9 species cervical infection at baseline. These findings indicated that women with existing HR-HPV infection at vaccination might still benefit from the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine. However, this potential benefit needs further demonstration in the future.

13.
Biomaterials ; : 120492, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153757

RESUMO

In spite of a great improvement in medical health services and an increase in lifespan, we have witnessed a skyrocket increase in the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) disorders including brain tumors, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease), ischemic stroke, and epilepsy, which have seriously undermined the quality of life and substantially increased economic and societal burdens. Development of diagnostic methods for CNS disorders is still in the early stage, and the clinical outcomes suggest these methods are not ready for the challenges associated with diagnosis of CNS disorders, such as early detection, specific binding, sharp contrast, and continuous monitoring of therapeutic interventions. Another challenge is to overcome various barrier structures during delivery of diagnostic agents, especially the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Fortunately, utilization of nanomaterials has been pursued as a potential and promising strategy to address these challenges. This review will discuss anatomical and functional structures of BBB and transport mechanisms of nanomaterials across the BBB, and special emphases will be placed on the state-of-the-art advances in the development of nanomedicines from a variety of nanomaterials for diagnosis of CNS disorders. Meanwhile, current challenges and future perspectives in this field are also highlighted.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 173: 112814, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197767

RESUMO

Hybridization chain reaction (HCR) can be divided into two categories: linear HCR and nonlinear HCR. In traditional linear HCR, the relatively slow kinetics and less sufficient sensitivity largely limit its scope of application. In the nonlinear HCR system, under the trigger of the initiator, the judicious designed substrate sequences (hairpin or hairpin-free) will self-assembly to dendritic or branched DNA nanostructures with exponential growth kinetics. Given the advantages of its enzyme-free, high-order growth kinetic, high sensitivity, and simple operation, nonlinear HCR is regarded as a powerful signal amplifier for the detection of biomarkers by integrating with versatile sensing platforms in the past few decades. In this review, we describe the basic features of nonlinear HCR mechanism and classify the nonlinear HCR into several categories based on their self-assembly mechanisms: the branched HCR, dendritic HCR, hydrogel-based clamped HCR, and other types of HCR. Then, we summarize the recent development of nonlinear HCR in biosensing, such as nucleic acid, protein, enzyme activities, and cancer cell detection, etc., and we also review the current applications of nonlinear HCR in bioimaging (mRNA in situ imaging). We choose several representative works to further illustrate the analysis mechanisms via various detection platforms, such as fluorescence, electrochemical, colorimetric, etc. At last, we also review the challenges and further perspectives of nonlinear HCR in the use of bioanalysis.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 846, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that HPV prophylactic vaccine could prevent new infections and their associated lesions among women who are predominantly HPV-naive at vaccination. Yet there still remains uncertainty about whether HPV vaccination could benefit to individuals who have undergone surgery for cervical disease. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis intends to focus on intent-to-treat participants who underwent excision treatment at baseline and the follow-up period in a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT00779766 ) conducted in Jiangsu province, China. We evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination on preventing women from subsequent infection and cervical lesions (LSIL+ and CIN2+) after excision treatment. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-eight (vaccine, n = 87; placebo, n = 81) performed excisional treatment in this clinical trial. We observed a significant effect of vaccination on acquiring 14 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection after treatment (vaccine efficacy: 27.0%; 95% CI 4.9, 44.0%). The vaccine efficacy against new infections after treatment for 14 HR-HPV infection was estimated as 32.0% (95%CI 1.8, 52.8%), and was 41.2% (95%CI -162.7, 86.8%) for HPV16/18 infection. The accumulative clearance rates of the vaccine group and placebo group were 88.9 and 81.6% for HPV16/18 infection (P = 0.345), 63.4, 48.7% for 14 HR-HPV infection (P = 0.062), respectively. No significant difference was observed on the persistent rate of HPV16/18, 14 HR-HPV infection and occurrence rate of LSIL+ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: No significant evidence from this study showed that HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine could lead to viral faster clearance or have any effect on the rates of persistent infection among women who had excision treatment. However, the vaccine may still benefit post-treatment women with "primary prophylactic" effect. Further research is required in clarifying the effect of using the prophylactic HPV vaccine as therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00779766 . Date and status of trial registration: October 24, 2008. Completed; Has Results.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/cirurgia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5367, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097735

RESUMO

Alkali metals are widely studied in various fields such as medicine and battery. However, limited by the chemical reactivity and electron/ion beam sensitivity, the intrinsic atomic structure of alkali metals and its fundamental properties are difficult to be revealed. Here, a simple and versatile method is proposed to form the alkali metals in situ inside the transmission electron microscope. Taking alkali salts as the starting materials and electron beam as the trigger, alkali metals can be obtained directly. With this method, atomic resolution imaging of lithium and sodium metal is achieved at room temperature, and the growth of alkali metals is visualized at atomic-scale with millisecond temporal resolution. Furthermore, our observations unravel the ambiguities in lithium metal growth on garnet-type solid electrolytes for lithium-metal batteries. Finally, our method enables a direct study of physical contact property of lithium metal as well as its surface passivation oxide layer, which may contribute to better understanding of lithium dendrite and solid electrolyte interphase issues in lithium ion batteries.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895912

RESUMO

Thermal ablation is a point-of-care ablative treatment technique for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, limited information is available about its efficacy in low- and middle-income countries. We evaluated the efficacy of thermal ablation in treatment of CIN detected through high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) screening in China. Women positive on high-risk HPV and having colposcopically suspected lesions eligible for ablation underwent colposcopy, biopsy and thermal ablation in one visit. Women ineligible were recalled for large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) when histopathology results were high-grade CIN. Posttreatment follow-up at 6 months or more was with HPV test and cytology followed by colposcopy and biopsy for HPV and/or cytology-positive women. Cure was defined as either negative cytology and HPV test or absence of histopathology proved CIN in any positive women. Of total 218 HPV-positive women treated with thermal ablation (n = 170) or LLETZ (n = 48), 196 reported for follow-up evaluation. For women with histologically confirmed CIN at baseline (thermal ablation-104; LLETZ-38), cure rates were 84.6% for thermal ablation and 86.8% for LLETZ. Cure rates after thermal ablation were 90.3% for CIN grade one (CIN1) and 76.2% for CIN grade two or worse (CIN2+). HPV clearance rate was 80.4% in women undergoing thermal ablation, which was lower for HPV16/18 compared to other oncogenic types (67.6% vs 85.7%). HPV test had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.7% to detect CIN2+ at follow-up and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 40.4%. Thermal ablation is effective to treat CIN as well as to clear the high-risk HPV infection. HPV test has high PPV and NPV in following up patients posttreatment.

20.
CMAJ ; 192(38): E1084-E1092, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not established whether the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts or tree nuts in children increases at specific times of the year. We aimed to evaluate the risk of peanut-and tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis during certain cultural holidays in Canadian children. METHODS: We collected data on confirmed pediatric cases of anaphylaxis presenting to emergency departments in 4 Canadian provinces as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry. We assessed the mean number of cases per day and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts presenting during each of 6 holidays (Halloween, Christmas, Easter, Diwali, Chinese New Year and Eid al-Adha) versus the rest of the year. We estimated IRRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Data were collected for 1390 pediatric cases of anaphylaxis between 2011 and 2020. Their median age was 5.4 years, and 864 (62.2%) of the children were boys. During Halloween and Easter, there were higher rates of anaphylaxis to unknown nuts (IRR 1.66, 95% CI 1.13-2.43 and IRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.21-2.42, respectively) and peanuts (IRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12-3.11 and IRR 1.57, 95% CI 0.94-2.63, respectively) compared to the rest of the year. No increased risk of peanut- or tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis was observed during Christmas, Diwali, Chinese New Year or Eid al-Adha. Anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts was more likely in children aged 6 years or older than in younger children. INTERPRETATION: We found an increased risk of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts and peanuts during Halloween and Easter among Canadian children. Educational tools are needed to increase awareness and vigilance in order to decrease the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts and tree nuts in children during these holidays.

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