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1.
Cell Calcium ; 84: 102108, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715384

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) that regulates vascular signalling transduction, vasocontraction and vasodilation. Although the physiological role of ROS in endothelial cells is acknowledged, the mechanisms underlying H2O2 regulation of signalling in native, fully-differentiated endothelial cells is unresolved. In the present study, the effects of H2O2 on Ca2+ signalling were investigated in the endothelium of intact rat mesenteric arteries. Spontaneous local Ca2+ signals and acetylcholine evoked Ca2+ increases were inhibited by H2O2. H2O2 inhibition of acetylcholine-evoked Ca2+ signals was reversed by catalase. H2O2 exerts its inhibition on the IP3 receptor as Ca2+ release evoked by photolysis of caged IP3 was supressed by H2O2. H2O2 suppression of IP3-evoked Ca2+ signalling may be mediated by mitochondria. H2O2 depolarized mitochondria membrane potential. Acetylcholine-evoked Ca2+ release was inhibited by depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential by the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or complex 1 inhibitor, rotenone. We propose that the suppression of IP3-evoked Ca2+ release by H2O2 arises from the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that mitochondria may protect themselves against Ca2+ overload during IP3-linked Ca2+ signals by a H2O2 mediated negative feedback depolarization of the organelle and inhibition of IP3-evoked Ca2+ release.

2.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(6): 937-942, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting the secondary breast cancer among women with a personal history of the lesion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed breast MRI examinations performed between 2007 and 2011. A total of 798 women with a history of breast cancer were included in the study. Cancer detection rate, positive predictive value (PPV), recall rate, sensitivity, and specificity were assed. Cancer detection rate was stratified by interval after surgery of the primary breast cancer. Also, we derived 1 comparison group from the women for comparing the performance of x-ray mammography, ultrasound, and MRI in detecting the second breast cancer. RESULTS: Of the 798 patients, 47 of the 49 secondary breast carcinomas were detected by MRI. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting the secondary lesions were 95.9% and 96.3%, respectively. The recall rate was 9.5%, and the PPV was 61.8%. Cancer detection rate of MRI examinations performed at more than 36 months after initial surgery was significantly higher than that at 36 months or less after initial surgery (13.7% vs 3.6, P < 0.001). In comparison group, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI, mammography, and ultrasound were 96.7% and 96.1%, 48.4% and 93.9%, and 77.4% and 96.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance MRI for women with a personal history of breast cancer has high sensitivity in finding the secondary malignancies with a reasonable recall rate and PPV.

3.
Andrologia ; : e13473, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746051

RESUMO

To explore the efficacy of regular penis-root masturbation (PRM) versus Kegel exercise (KE) in the treatment of primary premature ejaculation (PPE). This study was a prospective quasi-randomised controlled trial. Thirty-seven heterosexual males with PPE were selected according to the time sequence of outpatient consultations and the preliminary results of a pre-experiment and were assigned to an PRM group and a KE group. Differences in intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores were compared between the two groups. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. Among the 37 PPE patients, 18 performed PRM and 19 patients performed KE. The IELTs of patients who performed PRM and KE were significantly prolonged before treatment, and the difference after treatment was statistically significant (p < .05). Compared with the KE group, the IELT prolongation effect in the PRM group was more significant PRM (p < .05). The PEDT scores of patients after performing PRM and KE were significantly lower than those before performing these exercises (p < .05). Compared with the KE group, the PEDT scores of the PRM group exhibited a greater decrease (p < .05). Thus, both PRM and KE have therapeutic effects on PPE. Compared with KE, PRM is more effective in the treatment of PPE.

5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595955

RESUMO

The evidence that fetal life and early infancy are "critical" or "sensitive" ages for later cardiometabolic disease is based on flawed methods for comparing different age periods. Moreover, most previous studies have limited their focus to weight gain, rather than growth in length/height or body mass index (BMI). We undertook a secondary analysis of PROBIT (1996-2010), a birth cohort study nested within a large cluster-randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus, with repeated measures of weight and length/height from birth to 11.5 years of age. We used mixed effects linear models to analyze associations of changes in standardized weight, length/height, and BMI during five age periods (conception to birth, birth to 3 months, 3 to 12 months, 12 months to 6.5 years, and 6.5 to 11.5 years) with fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, ß-cell function, and adiponectin at age 11.5 years. We observed strong associations between the metabolic markers and all three growth measures, with the largest magnitudes observed during the latest age period (6.5 to 11.5 years) and negligible associations during gestation and the first year of life. Later age-periods appear more "sensitive" than earlier periods to the adverse metabolic association of rapid growth in childhood.

6.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597135

RESUMO

Cabergoline is a dopamine agonist that has been used as the first-line treatment option for prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas for several decades. It not only suppresses hormone production from these prolactinomas, but also causes tumour shrinkage. Recent studies revealed some novel mechanisms by which cabergoline suppresses tumour cell proliferation and induces cell death. In this article we review the most recent findings in cabergoline studies, focusing on its anti-tumour function. These studies suggest the potential broader clinical use of cabergoline in the treatment of other tumours such as breast cancer, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, and lung cancer.

7.
J Org Chem ; 84(22): 14919-14925, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612711

RESUMO

A molecular iodine-mediated coupling cyclization reaction for the synthesis of 4-aryl-NH-1,2,3-triazoles has been developed from N-tosylhydrazones and sodium azide. This metal-free cascade [4 + 1] cyclization reaction could rapidly synthesize valuable compounds via a sequential C-N and N-N bond formation. Mechanistic studies demostrate that the nitrogen atoms of the 1,2,3-triazoles are not entirely from sodium azide.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122036, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479857

RESUMO

To improve the neutral DES (choline chloride/glycerol) pretreatment performance, three environmentally friendly heteropoly acids (phosphotungstic, phosphomolybdic and silicotungstic acids) were used as catalysts. Pretreatment with silicotungstic acid at 120 °C for 3 h resulted in 97.3% of enzymatic digestibility at an enzyme loading of 15FPU/g substrate, which was approximately eight times more than that of raw samples. More importantly, 80% of glucose yield was obtained within 12 h. Simultaneously, 81.8% of ethanol yield was achieved in the SSSF process. The efficient conversion was ascribed to the significant delignification (89.5%), which resulted in the exposure of more accessible specific surface area. This was attributed to that the proton (H+) from heteropoly acids could significantly contribute to the lignin degradation. Intriguingly, trace acetic acid (0.39 g/L) and HMF (0.21-0.95 g/L) in the pretreatment liquor were produced without any significant deleterious effects. These discoveries provide new insights for efficient biomass conversion under mild conditions.


Assuntos
Etanol , Lignina , Biomassa , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Solventes
9.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 506-516, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514982

RESUMO

MSC transplantation has been explored as a new clinical approach to stem cell-based therapies for bone diseases in regenerative medicine due to their osteogenic capability. However, only a small population of implanted MSC could successfully reach the injured areas. Therefore, enhancing MSC migration could be a beneficial strategy to improve the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation. Catharmus tinctorius volatile oil (CTVO) was found to facilitate MSC migration. Further exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism participating in the pro-migratory ability may provide a novel strategy to improve MSC transplantation efficacy. This study indicated that CTVO promotes MSC migration through enhancing ROCK2 mRNA and protein expressions. MSC migration induced by CTVO was blunted by ROCK2 inhibitor, which also decreased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Meanwhile, the siRNA for ROCK2 inhibited the effect of CTVO on MSC migration ability and attenuated MLC phosphorylation, suggesting that CTVO may promote BMSC migration via the ROCK2/MLC signaling. Taken together, this study indicates that C. tinctorius volatile oil could enhance MSC migration via ROCK2/MLC signaling in vitro. C. tinctorius volatile oil-targeted therapy could be a beneficial strategy to improve the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation for bone diseases in regenerative medicine.

10.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1661-1670, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of BMI with subsequent statural growth among children born in the era of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: Among 18,271 children from Belarus (n = 16,781, born 1996 to 1997) and the United States (n = 1,490, born 1999 to 2002), multivariable linear and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations of BMI z score from infancy to adolescence with subsequent standardized length and height velocity, standing height and its components (trunk and leg lengths), and pubertal timing. RESULTS: The prevalence of early adolescent obesity was 6.2% in Belarus and 12.8% in the United States. In both Belarusian and US children, higher BMI z scores in infancy and childhood were associated with faster length and height velocity in early life, while higher BMI z scores during middle childhood were associated with slower length and height velocity during adolescence. Associations with greater standing height and trunk length and earlier pubertal development in adolescence were stronger for BMI z scores at middle childhood than BMI z scores at birth or infancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings in both Belarus and the United States support the role of higher BMI in accelerating linear growth in early life (taller stature and longer trunk length) but earlier pubertal development and slower linear growth during adolescence.

11.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1200-1214, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542964

RESUMO

Endothelial cells line all blood vessels and are critical regulators of vascular tone. In hypertension, disruption of endothelial function alters the release of endothelial-derived vasoactive factors and results in increased vascular tone. Although the release of endothelial-derived vasodilators occurs in a Ca2+-dependent manner, little is known on how Ca2+ signaling is altered in hypertension. A key element to endothelial control of vascular tone is Ca2+ signals at specialized regions (myoendothelial projections) that connect endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This work describes disruption in the operation of this key Ca2+ signaling pathway in hypertension. We show that vascular reactivity to phenylephrine is increased in hypertensive (spontaneously hypertensive rat) when compared with normotensive (Wistar Kyoto) rats. Basal endothelial Ca2+ activity limits vascular contraction, but that Ca2+-dependent control is impaired in hypertension. When changes in endothelial Ca2+ levels are buffered, vascular contraction to phenylephrine increased, resulting in similar responses in normotension and hypertension. Local endothelial IP3(inositol trisphosphate)-mediated Ca2+ signals are smaller in amplitude, shorter in duration, occur less frequently, and arise from fewer sites in hypertension. Spatial control of endothelial Ca2+ signaling is also disrupted in hypertension: local Ca2+ signals occur further from myoendothelial projections in hypertension. The results demonstrate that the organization of local Ca2+ signaling circuits occurring at myoendothelial projections is disrupted in hypertension, giving rise to increased contractile responses.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia
12.
Water Environ Res ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529657

RESUMO

Iron oxides facilitated anaerobic digestion process has been attracted more and more attention in the renewable energy production area. In the current study, goethite was added into the continuous stirred tank reactor with glucose as the substrate. Effect of the influent organic loading rate (OLR) on the reactor performances was explored. Results showed that goethite promoted the methane production significantly (p < 0.05) when OLR was changed between 1.20 and 1.80 g glucose L-1  day-1 . Compared to the control reactor, addition of goethite improved the methane production by13.4%-22.9%. The iron reduction rate had a positive correlation with the methane production rate. Microbial community analysis results showed that OLRs influenced the dominant methanogenic species in the both reactors. Methanothrix, Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina, and Methanocella were dominant under various OLR levels. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Goethite could promote the methanogenic process of glucose in the CSTRs under certain levels of OLRs. Iron reduction rate had a positive correlation with the methane production rate. OLRs influenced the dominant methanogenic species in the goethite-dosed reactors.

13.
J Med Virol ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535725

RESUMO

The main objective of this work is to determine the performance of urine for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in cervical cancer screening in screening population. Paired urine and cervical samples were collected from 2038 women (careHPV group: 1002, cobas4800 group: 1036) in 2015. Urine was tested by a new urine-based HPV test and cervical samples by careHPV or cobas4800 HPV test. Women were triaged based on cervical results and then referred to colposcopy with biopsy as clinically indicated. In 2017, women were followed up and screened with cotesting strategy, women with any positive would be referred and biopsied if necessary. In careHPV group, the HPV prevalence of urine was 14.1%, and 16.4% for cervical samples. In cobas4800 group, it was 19.1% and 20.4%, correspondingly. The concordance of urine samples compared with cervical samples was moderate (careHPV group: 86.6%; κ = 0.48; cobas4800 group: 83%; κ = 0.46). The baseline sensitivity and specificity for urine against CIN2+ detection were 85.7%, 86.8% in careHPV group, and 69.2%, 82.3% in cobas4800 group, respectively. Cervical samples were 100% sensitive for both tests (careHPV and cobas4800) and 85.2% specific in careHPV group and 81.9% specific in cobas4800 group, respectively. The corresponding cumulative sensitivity and specificity were 68.8% and 87.1%, 58.8% and 81.9%, 87.5% and 85.5%, and 94.1% and 81.4%. Urine demonstrated certain potential in cervical cancer screening and could be an alternative if no better screening strategies available.

14.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2725-2733, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468140

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most highly infectious diseases in the pig industry, resulting in enormous economic losses worldwide. In this study, a PRRS virus (PRRSV) strain was isolated from primary porcine alveolar macrophage cells in Xinjiang in northwest China. This new strain was sequenced and designated as XJzx1-2015, and its sequence was then compared to those of other representative PRRSV strains from around the world. Complete genomic characterisation showed that the full-length nucleotide sequence of XJzx1-2015 exhibited low-level similarity to NB/04 (91.6%), JXA1 (90.5%), CH-1a (90.2%), VR-2332 (86.9%), QYYZ (85.7%), and JL580 (82.2%), with the highest similarity to HK13 (91.7%) sequence identity. Nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) and glycosylated protein (GP) 2 of XJzx1-2015 had deletions of five and two amino acids, respectively, corresponding to strain VR-2332 positions 475-479 and 173-174. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences showed that XJzx1-2015 and four other strains from China formed a new subgenotype closely related to other sublineage 8.7 (JXA1-like) strains belonging to the North American genotype. However, phylogenetic analysis based on NSP2 and GP5 showed that XJzx1-2015 clustered with sublineage 8.7 (JXA1-like, CH-1a-like) and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like) strains, respectively. Recombination analysis indicated that XJzx1-2015 is an intersubgenotype recombinant of CH-1a-like and QYYZ-like strains. Overall, our findings demonstrate that XJzx1-2015 is a novel PRRSV strain with a significantly high frequency of mutation and a recombinant between lineage 3 and sublineage 8.7 identified in northwest China. These results provide important insights into PRRSV evolution.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/classificação , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Alinhamento de Sequência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12027, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427648

RESUMO

A method to improve the brazing between YSZ and Ti6Al4V by femtosecond laser surface machining is introduced. The highest strength of ~150 MPa (which is 95.2% higher than that of the flat YSZ/Ti6Al4V joint) is achieved when the processing speed is 200 µm/s. To understand the strengthen mechanism of the surface machining on the joint strength, image based models, based on the observed microstructure, have been used to probe the stress distribution in the joint. It is found that through surface machining on the ceramic, the residual stress distribution in ceramic becomes nonlinear. Upon shear testing, for the joint with a flat interface, the failure happens in the reaction layer and the out of plane stress in this layer is found to be tensile, which acts as the driving force for the crack generation and propagation. But for the joint with a rumpled interface, the compressive out of plane stress at the boundary of the grooves in the reaction layer could inhibit the propagation of the cracks. Finally, by surface machining on the ceramic, the maximum shear stress in the reaction layer is decreased, which could also help to improve the reliability of the joint.

16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-121, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446820

RESUMO

Objective: Only a small number of reports have been made on the prenatal ultrasound findings observed in 1p36 deletion syndrome. We explored prenatal diagnosis of 1p36 deletion by ultrasound as well as chromosomal microarray (CMA), and delineated the fetal presentation of this syndrome. Study design: This was a retrospective analysis of ten new prenatal cases of 1p36 deletion identified by CMA at a single Chinese medical center. Clinical data were reviewed for these cases, including maternal demographics, indications for invasive testing, sonographic findings, CMA results and pregnancy outcomes. Results: One case was diagnosed because of a positive cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing result for terminal 1p deletion, and the remaining nine cases were identified because of an abnormal ultrasound findings, including early miscarriage, structural abnormalities and fetal growth restriction. CMA revealed 1p36 deletions to be terminal in six cases, and interstitial in four cases. Deletion sizes ranged from 1.7 to 42.7 Mb. Conclusions: Prenatal findings such as cardiac malformations, especially Ebstein anomaly, and fetal growth retardation should warrant the diagnosis of 1p36 deletion and invasive genetic testing using CMA.

17.
Chem Asian J ; 14(19): 3344-3349, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432590

RESUMO

A novel visible-light-driven decarboxylative coupling of alkyl N-hydroxyphthalimide esters (NHP esters) with quinoxalin-2(1H)-ones has been developed. This C(sp2 )-C(sp3 ) bond-forming transformation exhibits excellent substrate generality with respect to both the coupling partners. Of note, a series of 3-primary alkyl-substituted quinoxalin-2(1H)-ones that were difficult to synthesize by previous methods could be obtained in moderate to excellent yields. Additionally, the mild conditions, easy availability of substrates, wide functional group tolerance and operational simplicity make this protocol practical in the synthesis of 3-alkylated quinoxalin-2(1H)-ones.

18.
Dev Biol ; 455(1): 10-18, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301299

RESUMO

The imprinted delta like 1 homolog (DLK1) - thyroxine deiodinase type III (DIO3) locus regulates development and growth. Its imprinting regulation involves two differentially methylated regions (DMRs), intergenic-DMR (IG-DMR) and maternally expressed gene 3-DMR (Meg3-DMR). In mice, a maternal deletion of the IG-DMR leads to LOI in the locus, proving that the IG-DMR is a cis-acting imprinting control region of the locus. However, the Meg3-DMR overlaps with the promoter, exon 1 and intron 1 of the Meg3 gene. Because deletion of the Meg3-DMR inactivates the Meg3 gene, their roles in imprinting regulation of Meg3-DMR mice is unknown. Therefore, we generated two mouse models: Meg3Δ(1-4) and Meg3Δ(2-4), respectively targeting exons 1-4 and exons 2-4 of the Meg3 gene. A maternal deletion of Meg3Δ(1-4) caused embryonic death and LOI in both embryos and placentas, but did not affect methylation status of the IG-DMR. In contrast, mice carrying a maternal deletion of Meg3Δ(2-4) were born normally and did not have LOI. These data indicate that it is the Meg3-DMR, not the Meg3 gene, which regulates imprinting of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus.

19.
J Med Virol ; 91(11): 2001-2008, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347710

RESUMO

Coinfections with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) occur in cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC). However, it remains unclear the clustering patterns of multiple types in HPV coinfections and relevant factors in ADC. A total of 718 paraffin-embedded ADC specimens were collected in China and tested for HPV genotypes using SPF10-INNO-LIPA. The prevalence of HPV coinfections and clustering patterns by geographical regions, histological subtypes and ages were assessed. Type-specific attribution of HPV to ADC adjusted by HPV coinfections were calculated. The prevalence of HPV coinfections was found to be 8.4% in ADC cases with slight variation by geographic regions between 2.2% and 12.5%. The 88.3% of all HPV multiple infections in ADC were two types of HPV coinfections with predominant combination of HPV 16 and HPV 18. The attribution to ADC was 88.0% for HPV 16/18 targeted by bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine and 96.8% for HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 targeted by nonavalent vaccine. Clustering patterns of multiple types were related with histological categories and age at diagnosis. In conclusion, HPV coinfections are uncommonly prevalent in ADC cases with slight variation by geographic regions and distinct clustering patterns of multiple types by histological subtypes and ages at diagnosis. The high attribution of carcinogenic HPV types to ADC predicts potential protection of HPV vaccine against ADC.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298462

RESUMO

The shape of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the key factors determining their catalytic reactivity. Recent in situ TEM observations show that dynamic reshaping of metal NPs occurs under the reaction conditions, which becomes a major hurdle for fully understanding catalytic mechanisms at the molecular level. This Minireview provides a summary of the latest progress in characterizing and modeling the equilibrium shape of metal NPs in various reactive environments through the joint effort of state-of-the-art in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments and a newly developed multiscale structure reconstruction model. The quantitative agreement between the experimental observations and theoretical modeling demonstrate that the fundamental mechanism of the reshaping phenomenon is driven by anisotropically changed surface energies under gas adsorption. The predictable reshaping of metal NPs paves the way for the rational design of truly efficient nanocatalysts in real reactions.

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