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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130684, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391099

RESUMO

In this study, we tested the in vitro efficacy of a graphene oxide-chitooligosaccharide (GO-COS) complex developed to protect blueberry anthocyanins (An) from degradation by various physicochemical factors and the digestive process. We prepared a GO-COS complex to adsorb An and protect them from the destructive effects of their ambient environment. The complex protected the An under various temperature, pH, light, oxidant, and reductant conditions. We evaluated An content and composition in a simulated digestive system using the pH differential method and the high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The GO-COS carrier stabilized An in the intestine and protected their peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity. Additionally, we observed a dose-response relationship between An content and cellular antioxidant activity, and simultaneous improvement of An bioavailability when the An were encapsulated in the complex. The complex inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation at the tested dose range. This study provides valuable information for stability of An-rich products.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes , Quitosana , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Digestão , Grafite , Oligossacarídeos , Extratos Vegetais
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 1446-1456, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583047

RESUMO

Solar-driven interface water evaporation is a promising strategy for desalination and wastewater treatment. However, it remains a huge challenge to simultaneously achieve a high light-to-heat conversion efficiency (η) and multi-media evaporation applications. In this study, a highly efficient Janus hydrogel photothermal film was developed using yolk-like non-stoichiometric nickel sulfide (NiS2-x) microspheres and agar hydrogel. The NiS2-x immobilized in the agar hydrogel has full-spectrum absorption characteristics at 200-2500 nm, which can perform efficient light-to-heat conversion and regulate water transport channels. Additionally, the pure agar in the bottom can transport water effectively and avoid heat loss. By the pouring method, the Janus hydrogel film can be easily prepared into various shapes; hence, it can be adjusted depending on the environment in which it is used. The optimized Janus hydrogel film (Janus hydrogel-1) possessed good hydrophilicity and showed an excellent solar evaporation rate of 1.45 kg m-2h-1, and a high η of 97% under one-sun irradiation. Theoretical simulation results showed that the outstanding water evaporation performance of Janus hydrogel-1 was mainly due to its relatively free water transport channels. Janus hydrogel-1 can be used for water evaporation applications in various media, including seawater, heavy metal ion/organic wastewater, and domestic sewage. Our work highlights the great potential of Janus hydrogel-1 for realizing a highly effective solar energy-driven interface water evaporation and multi-media purification.


Assuntos
Luz Solar , Água , Hidrogéis , Metilgalactosídeos , Níquel
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 281-299, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647262

RESUMO

Since opportunities to conduct experiments in space are scarce, various microgravity simulators and analogs have been widely used in space biology ground studies. Even though microgravity simulators do not produce all of the biological effects observed in the true microgravity environment, they provide alternative test platforms that are effective, affordable, and readily available to facilitate microgravity research. The Microgravity Simulation Support Facility (MSSF) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been established for conducting short duration experiments, typically less than 1 month, utilizing a variety of microgravity simulation devices for research at different gravity levels. The simulators include, but are not limited to, 2D Clinostats, 3D Clinostats, Random Positioning Machines, and Rotating Wall Vessels. In this chapter, we will discuss current MSSF capabilities, development concepts, and the physical characteristics of these microgravity simulators.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 732883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722275

RESUMO

Purpose: The high intracranial efficacy of targeted therapeutic agents poses a challenge in determining the optimal sequence of local radiation therapy (RT) and systemic treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis (BM). Therefore, we conducted a cohort study to elucidate the appropriate treatment strategy, either upfront RT or deferred RT including a toxicity assessment, in these patients. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with gene-driven BMs from a single institution and divided them into deferred and upfront RT groups. Survival was estimated using a log-rank test. Intracranial progression was estimated using Fine-Gray competing risks model. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed for multivariable analysis in the entire group and subgroups. Results: Among the 198 eligible patients, 94 and 104 patients received deferred and upfront RT, respectively. The upfront RT group showed a lower intracranial progression risk with an adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratios of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.30-0.57) than did the deferred RT group (median intracranial progression-free survival [iPFS], 19.9 months vs. 11.1 months; p < 0.001). The median overall survival (OS; 43.2 months vs. 49.1 months, p = 0.377) and BM-specific survival (92.1 months vs. 82.9 months, p = 0.810) after salvage therapy were not significantly different between the upfront and deferred groups. Among patients with progressed extracranial disease, the deferred RT group showed significantly better OS than did the upfront RT group (44.0 vs. 28.1 months, p = 0.022). Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were rare, and similar toxicities were observed between the two groups. Conclusion: Compared to the deferred RT group, the upfront RT group achieved longer iPFS and similar survival outcomes in most patients with gene-driven NSCLC BM, although patients with progression of extracranial disease might benefit from deferred RT. Both groups showed well-tolerated toxicities. Trial registration ID: NCT04832672.

5.
Small ; : e2104195, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729918

RESUMO

The authors proposed a novel template-free strategy, urease-mediated interfacial growth of NH4 Ga(OH)2 CO3 nanotubes at 20-50 °C, to fabricate the porous Ga2 O3 nanotubes. The subtlety of the proposed strategy is all the products from urea enzymolysis are utilized in formation of NH4 Ga(OH)2 CO3 precipitates, and the key for interfacial growth of NH4 Ga(OH)2 CO3 nanotubes is the dynamic match between the rate of CO2 bubble fusion and NH4 Ga(OH)2 CO3 precipitation. The proposed strategy works well for the doped porous Ga2 O3 nanotubes. As a proof-of-concept, the porous ß-Ga2 O3 and ß-Ga2 O3 :Cr0.001 nanotubes are used as photocatalysts or co-catalysts with Pt, for H2 evolution from water splitting. The H2 evolution rate of porous ß-Ga2 O3 nanotubes reach 39.3 mmol g-1 h-1 with solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency of 2.11% (Hg lamp) or 498 µmol g-1 h-1 with STH of 0.03% (Xe lamp) respectively, both about 3 times of ß-Ga2 O3 nanoparticles synthesized at pH 9.0 without urease. The Cr-doping enhances the in-the-dark H2 evolution rate pre-lighted by Hg lamp, and Pt co-catalysis further elevates the H2 evolution rate, for instance, the H2 evolution rate of Pt-loaded ß-Ga2 O3 :Cr0.001 nanotubes reaches 54.7 mmol g-1 h-1 with STH of 2.94% under continuous lighting of Hg lamp and 1062 µmol g-1 h-1 in-the-dark.

6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736440, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790641

RESUMO

Background: To help inform regarding HIV self-testing (HIVST) upscale, we assessed the determinants of recent HIVST uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jiangsu province, China. Methods: We conducted a convenience online survey from March to April, 2020 among men aged ≥16 years, who had ever had sex with other men. Statistical analysis included Pearson's chi-square test, bivariate correlation, and multivariable logistic regression. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the total 692 participants, 69.5% (481) were aged between 18 and 40 years, and 65.9% (456) had reportedly ever self-tested. Using HIVST for first HIV test (aOR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.21-3.26), perceiving HIVST as more private (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.85-2.35), and users not needing to go to a health facility (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20-2.34) were associated with recent HIVST as facilitating factors. Conclusion: HIVST uptake rate has increased among Jiangsu MSM and can be further promoted by healthcare workers routinely recommending HIVST to their clients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Autoteste , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 151: 110965, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of microtia generally starts in childhood, and costal cartilage is the most widely used material for auricular reconstruction. However, multiple costal cartilage harvests lead to local cartilage defects, which may influence the growth of the hemithorax, that need close attention by doctors. In this study, morphological changes of the thorax were measured and analyzed in different follow-up groups. METHODS: Twenty-eight adolescent microtia patients underwent auricular reconstruction using 6th-8th costal cartilage. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction was performed preoperatively and during follow-up. Comparison of the hemithorax on the operated and unoperated sides was performed by measuring several thoracic parameters using Mimics software (Materialise, Belgium). The data were further analyzed by a paired-samples t-test. RESULTS: In the operated hemithorax, the costochondral junction midpoints moved medially (6th-8th), posteriorly (6th-7th) and descended less (6th-9th) with significant differences as P < 0.05 compared to the unoperated hemithorax. In addition, height differences indicated local depressions in the chest wall in the areas of cartilage defects (6th-9th, P < 0.05). Following local depression of the chest wall and migration of the ribs, the operated hemithorax also had a smaller area than the unoperated hemithorax (6th-9th, P < 0.05). The differences in the hemithorax were more significant in the midterm group (5-10 y) than in the other follow-up groups, while most parameters showed no significant differences in the long-term group (10-15 y). No significant differences were found in the modified Haller index. CONCLUSION: Multiple costal cartilage harvests caused morphological changes and asymmetry of the thorax in adolescent patients. As indicated by thoracic CT, significant changes occurred in the local area of cartilage defects, which did not affect the overall thorax. In the long term, more than 10 years after harvesting, the differences in the hemithorax between the operated and unoperated sides decreased significantly. This study provides an important reference for thoracic changes when applying auricular reconstruction in the pediatric microtia patients.

8.
ACS Omega ; 6(44): 29370-29379, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778610

RESUMO

Glycerol can be dehydrated with methanol to produce methyl glyceryl ethers as biologicals and diesel fuel additives. Considering the high efficiency of mass transfer and product separation in the gas-solid catalytic process, a fixed-bed continuous-flow reactor was used to carry out the catalyst evaluation test of the process at 564 K. Compared with zirconium sulfate, lanthanum nitrate, and ammonium molybdate, phosphotungstic acid exhibits a higher target product selectivity. Through loading experiments, it was found that the optimal loading fraction of phosphotungstic acid on alumina is 10 wt %. After the alumina carrier is impregnated with nitric acid, the selectivity and yield of monomethyl glycerol ether can be effectively improved, and it has little effect on other products. A test of the addition amount of cerium nitrate as a promoter was carried out. It was shown in the test that when the addition amount of cerium nitrate is 10 wt %, the catalyst life increases from 2 to 3.5 h and the selectivity of dimethyl glycerol ether increases to 54.51%, which is twice the original. However, the selectivities of monomethyl glycerol ether and trimethyl glycerol ether decrease by one-half each. Through catalyst characterization, it was shown that carbon deposition on the catalyst surface is one of the reasons for catalyst deactivation.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786780

RESUMO

Evoked response potentials are often divided up into numerous components, each with their own body of literature. But is there less variety than we might suppose? In this study, we nudge one component into looking like another. Both the N170 and recognition potential (RP) are N1 components in response to familiar objects. However, the RP is often measured with a forward mask that ends at stimulus onset whereas the N170 is often measured with no masking at all. This study investigates how inter-stimulus interval (ISI) may delay and distort the N170 into an RP by manipulating the temporal gap (ISI) between forward mask and target. The results revealed reverse relationships between the ISI on the one hand, and the N170 latency, single-trial N1 jitter (an approximation of N1 width) and reaction time on the other hand. Importantly, we find that scalp topographies have a unique signature at the N1 peak across all conditions, from the longest gap (N170) to the shortest (RP). These findings prove that the mask-delayed N1 is still the same N170, even under conditions that are normally associated with a different component like the RP. In general, our results suggest greater synthesis in the study of event related potential components.

10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 208: 114445, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763210

RESUMO

The impurity profile of budesonide solution-formulated metered dose inhalation using thermal forced degradation approach was studied intensively in this article. The structural identification of 10 budesonide related impurities was conducted by LC-QTOFMS, and the impurity level in the formulations of different excipients and packing materials were compared using HPLC-UV. Based on our results, the impurities were classified into three groups: (Ⅰ) process impurities, including budesonide impurity A, C and F; (Ⅱ) degradation products, including budesonide impurity E, G, D, 17-carboxylate, and 17-ketone; (Ⅲ) not only process impurities but also degradation products, including budesonide impurity I and L. Budesonide impurity D, 17-carboxylate, 17-ketone and impurity L were found to be the major degradation products of budesonide, and the reaction pathways for the generation of these impurities were speculated. The generation of budesonide impurity D, 17-carboxylate and L was found to be an aerobic oxidation process induced by Al2O3 on the inner surface of aluminum canisters. Furthermore, an in-depth discussion on the proposed impact of the excipients on budesonide degradation, especially on the Al2O3-induced oxidation process, was provided in this article.

11.
Opt Express ; 29(22): 35216-35225, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808960

RESUMO

Probing mid-infrared surface wave radiation remains a big challenge for a long time. The lack of convenient and quick mid-infrared surface wave radiation probing methods limits the development of the integrated mid-infrared materials and devices. In this work, we propose a scheme to construct and probe the mid-infrared surface wave radiation of interface state in the waveguide through thermal emission. A superlattice composed of alternately placed periodic meta-crystals is designed to construct an array of interfaces to realize the interface states through the transverse electrical waveguide modes with a tolerance in structural parameters. By heating the structure, we employ angular resolved thermal emission spectroscopy to directly and quickly verify the dispersion of mid-infrared interface states, which have specific frequencies, angles, and polarizations. Moreover, we establish a thermal imaging microscopy to probe the local waveguide interface state directly for the first time. This proposed infrared probing method based on thermal emission can be generalized to probe the mid-infrared surface wave in other systems, such as surface plasmon waves in graphene or surface phonon waves in two-dimensional materials in the mid-infrared range.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e2107554, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816509

RESUMO

As an emerging star of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, named MXenes, present a large potential in various research areas owing to the intrinsic multilayer structure and intriguing physico-chemical properties. However, the fabrication and application of functional MXene-based devices still remain challenging as they are prone to oxidative degradation under ambient environment. Within this review, we systematically introduce the preparation methods of MXenes focusing on the recent investigations on their thermal structure-stability relationships in inert, oxidizing and aqueous environments. Moreover, the key factors that affect the oxidation of MXenes, such as atmosphere, temperature, composition, microstructure and aqueous environment, are reviewed. Based on different scenarios, strategies for avoiding or delaying the oxidation of MXenes are proposed to encourage the utilization of MXenes in complicated environments, especially at high temperature. Furthermore, the chemistry of MXene-derived oxides is analyzed, which can offer perspectives on the further design and fabrication of novel 2D composites with the unique structures of MXenes being preserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e26480, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The need for strategies to encourage user-initiated reporting of results after HIV self-testing (HIVST) persists. Smartphone-based electronic readers (SERs) have been shown capable of reading diagnostics results accurately in point-of-care diagnostics and could bridge the current gaps between HIVST and linkage to care. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess the willingness of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Jiangsu province to use an SER for HIVST through a web-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: From February to April 2020, we conducted a convenience web-based survey among Chinese MSM by using a pretested structured questionnaire. Survey items were adapted from previous HIVST feasibility studies and modified as required. Prior to answering reader-related questions, participants watched a video showcasing a prototype SER. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-squared test, and multivariable logistic regression. P values less than .05 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 692 participants, 369 (53.3%) were aged 26-40 years, 456 (65.9%) had ever self-tested for HIV, and 493 (71.2%) were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Approximately 98% (483/493) of the willing participants, 85.3% (459/538) of ever self-tested and never self-tested, and 40% (46/115) of unwilling participants reported that SERs would increase their HIVST frequency. Engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with regular partners compared to consistently using condoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04, 95% CI 1.19-7.74) increased the odds of willingness to use an SER for HIVST. Participants who had ever considered HIVST at home with a partner right before sex compared to those who had not (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.13-7.90) were also more willing to use an SER for HIVST. Playing receptive roles during anal intercourse compared to playing insertive roles (AOR 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.14) was associated with decreased odds of being willing to use an SER for HIVST. The majority of the participants (447/608, 73.5%) preferred to purchase readers from local Centers of Disease Control and Prevention offices and 51.2% (311/608) of the participants were willing to pay less than US $4.70 for a reader device. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the Chinese MSM, especially those with high sexual risk behaviors, were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Many MSM were also willing to self-test more frequently for HIV with an SER. Further research is needed to ascertain the diagnostic and real-time data-capturing capacity of prototype SERs during HIVST.

14.
Appl Opt ; 60(33): 10421-10428, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807053

RESUMO

Excessive urea in milk will lead to serious health problems. To detect whether the urea concentration in milk exceeds the standard and ensure the quality of milk, it is necessary to develop detection technology for urea in milk. But it is difficult to detect urea in milk conveniently and accurately by traditional methods. To measure the concentration of urea in milk, stable green light carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized by a one-step method as a fluorescent probe. Then, 3, 5-diaminobenzoic acid was used as the precursor for CD synthesis. Experimental results showed that CDs can generate strong fluorescence when excited by light (350-450 nm). The fluorescence peak wavelength is 490 nm, and the optimum excitation wavelength is 390 nm. The fluorescence intensity of CDs has a significant change with variations of pH (pH of 6-9), and the higher the pH, the lower the fluorescence intensity. Additionally, urea can be hydrolyzed by urease to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. Ammonia is ionized in water to produce OH-, which increases the pH of the solution. After adding standard urea to milk, urease and CDs are added. The fluorescence intensity of CDs in the mixed solution decreases as the concentration of standard added urea increases. Thus the concentration of urea in milk can be calculated. The experimental results show that the CD method for detecting urea in milk has advantages of high sensitivity and wide measurement range. The linear interval is 25-500 mg/L, R2 is 0.998, and the limit of detection is 6.27 mg/L. The concentration of urea in the milk used in the experiment is 265.46 mg/L. CDs are easy to fabricate, and the advantages of the method are simple operation, no pretreatment, safety, and low cost. A new method for the detection of urea in milk was established, to the best of our knowledge, and this method can aid in food quality control.

15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 684965, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737971

RESUMO

Background: The diagnosis of bacterial pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) using conventional culture methods remains challenging and time-consuming. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical performance of a rapid nanopore-sequencing based metagenomics test for diagnosis of bacterial pathogens in common LRIs through a large-scale prospective study. Methods: We enrolled 292 hospitalized patients suspected to have LRIs between November 2018 and June 2019 in a single-center, prospective cohort study. Rapid clinical metagenomics test was performed on-site, and the results were compared with those of routine microbiology tests. Results: 171 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and 121 sputum samples were collected from patients with six kinds of LRIs. The turnaround time (from sample registration to result) for the rapid metagenomics test was 6.4 ± 1.4 hours, compared to 94.8 ± 34.9 hours for routine culture. Compared with culture and real-time PCR validation tests, rapid metagenomics achieved 96.6% sensitivity and 88.0% specificity and identified pathogens in 63 out of 161 (39.1%) culture-negative samples. Correlation between enriched anaerobes and lung abscess was observed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Moreover, 38 anaerobic species failed in culture was identified by metagenomics sequencing. The hypothetical impact of metagenomics test proposed antibiotic de-escalation in 34 patients compared to 1 using routine culture. Conclusions: Rapid clinical metagenomics test improved pathogen detection yield in the diagnosis of LRI. Empirical antimicrobial therapy could be de-escalated if rapid metagenomics test results were hypothetically applied to clinical management.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 748568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795584

RESUMO

Stroke is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. The Chinese herbal preparation SaiLuoTong (SLT) capsule showed outstanding therapeutic effects on stroke and its sequelae. The aim of this study was to further elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. We duplicated a permanent cerebral ischemia model in rats by MCAO and used SLT (33 and 16.5 mg/kg) to intervene. The results showed SLT dose dependently decreased infarction volumes, relieved neuron degeneration and loss, and ameliorated neurological functions, and the dose of 33 mg/kg had statistical significance (compared with the model group, p < 0.05); SLT of 33 mg/kg also significantly inhibited the elevation in brain water content and the loss in claudin-1 and occludin expressions; additionally, it significantly increased nucleus translocation of Nrf2, elevated the expression of HO-1, and raised the activity of SOD and content of GSH (compared with the model group, p < 0.05 or 0.01). These results testified SLT's anti-brain ischemia effect and hint this effect may be related to the protection of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that is dependent on the Nrf2 pathway. To further testify, we cultured hCMEC/D3 cells, duplicated OGD/R model to simulate ischemia, and used SLT (3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/L) to treat. SLT dose dependently and significantly inhibited the drop in cell viabilities, and activated the Nrf2 pathway by facilitating Nrf2 nucleus translocation, and increasing HO-1 expression, SOD activity, and GSH content (compared with the model group, p < 0.05 or 0.01); last, the anti-OGD/R effects of SLT, including raising cell viabilities, inhibiting the elevation in dextran permeability, and preserving expressions of claudin-1 and occludin, were all abolished by Nrf2 siRNA interference. The in vitro experiment undoubtedly confirmed the direct protective effect of SLT on BMECs and the obligatory role of the Nrf2 pathway in it. Collectively, data of this study suggest that SLT's therapeutic effect on brain ischemia is related to its Nrf2-dependent BMECs protection.

17.
PeerJ ; 9: e12366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760381

RESUMO

Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after thoracoscopic surgery are common. This retrospective study aimed to develop a nomogram to predict PPCs in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods: A total of 905 patients who underwent thoracoscopy were randomly enrolled and divided into a training cohort and a validation cohort at 80%:20%. The training cohort was used to develop a nomogram model, and the validation cohort was used to validate the model. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were applied to screen risk factors for PPCs, and the nomogram was incorporated in the training cohort. The discriminative ability and calibration of the nomogram for predicting PPCs were assessed using C-indices and calibration plots. Results: Among the patients, 207 (22.87%) presented PPCs, including 166 cases in the training cohort and 41 cases in the validation cohort. Using backward stepwise selection of clinically important variables with the Akaike information criterion (AIC) in the training cohort, the following seven variables were incorporated for predicting PPCs: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade III/IV, operation time longer than 180 min, one-lung ventilation time longer than 60 min, and history of stroke, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smoking. With incorporation of these factors, the nomogram achieved good C-indices of 0.894 (95% confidence interval (CI) [0.866-0.921]) and 0.868 (95% CI [0.811-0.925]) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, with well-fitted calibration curves. Conclusion: The nomogram offers good predictive performance for PPCs after thoracoscopic surgery. This model may help distinguish the risk of PPCs and make reasonable treatment choices.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 680833, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760897

RESUMO

Background: The association between a diverse array of environmental risk factors and the risk of endometriosis is contradictory. Objective: To summarize the evidence of associations between environmental risk factors and the risk of endometriosis. Methods: Databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrial.gov were systematically searched in June 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies investigated any environmental exposure (non-genetic) and endometriosis risk. For each article, we estimated the summary effect size, 95% CIs, and the 95% prediction interval (PI). We also estimated the between-study heterogeneity expressed by I 2, evidence for small-study effects, and evidence of excess significance bias. Results: About 12 eligible articles (featuring 143,422 cases and 5,112,967 participants) yielded data on 40 unique environmental risk factors, including life styles (n = 16), reproductive factors (n = 3), early life factors (n = 4), and a range of other risk factors [e.g., phthalate metabolites, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and body mass index (BMI)]. About 25 of these 40 associations (62.5%) were statistically significant (p < 0.05) under random-effects models. Evidence for an association was indicated for alcohol intake [relative risk (RR): 1.25; 95% CI: 1.11-1.41] and the exposure to endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) (RR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.23-1.60) while 15 associations presented only weak evidence. Conclusions: Our analyses showed that alcohol intake and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be potential risk factors for endometriosis and supported by suggestive epidemiological evidence. However, it was evident that there was substantial heterogeneity and/or bias between the different studies featured in various meta-analyses included in this review; therefore, the outcomes of our analysis should be interpreted cautiously.

19.
Chempluschem ; 86(11): 1524-1529, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791814

RESUMO

Hydrogels constructed from natural sources have received increased attention recently, including applications in biomedical fields. They are protein or polysaccharide cross-linked scaffolds that display water retention and are able to recognize host cargos. Their excellent biocompatibility does not always combine with high mechanical strength (up to 136 kPa) and thermostability, making them less useful in biomedical applications. This paper reports biocompatible gelatin hydrogels, double cross-linked via imine and Diels-Alder (DA) dynamic covalent frameworks. They showed integrated advantages of adjustable and durable mechanical strength, good thermal stability, biocompatibility for promoting cell growth and reasonable degradable rate. These hydrogels possess remarkable self-healing property, acid/alkali resistance at 65 °C and good integrity in organic solvents at 130 °C, holding great potential for biomedical applications in the areas such as cartilage regeneration, articular reconstruction or soft robotics.

20.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792044

RESUMO

Wound healing is a complex dynamic process. During the occurrence of skin injury, the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) level is associated with sustained inflammatory response, which limits efficient wound repair. Although multifunctional hydrogels are considered ideal wound dressings due to their unique advantages, the development of hydrogel dressings with rapid gelling rates, shape adaptation, and antioxidant function is still a vital challenge. In this work, a ROS-responsive injectable polyethylene glycol hydrogel containing thioketal bonds (PEG-TK hydrogel) was synthesized and utilized to deliver epidermal growth factor (EGF). We adopted bio-orthogonal click chemistry for crosslinking the polymer chains to obtain the EGF@PEG-TK hydrogel with fast gelation time, injectability and shape-adaptability. More interestingly, the thioketal bonds in the PEG-TK hydrogel not only scavenged excessive ROS in the wound sites but also achieved responsive and controlled EGF release to facilitate regeneration. The EGF@PEG-TK hydrogel treatment offered the benefits of protecting cells from oxidative stress, accelerating wound closure, and reducing scar formation in the full-thickness skin defect model. This work provides a promising strategy for developing antioxidant hydrogel dressing for facilitating the repair of wounds.

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