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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465625

RESUMO

The SNF2 family ATPase Amplified in Liver Cancer 1 (ALC1) is the only chromatin remodeling enzyme with a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) binding macrodomain. ALC1 functions together with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP1 to remodel nucleosomes. Activation of ALC1 cryptic ATPase activity and the subsequent nucleosome remodeling requires binding of its macrodomain to PAR chains synthesized by PARP1 and NAD+ A key question is whether PARP1 has a role(s) in ALC1-dependent nucleosome remodeling beyond simply synthesizing the PAR chains needed to activate the ALC1 ATPase. Here, we identify PARP1 separation-of-function mutants that activate ALC1 ATPase but do not support nucleosome remodeling by ALC1. Investigation of these mutants has revealed multiple functions for PARP1 in ALC1-dependent nucleosome remodeling and provides insights into its multifaceted role in chromatin remodeling.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29308, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467651

RESUMO

There are limiteddata on long-term changes in the gut microbiome after acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. We compared the gut microbial composition in stool samples of nine survivors of childhood ALL with 10 healthy sibling controls using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of beta diversity within family units demonstrated a significant difference in bacterial strains between patients and healthy siblings. A significant difference in alpha diversity between patients and their healthy siblings was noted using Pielou's evenness. The composition of the gut microbiome differs between pediatric ALL survivors and healthy sibling controls for years after completion of therapy.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470917

RESUMO

Hip fracture (HF) is common among older individuals and associated with high mortality, poor vitality and functional impairment. HF patients suffer whole body immunological changes and that lead to severe consequences, including immobilization, physical impairment and a high risk of complications. The objective of this study was to decipher the pattern of dynamic immunological changes, especially in two major T cell subsets, CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and T helper-17 (Th17) cells, and their balance, during the hospital stay and to observe whether blood transfusion could influence these cells and clinical patietns' prognosis. In this study, ninety-eight consecutive HF patients were initially enrolled, and finally fifty-one patients qualified for the study, and correlation analysis of their clinical parameters was carried out to predict the meaning of their distribution in clinical practice. Our results showed that the frequency of Tregs gradually decreased, while the frequency of Th17 cells slowly increased in HF patients who received blood transfusion. The Treg frequency was inversely correlated with the level of hemoglobin (Hb), and Th17 cell frequency was positively related to fluctuations in Hb levels in HF patients after trauma. HF patients with a better prognosis and survival time showed decreased a Treg frequency and a decreased Treg/Th17 ratio. Transfusion helped reverse the imbalance in the frequencies of Tregs and Th17 cells and the Treg/Th17 ratio and especially contributed to a better outcome in HF patients with moderate-to-severe anemia. In conclusion, a higher frequency of peripheral blood Tregs and a higher Treg/Th17 ratio may be associated with unfavorable outcomes in HF patients, and blood transfusion may benefit moderate-to-severe HF patients rebalance their immune response.

4.
World J Pediatr ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe sonographic characteristics of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis (CTBL) in children, clinical information, and sonograms of 348 lymph nodes (LNs) from 57 children with CTBL were retrospectively analyzed in this study. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and sonograms of 348 LNs from 31 boys and 26 girls with CTBL, who were confirmed by pathology or laboratory examination, at the Hangzhou Red Cross Hospital between June 2014 and December 2020. The age of the children ranged from 1 to 14 years (average 7.1 ± 2.9 years). RESULTS: Night sweats, fatigue and loss of appetite were the most common clinical symptoms observed in children with CTBL. Unilateral LN involvements were common. Occasionally, CTBL was found in healthy children with no symptoms. On sonography, the hilus was absent or unclear in all LNs. The short-to-long axis (S/L) ratio was ≥ 0.5, and the edges were unclear in most LNs. Other accompanying findings included necrosis (47.4%), an echogenic thin layer (36.8%), surrounding soft-tissue edema (38.5%), multiple intra-nodal strong echo (28.2%), sinus (22.7%) and abscess formation (6.9%). The Doppler ultrasound showed that the majority of vascularity patterns of CTBL were capsular or peripheral (33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound is a recommended examination method for children from different age groups with cervical lymphadenitis. The ultrasonic signs of hilus absence, S/L ratio ≥ 0.5, unclear edge, necrosis, echogenic thin layer, strong echoes and capsular or peripheral vascularity may aid in the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis.

5.
Int J Nurs Pract ; : e13011, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472156

RESUMO

AIM: This study was conducted to identify and compare the levels of compassion fatigue and job satisfaction among haemodialysis nurses in public and private hospitals in China and explore explanatory factors based on sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted using a self-designed demographic questionnaire, the Professional Quality of Life Scale and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, with responses from 283 haemodialysis nurses working at six public and private hospitals in China between June and November 2018. RESULTS: The compassion fatigue score of public hospital nurses was significantly higher than that of private hospital nurses. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in compassion fatigue among nurses based on the number of years worked, nature of employment, and education level. Correlational analysis showed a negative correlation between overall job satisfaction and compassion fatigue in both public and private hospitals. Multiple regression analysis showed that compassion fatigue among haemodialysis nurses in public hospitals was associated with years worked, type of employment, and intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction, whereas in private hospitals, education level, years worked, and intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction were significant. CONCLUSION: Haemodialysis nurses in public hospitals are more likely to develop compassion fatigue than those in private hospitals.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3156-3164, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467708

RESUMO

Tianxiong has been used as a Chinese medicinal in China for thousands of years, and the earliest record can be traced back to the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. It is effective in dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to streng-then yang. To clarify the origin of Tianxiong, the present herbalogical study reviewed the ancient and modern literature from the origin, processing, and clinical efficacy. Before the Tang Dynasty, although the description of Tianxiong was quite superficial, an apparent difference between Tianxiong and Fuzi was recognized. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tianxiong and Fuzi were mistakenly recognized to be prepared from a same plant since their raw materials came from artificial cultivation. Medical literature in the Ming and Qing Dynasties mostly followed the previous records, with the origin of Tianxiong remaining controversial. There were three mainstream views about the origin of Tianxiong according the ancient medical books. First, Tianxiong was a kind of Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu) without attachment of Fuzi. Second, Tianxiong was the large Fuzi. Third, Tianxiong derived from Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) about 10 cm in length. By contrast, Fuzi in a large size was simply regarded as Tianxiong in modern times. The processing methods were diversified in the ancient times, and the fire-processing was continuously applied. With the deepening of the research on the efficacy and detoxification mechanism, more methods were discovered, such as processing with ginger juice, child's urine and alcohol. As for modern times, the processing of Tianxiong has not been nearly passed down. The characteristic processing of Tianxiong only handed down in Sichuan province and Lingnan area, which can be discriminated by the last step. The efficacies of Tianxiong can be directly understood from its literal name, including dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to assist yang. Nowadays, Tianxiong is mostly used to strengthen yang.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Criança , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5755-5776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471351

RESUMO

Background: Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor with a dreadful overall survival and high mortality. One of the most difficult challenges in clinical treatment is that most drugs hardly pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and achieve efficient accumulation at tumor sites. Thus, to circumvent this hurdle, developing an effectively traversing BBB drug delivery nanovehicle is of significant clinical importance. Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) is a derivative peptide that can specifically bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) widely overexpressed on BBB and glioma cells for the invasion of rabies virus into the brain. Inspired by this, RVG has been demonstrated to potentiate drugs across the BBB, promote the permeability, and further enhance drug tumor-specific selectivity and penetration. Methods: Here, we used the RVG15, rescreened from the well-known RVG29, to develop a brain-targeted liposome (RVG15-Lipo) for enhanced BBB permeability and tumor-specific delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). The paclitaxel-cholesterol complex (PTX-CHO) was prepared and then actively loaded into liposomes to acquire high entrapment efficiency (EE) and fine stability. Meanwhile, physicochemical properties, in vitro and in vivo delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect were investigated thoroughly. Results: The particle size and zeta potential of PTX-CHO-RVG15-Lipo were 128.15 ± 1.63 nm and -15.55 ± 0.78 mV, respectively. Compared with free PTX, PTX-CHO-RVG15-Lipo exhibited excellent targeting efficiency and safety in HBMEC and C6 cells, and better transport efficiency across the BBB in vitro model. Furthermore, PTX-CHO-RVG15-Lipo could noticeably improve the accumulation of PTX in the brain, and then promote the chemotherapeutic drugs penetration in C6luc orthotopic glioma based on in vivo imaging assays. The in vivo antitumor results indicated that PTX-CHO-RVG15-Lipo significantly inhibited glioma growth and metabasis, therefore improved survival rate of tumor-bearing mice with little adverse effect. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the RVG15 was a promising brain-targeted specific ligands owing to the superior BBB penetration and tumor targeting ability. Based on the outstanding therapeutic effect both in vitro and in vivo, PTX-CHO-RVG15-Lipo was proved to be a potential delivery system for PTX to treat glioma in clinic.

8.
Anal Methods ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477188

RESUMO

In this work, COF-LZU1@PEI@Fe3O4 was synthesized by immobilization of COF-LZU1 onto the surface of polyethyleneimine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (PEI@Fe3O4) and employed as an adsorbent for magnetic dispersive micro-solid phase extraction of tetracyclines (TCs). COF-LZU1@PEI@Fe3O4 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms analysis. The optimal extraction and desorption conditions were as follows: 15.00 mL sample solution (pH 7.0) extracted with 5.0 mg of adsorbent for 30 min at 30 °C, and then desorbed with 1.50 mL methanol/acetonitrile/0.02 mol L-1 oxalic acid solution (v/v, 1 : 2 : 7). Good linearities were obtained between the peak area and TC concentration ranging from 5-500 µg L-1 with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.9992 and limits of detection lower than 0.51 µg L-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day were less than 5.7% and 7.4%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of TCs in environmental water samples with recoveries in the range of 87.0-113.8% and RSDs less than 5.1%, suggesting great potential of COF-LZU1@PEI@Fe3O4 for efficient extraction and analysis of trace TCs in water samples.

9.
Adv Mater ; : e2105049, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510587

RESUMO

Breaking the bottleneck of hydrogen oxidation/evolution reactions (HOR/HER) in alkaline media is of tremendous importance for the development of anion exchange membrane fuel cells/water electrolyzers. Atomically dispersed active sites are known to exhibit excellent activity and selectivity toward diverse catalytic reactions. Here, a class of unique Rh2 Sb nanocrystals with multiple nanobranches (denoted as Rh2 Sb NBs) and atomically dispersed Rh sites are reported as promising electrocatalysts for alkaline HOR/HER. Rh2 Sb NBs/C exhibits superior HER performance with a low overpotential and a small Tafel slope, outperforming both Rh NBs/C and commercial Pt/C. Significantly, Rh2 Sb NBs show outstanding HOR performance of which the HOR specific activity and mass activity are about 9.9 and 10.1 times to those of Rh NBs/C, and about 4.2 and 3.7 times to those of Pt/C, respectively. Strikingly, Rh2 Sb NBs can also exhibit excellent CO tolerance during HOR, whose activity can be largely maintained even at 100 ppm CO impurity. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the unsaturated Rh sites on Rh2 Sb NBs surface are crucial for the enhanced alkaline HER and HOR activities. This work provides a unique catalyst design for efficient hydrogen electrocatalysis, which is critical for the development of alkaline fuel cells and beyond.

10.
Environ Res ; : 111997, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506781

RESUMO

Nitrosamines, a group of emerging nitrogenous pollutants, are ubiquitously found in the drinking water system. However, less is known about how systemic biological responses resist or tolerate nitrosamines, especially long-term co-exposure at low concentrations. In this study, untargeted metabolomics was used to investigate the metabolic perturbations in human esophageal epithelial Het-1A cells induced by a mixture of nine common nitrosamines in drinking water at environmentally relevant, human-internal-exposure, and genotoxic concentrations. Generally, the disrupted metabolic spectrum became complicated with nitrosamines dose increasing. Notably, two inflammation-associated pathways, namely, cysteine (Cys) and methionine (MET) metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, changed significantly under the action of nitrosamines, even at the environmentally relevant level. Furthermore, targeted metabolomics and molecular biology indicators in cells were identified in mice synchronously. For one thing, the up-regulated Cys and MET metabolism provided methyl donors for histone methylation in the context of pro-inflammatory response. For another, the down-regulated NAD+/NADH ratio inhibited the deacetylation of NF-кB p65 and eventually activated the NF-кB signaling pathway. Taken collectively, the metabolomics molecular signatures were important indicative markers for nitrosamines-induced inflammation. The potential crosstalk between the inflammatory cascade and metabolic regulation also requires further studies. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to long-term co-exposure at low concentrations in the control of nitrosamines pollution in drinking water. Additionally, this study also highlights a good prospect of the combined metabolomic-molecular biology approach in environmental toxicology.

11.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682211041048, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519250

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of spine-related malpractice claims in China in a 2-year period. METHODS: The arbitration files of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) were reviewed for spine-related malpractice claims. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted on claim characteristics, clinical data, plaintiff's main allegations, and arbitration outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 288 cases of spinal claims filed in the CMA between January 2016 and December 2017 were included. Most claims were found in lumbar degenerative disorders (59.4%), lumbar trauma (13.2%), and cervical degenerative disorders (11.8%). The most common adverse events (AEs) leading to claims were new neurologic deficit (NND) (47.6%), infection (11.5%), and insufficient symptom relief (10.4%). The most common patient allegation was surgical error (66.0%), although the main arbitrated cause of AEs was disease/treatment itself (49.0%), while providers were judged as mainly responsible in only 47.3% cases. In multivariate regression analysis, cervical spine, misdiagnosis/mistreatment, and unpredictable emergency correlated with more severe damage to patients; minimally invasive surgery was predictive of judgment in plaintiff's favor, while claims in the eastern region and unpredictable emergencies were predictive of defendant's favor; only NND was associated with being arbitrated as surgical error in surgical cases where surgeons accepted major liability. CONCLUSION: The current study provided a descriptive overview and risk factor analysis of spine-related malpractice claims in China. Gaining improved understanding of the facts and causes of malpractice claims may help providers reduce the risk of claims and subsequent litigation.

12.
Pharmacol Res ; : 105881, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509631

RESUMO

IBS-D is a functional bowel disease without clear diagnostic markers and exact pathogenesis. Studies have proved that non-coding RNAs participate in IBS-D. However, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs), as a new type of non-coding RNAs that are more suitable as markers, remain to be clarified in IBS-D. Hence, we focused on the identification and potential functions of tsRNAs in IBS-D. Intestinal biopsies were obtained from IBS-D patients and healthy volunteers, and twenty-eight differential tsRNAs were screened by high-throughput sequencing. The changes of tiRNA-His-GTG-001, tRF-Ser-GCT-113, and tRF-Gln-TTG-035 by q-PCR in expanded samples were consistent with the sequencing results. Meanwhile, target gene prediction and bioinformatics showed that the three differential tsRNAs may be involved in some key signal pathways, such as GABAergic synapse, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. Their regulation on target genes were demonstrated through cell experiments and luciferase reporter assays. In addition, the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the three tsRNAs all could be used as candidate markers of IBS-D. The correlation analysis indicated they were related to the degree of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and stool morphology. So, we believe that the abnormal tiRNA-His-GTG-001, tRF-Ser-GCT-113, and tRF-Gln-TTG-035 are related to the clinical symptoms of IBS-D, and can target regulate the important molecules of the brain-gut axis, even could be expected as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of IBS-D.

13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 696669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485177

RESUMO

Background: Emerging long reads sequencing technology has greatly changed the landscape of whole-genome sequencing, enabling scientists to contribute to decoding the genetic information of non-model species. The sequences generated by PacBio or Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) be assembled de novo before further analyses. Some genome de novo assemblers have been developed to assemble long reads generated by ONT. The performance of these assemblers has not been completely investigated. However, genome assembly is still a challenging task. Methods and Results: We systematically evaluated the performance of nine de novo assemblers for ONT on different coverage depth datasets. Several metrics were measured to determine the performance of these tools, including N50 length, sequence coverage, runtime, easy operation, accuracy of genome and genomic completeness in varying depths of coverage. Based on the results of our assessments, the performances of these tools are summarized as follows: 1) Coverage depth has a significant effect on genome quality; 2) The level of contiguity of the assembled genome varies dramatically among different de novo tools; 3) The correctness of an assembled genome is closely related to the completeness of the genome. More than 30× nanopore data can be assembled into a relatively complete genome, the quality of which is highly dependent on the polishing using next generation sequencing data. Conclusion: Considering the results of our investigation, the advantage and disadvantage of each tool are summarized and guidelines of selecting assembly tools are provided under specific conditions.

14.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-22, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488551

RESUMO

Berberine is an alkaloid from several medicinal plants originally used to treat diarrhea and dysentery as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In recent years, berberine has been discovered to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities in the treatment of diverse diseases ranging from cancer and neurological dysfunctions to metabolic disorders and heart diseases. This review article summarizes the clinical practice and laboratory exploration of berberine for the treatment of cardiometabolic and heart diseases, with a focus on the novel insights and recent advances of the underlying mechanisms recognized in the past decade. Berberine was found to display pleiotropic therapeutic effects against dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, arrhythmia, and heart failure. The mechanisms of berberine for the treatment of cardiometabolic disease involve combating inflammation and oxidative stress such as inhibiting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) activation, regulating electrical signals and ionic channels such as targeting human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) currents, promoting energy metabolism such as activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, modifying gut microbiota to promote transforming of berberine into its intestine-absorbable form, and interacting with non-coding RNAs via targeting multiple signaling pathways such as AMPK, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), etc. Collectively, berberine appears to be safe and well-tolerated in clinical practice, especially for those who are intolerant to statins. Knowledge from this field may pave the way for future development of more effective pharmaceutical approaches for managing cardiometabolic risk factors and preventing heart diseases.

15.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498956

RESUMO

A new ingol diterpenoid, namely 3-de-O-acetyleuphornan R (1), along with two known analogues, euphornans E (2) and N (3) were isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia marginata Pursh. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and 1H-1H COSY, and HR-MS spectroscopic analyses.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149806, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence or exacerbation of kidney disease has been documented as a growing problem associated with hot weather. The implementation of effective prevention measures requires a better understanding of the risk factors that increase susceptibility. To fill gaps in knowledge, this study reviews the current literature on the effects of heat on kidney-disease outcomes (ICD-10 N00-N39), including morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Databases were systematically searched for relevant literature published between 1990 and 2020 and the quality of evidence evaluated. We performed random effects meta-analysis to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) of the association between high temperatures (and heatwaves) and kidney disease outcomes. We further evaluated vulnerability concerning contextual population characteristics. RESULTS: Of 2739 studies identified, 91 were reviewed and 82 of these studies met the criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Findings showed that with a 1 °C increase in temperature, the risk of kidney-related morbidity increased by 1% (RR 1.010; 95% CI: 1.009-1.011), with the greatest risk for urolithiasis. Heatwaves were also associated with increased morbidity with a trend observed with heatwave intensity. During low-intensity heatwaves, there was an increase of 5.9% in morbidity, while during high-intensity heatwaves there was a 7.7% increase. There were greater RRs for males, people aged ≤64 years, and those living in temperate climate zones. Similarly, for every 1 °C temperature increase, there was a 3% (RR 1.031; 95% CI: 1.018-1.045) increase in the risk of kidney-related mortality, which also increased during heatwaves. CONCLUSIONS: High temperatures (and heatwaves) are associated with an elevated risk of kidney disease outcomes, particularly urolithiasis. Preventive measures that may minimize risks in vulnerable individuals during hot spells are discussed.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486623

RESUMO

We describe a catalytic asymmetric iminium ion cyclization reaction of simple 2-alkenylbenzaldimines using a BINOL-derived chiral N-triflyl phosphoramide. The corresponding 1-aminoindenes and tetracyclic 1-aminoindanes are formed in good yields and high enantioselectivities. Further, the chemical utility of the obtained enantiopure 1-aminoindene is demonstrated for the asymmetric synthesis of (S)-rasagiline.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127043, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479084

RESUMO

Bioremediation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) has attracted extensive attentions due to its economical and eco-friendly properties for lead (Pb) passivation in soil. Herein, bone char (BC) supported biochemical composite (CFB1-P) carrying advantages of BC, PSB, iron sulfide (FeS) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was designed and applied to Pb passivation. The composite at a mass ratio of BC:CMC:FeS = 1:1:1 possessed high passivation efficiency (65.47%), and has been demonstrated to offer appropriate habitat environment for PSB to defend against Pb(II) toxicity, thus enhancing the phosphate-solubilizing amount of PSB to 140.72 mg/L for passivating Pb(II). Batch experiments showed that the CFB1-P possessed excellent adsorption properties with maximal monolayer Pb(II) uptake of 452.99 mg/g during an extensive pH range of 2.0-6.0. Furthermore, by applying CFB1-P dosage of 3% into Pb-contaminated soil, the labile Pb fractions were reduced from 29.05% to 6.47% after simulated remediation of 10 days, and converted into steady fractions. The CFB1-P was demonstrated to achieve high Pb(II) passivation through combined functions of chemical precipitation, complexation, electrostatic attraction and biomineralization, accompanied by the formation of more stable crystal structures, for instance, Pb5(PO4)3OH, Pb3(PO4)2 and PbS. These results suggested CFB1-P as a potential alternative for efficient remediation of Pb-contaminated soil.

19.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515036

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Synbindin, originally identified as a neuronal cytoplasmic molecule, was found in glomeruli. The cDNA subtractive hybridization technique showed the mRNA expression of synbindin in glomeruli was downregulated in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephropathy, a mimic of minimal-change nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: The expression of synbindin in podocytes was analyzed in normal rats and 2 types of rat nephrotic models, anti-nephrin antibody-induced nephropathy, a pure slit diaphragm injury model, and PAN nephropathy, by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR techniques. To elucidate the function of synbindin, a gene silencing study with human cultured podocytes was performed. RESULTS: Synbindin was mainly expressed at the slit diaphragm area of glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). In both nephrotic models, decreased mRNA expression and the altered staining of synbindin were already detected at the early phase when proteinuria and the altered staining of nephrin, a key molecule of slit diaphragm, were not detected yet. Synbindin staining was clearly reduced when severe proteinuria was observed. When the cultured podocytes were treated with siRNA for synbindin, the cell changed to a round shape, and filamentous actin structure was clearly altered. The expression of ephrin-B1, a transmembrane protein at slit diaphragm, was clearly lowered, and synaptic vesicle-associated protein 2B (SV2B) was upregulated in the synbindin knockdown cells. CONCLUSION: Synbindin participates in maintaining foot processes and slit diaphragm as a downstream molecule of SV2B-mediated vesicle transport. Synbindin downregulation participates in slit diaphragm dysfunction. Synbindin can be an early marker to detect podocyte injury.

20.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515865

RESUMO

Equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is a newly discovered hepatitis C virus-like virus that can infect equines. EqHV strains circulating worldwide have been classified into subtypes 1-3. In previous studies, we detected the presence of EqHV strains of subtype 1 and 3 in China. To determine whether EqHV strains of subtype 2 are prevalent in China, serum samples were collected from 133 racehorses in Guangdong province in 2021 and were tested for EqHV RNA by RT-PCR, and the positive rate was 9% (12/133). Sequencing of the NS3 gene revealed that one field strain (GD2021) had a high degree of genetic similarity to EqHV strains of subtype 2. Subsequent genome sequencing and analysis demonstrated that strain GD2021 belongs to subtype 2. The present study enriches our knowledge about the genetic diversity of EqHV in China.

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