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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039637

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the relative clinical efficacy of preoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided methylene-blue (MB) and coil localization for lung nodules (LNs).Material and methods: Between January 2013 and December 2018, a total of 89 patients with LNs underwent CT-guided MB or coil localization and subsequent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)-guided wedge resection in our hospital. We compared the technical success of localization and wedge resection between two groups.Results: In MB group, 47 LNs in 39 patients were localized, with successful localization and wedge resection rates of 97.9% and 97.9%, respectively. In the coil group, 64 LNs in 50 patients were localized, with successful localization and wedge resection rates of 96.9% and 96.9%, respectively. There were no significant differences in technical success rates of localization and wedge resection between the two groups (p = 1.000 and 1.000). The coil group sustained a longer duration between localization and VATS relative to the MB group (14.4 h vs. 1.6 h, p = .001).Conclusion: Both MB and coil localization were safe and effective techniques to establish a high success rate of VATS-guided wedge resection for LNs. Relative to MB localization, coil localization might be compatible with a longer delay between localization and VATS.

2.
J Control Release ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061620

RESUMO

Carrier-free nanodrug via small-molecule assembly is a promising alternative strategy for tumor therapy. Thus, developing a self-recognizing carrier-free nanodrug without introduction of foreign ligand is very attractive to meet both targeting and therapeutic requirements while reducing structural complexity. Here we fabricated a tumor microenvironment-activated self-targeting nanodrug, via co-assembly of hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) and bi-functional methotrexate (MTX, not only has antitumor effect but also shows innate affinity towards folate receptors) followed by surface covering through acidity-responsive polyethylene glycol (PEG). Notably, the morphology and size of MTX-HCPT nanodrug could be tuned by varying the drug-to-drug ratio and assembly time. The PEG shell of our nanodrug could be detached in response to acidic tumor microenvironment, and then MTX could be exposed for self-targeting to enhance tumor cell uptake. Subsequently, the shell-detached nanodrug could be dissociated in relatively stronger acidic lysosomal environment, resulting in burst release of both drugs. Further in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that our nanodrug showed a ~2.98-fold increase in cancer cell uptake, a ~1.25-fold increase in drug accumulation at tumor site, a significantly lower CI50 value of ~0.3, a ~27.3% improvement in tumor inhibition comparing with the corresponding non-responsive nanodrug. Taken together, the here reported tumor microenvironment-activated self-recognizing nanodrug might be an extremely promising strategy for synergistically enhancing chemotherapy efficiency with minimized side effects.

3.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the significance of traditional vascular reconstruction and covered stent for limb salvage after subclavian artery injury. METHODS: Patients with subclavian artery injury admitted to Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from January 2010 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All the injuries have been confirmed by intraoperative exploration, computed tomography angiography or digital subtraction angiography. Complete or partial amputation injuries were excluded. Mild artery defect or partial intimal damage was treated by interventional implantation, while other patients received open surgeries, including direct suture of small defect less than 2 cm and transplantation with autologous vein or artificial blood when the defect was more than 2 cm. Patients were divided into open surgery group and stent implantation group based on the treatment they received. Patients were followed up at 2 weeks (first stage) and 6 months (second stage) after operation to investigate limb salvage. Student's t-test was used to compare the general data between two groups and Chi-square test to analyze the rate of limb salvage. RESULTS: Altogether 50 cases of subclavian artery injury were treated, including 36 cases of open surgery and 14 cases of stent implantation. Combination of nerve injury was observed in 27 cases (75.0%) in open surgery group and 12 cases (85.7%) in stent implantation group. Amputation developed in 3 cases with open surgery and 1 case with stent implantation. Consequently the rate of successful limb salvage was respectively 91.7 (33/36) and 92.9% (13/14), revealing no significant difference (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Rapid reconstruction of blood circulation is crucial following subclavian artery injury, no matter what kinds of treatment strategies have been adopted. Interventional stent implantation can achieve a good effect for limb salvage.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 233: 115883, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059914

RESUMO

Cellulose is a promising and advantageous material because it is low-cost, abundant and biodegradable. Nonetheless, dealing with this material is extremely challenging because cellulose cannot dissolve in most solvents or melt at any temperature or pressure in the air owing to strong hydrogen-bonding networks. In this work, a surface selective dissolution with shear force process was proposed to prepare cellulose films with high strength from microcrystalline cellulose powders. The tensile strength reached 94 MPa and the thermal decomposition temperature improved by 64 °C compared with that of regenerated cellulose. A mechanism of surface dissolution and reconnection was proposed to explain the process. The outstanding mechanical property attributes to tight reconnection of the undissolved cores via dissolved surfaces in cellulose powders, and the improved thermal decomposition temperature is due to preserved cellulose Ⅰ crystalline structure of microcrystalline cellulose. We believe that this cost-effective and facile method holds promise for industrial-scaleproduction of cellulose materials.

5.
Environ Res ; 183: 109197, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058142

RESUMO

There is a large body of evidence linking Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure with impaired lung function. However, it is not known whether exposure to pets modifies this relationship. To investigate if pet ownership changes the association between ETS exposure and lung function, a population-based sample of 7326 children, 7-14 years old, were randomly recruited from 24 districts in northeast China. Lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) was measured by spirometry, while pet ownership time periods and ETS exposure were collected by questionnaire. Two-level regression analysis was done, with covariates controlled for. The results showed pet exposure in certain early lifetime windows modified the associations of ETS exposure on decreased lung function in children. Among children exposed to current ETS, those exposed to pets in utero had greater reductions in lung function (for instance: OR for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) = 10.86; 95% CI: 3.80-30.97) than those not exposed to pets in utero (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.76-3.05) (pinteraction = 0.005). While, children exposed to current pet ownership reduced the lung function impairment induced by ETS exposure during the first 2 years of life and/or ETS exposure during pregnancy, especially for FVC impairment. For instance, OR (95%CI) for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) was 0.81 (0.56, 1.18) and 1.42 (1.15, 1.74), respectively, for children with or without current pet ownership exposed to ETS during the first 2 years of life (pinteraction = 0.010). Furthermore, pet type or number of pets did not significantly modify associations between ETS exposure and lung function. In conclusion, the timing of pet ownership modified associations between ETS exposure and lung function, pet ownership in utero and during the first 2 years of life significantly worsened the adverse impacts of passive smoking on lung function.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137261, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065894

RESUMO

During a harvest period, a set of field samples, including ambient air (gaseous and particulate phases), dust fall, surface soil and peel-surrounding soil, and yellow carrot tissues (leaf, peel, and core), were collected in a vegetable bases near a large coking manufacturer in Shanxi Province, Northern China. Based on the determinations of the concentrations and compositions of 15 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the statistical results determined by a factor analysis (FA), combined with the isomeric ratios of paired species and the local emission inventory, indicated that coal combustion and vehicular exhaust served as the main emission sources of PAHs in the local environment and in yellow carrot tissues and that the coking industry was a secondary source. In terms of the transport pathways of PAHs in the surrounding media and yellow carrot tissues, the simulation results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that the PAHs in ambient air were closely associated with those in dust fall, and these in turn had a positive correlation with the PAHs in surface soil, due to air-soil exchange. Furthermore, the PAHs in yellow carrot leaf were mainly derived from those in dust fall via leaf surface absorption, while peel uptake played a dominant role in the accumulation of PAHs in the edible core of yellow carrot. This was different from the case of cabbage, which was characterized by the prevailing contribution from leaf surface absorption. The current study supplied additional evidence to explore the transport pathways of PAHs from environmental media to tissues of different vegetables (leafy vegetables and root vegetables). CAPSULE: A combination of structural equation modeling with factor analysis was employed to quantitatively identify the dominant transport pathways of PAHs among multiple surrounding media and the different tissues of yellow carrot.

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(1): 014901, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012522

RESUMO

Temperature measurement using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) usually involves heat transfer across the mechanical contact and liquid meniscus between the thermometer probe and the sample. Variations in contact conditions due to capillary effects at sample-probe contact and wear and tear of the probe and sample interfere with the accurate determination of the sample surface temperature. This paper presents a method for quantitative temperature sensing using SThM in noncontact mode. In this technique, the thermal probe is scanned above the sample at a distance comparable with the mean free path of ambient gas molecules. A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model (3DFEM) that includes the details of the heat transfer between the sample and the probe in the diffusive and transition heat conduction regimes was found to accurately simulate the temperature profiles measured using a Wollaston thermal probe setup. In order to simplify the data reduction for the local sample temperature, analytical models were developed for noncontact measurements using Wollaston probes. Two calibration strategies (active calibration and passive calibration) for the sample-probe thermal exchange parameters are presented. Both calibration methods use sample-probe thermal exchange resistance correlations developed using the 3DFEM to accurately capture effects due to sample-probe gap geometry and the thermal exchange radii in the diffusive and transition regimes. The analytical data reduction methods were validated by experiments and 3DFEM simulations using microscale heaters deposited on glass and on dielectric films on silicon substrates. Experimental and predicted temperature profiles were independent of the probe-sample clearance in the range of 100-200 nm, where the sample-probe thermal exchange resistance is practically constant. The difference between the SThM determined and actual average microheater temperature rise was between 0.1% and 0.5% when using active calibration on samples with known thermal properties and between ∼1.6% and 3.5% when using passive calibration, which yields robust sample-probe thermal exchange parameters that can be used also on samples with unknown thermal properties.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015430

RESUMO

Previous epidemiologic research has shown that phthalate exposure in pregnant women is related to birth outcomes in a sex-specific manner. These outcomes may be mediated by placental inflammation, which is the proposed biological mechanism. This is the first study to address the relationship between phthalate exposure and gene expression in placental inflammation in a sex-specific manner. We performed quantitative PCR to measure placental inflammatory mRNAs (CRP, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, IL-8, CD68, and CD206) in 2469 placentae that were sampled at birth. We estimated the associations between mRNA and urinary phthalate monoesters using multiple linear regression models. Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) was correlated with higher IL-1ß, IL-6, and CRP expression in placentae of male fetuses and with higher IL-6, CRP, MCP-1, IL-8, IL-10, and CD68 expression in placentae of female fetuses. Mono benzyl phthalate (MBzP) increased the expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, and CD68 only in placentae of male fetuses. Mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) was negatively correlated with CRP, MCP-1, and CD68 in placentae of female fetuses. Maternal phthalate exposure was associated with inflammatory variations in placental tissues. The associations were stronger in placentae of male than of female fetuses. Compared with the other metabolites, MBP plays a strong role in these associations. The placenta is worth being further investigated as a potential mediator of maternal exposure-induced disease risk in children.

9.
Virol J ; 17(1): 15, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hantaan virus (HTNV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans with severe morbidity and high mortality. Although inactivated HFRS vaccines are given annually for prevention in populations, China still has the highest number of HFRS cases and deaths worldwide. Consequently, vaccination for HFRS requires the development of novel, more effective vaccines. Epitope peptide vaccines have been developed rapidly in recent years and are considered a novel approach for the prevention of infection. Specifically, the multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) design with preferable immunogenicity can arouse a satisfactory immune response for vaccination. However, there are few reports on the design and evaluation of MAP for HTNV. METHODS: Three HLA-A*02-restricted 9-mer cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes on HTNV glycoprotein and one HLA-A*02-restricted 9-mer CTL epitope on the HTNV nucleocapsid, which have been proven to be immunoprotective in our previous study, were selected for the design of HTNV MAP. A four-branched HTNV MAP was evaluated by the IFN-γ-secreting enzyme-linked immunospot assay and proliferation induction capacity of CD8+ T cells and compared with the single HTNV CTL epitope in 17 HLA-A*02+ patients with HFRS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of parameters between different subject groups. RESULTS: The macromolecular HTNV MAP was designed with a polylysine core and four radially branched single CTL epitope chains. Importantly, HTNV MAP could stimulate CD8+ T cell secretion of IFN-γ in HLA-A*02+ patients with HFRS. The frequency of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in the MAP stimulation group was significantly higher than that in the single HTNV CTL epitope stimulation groups (P < 0.005). Meanwhile, the activity of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in the HTNV MAP group was also higher than that of the single CTL epitope groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a much stronger ability of HTNV MAP to stimulate CD8+ T cell proliferation compared with that of a single HTNV CTL epitope. CONCLUSIONS: The designed HTNV MAP could induce CTL responses ex vivo and may be considered a candidate for the design and development of novel HTNV peptide vaccines.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031770

RESUMO

The reversible photocatalytic color switching systems (PCSSs) driven by semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention because of their wide applications. However, the developed semiconductor nanoparticles with photoreductive activity are mainly limited to TiO2-based photocatalysts, which greatly hinder their broad applications. Here we report a cocapping ligand-assisted strategy for the development of photoreductive BiOCl ultrathin nanosheets with abundant oxygen vacancies. Both the cocapping ligands and oxygen vacancies in BiOCl ultrathin nanosheets act as sacrificial electron donors to efficiently scavenge the photogenerated holes, endowing the BiOCl ultrathin nanosheets high photoreductive activity and thus enabling the photocatalytic color switching of redox dyes, such as methylene blue (MB) and neutral red. By successfully integrating the BiOCl ultrathin nanosheet/MB/H2O color switching system with poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel to fabricate a twistable gel film and simultaneously solving the dye-leaching issue of the gel film in a water environment, we further demonstrate its application in a colorimetric oxygen indicator for food packaging, exhibiting high sensitivity to monitor oxygen leakage by the naked eye. We believe the work opens a new avenue for designing photoreductive semiconductor nanomaterials to enrich the PCSSs and their applications.

11.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002752

RESUMO

Metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is increasingly available for the detection of obscure infectious diseases of the central nervous system. However, human DNA contamination from elevated white cells, one of the characteristic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) features in meningitis patients, greatly reduces the sensitivity of mNGS in the pathogen detection. Currently, effective approaches to selectively reduce host DNA contamination from clinical CSF samples are still lacking. In this study, a total of 20 meningitis patients were enrolled, including 10 definitively diagnosed tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 10 definite cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases. To evaluate the effect of reduced human DNA in the sensitivity of mNGS detection, three specimen-processing protocols were performed: (i) To remove human DNA, saponin, a nonionic surfactant, was used to selectively lyse white cells in CSF followed by DNase treatment prior to the extraction of DNA; (ii) to reduce host DNA, CSF was centrifuged to remove human cells, and the supernatant was collected for DNA extraction; and (iii) DNA extraction from the unprocessed specimens was set as the control. We found that saponin processing significantly elevated the NGS unique reads for Cryptococcus (P < 0.01) compared with the control but had no effects for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (P > 0.05). However, detection of centrifuged supernatants improved the NGS unique reads for both TBM and CM compared with controls (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrate that the use of mNGS of centrifuged supernatants from clinical CSF samples in patients with TBM and CM is a simple and effective method to improve the sensitivity of pathogen detection.

12.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(2): 141-145, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R) rs10889677, interleukin-17A (IL-17A) rs227591, and interleukin-17F (IL-17F) rs763780 with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in Chinese Han preterm infants. METHODS: A total of 100 Chinese Han preterm infants with NEC who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from January 2017 to January 2019 were prospectively enrolled. Of the 100 preterm infants, 63 had stage II NEC and 37 had stage III NEC. A total of 100 preterm infants, matched for age and sex, were selected as the control group. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to determine the SNPs of rs10889677, rs2275913, and rs763780. An unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of SNPs with NEC susceptibility and severity. RESULTS: The genotype and allele frequencies of rs10889677 and rs2275913 had no influence on the development of NEC (P>0.05). The genotype of rs763780 had no influence on the development of NEC (P>0.05), but the risk of NEC in the infants carrying C allele was 1.652 times that in those carrying T allele (95%CI: 1.052-2.695, P<0.05). The risk of NEC in the infants carrying TC+CC genotype was 1.856 times that in those carrying TT genotype (95%CI: 1.045-3.201, P<0.05). The risk of stage III NEC in the infants carrying TC+CC genotype was 2.965 times that in those carrying TT genotype (95%CI: 1.052-6.330, P<0.05). The risk of stage III NEC in the infants carrying C allele was 2.363 times that in those carrying T allele (95%CI: 1.034-4.093, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The SNPs of IL-23R rs10889677 and IL-17A rs2275913 are not associated with the susceptibility to NEC in Chinese Han preterm infants, while TC+CC genotype and C allele of IL-17F rs763780 are associated with the susceptibility to NEC and the severity of NEC.

13.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011130

RESUMO

Four water-soluble hydrazone-based three-dimensional (3D) flexible organic frameworks FOF-1-4 have been synthesized from a semirigid tetracationic tetraaldehyde and four flexible dihydrazides. 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated the quantitative formation of FOF-1-4 in D2O, while dynamic light scattering experiments revealed that, depending on the concentration, these porous frameworks display hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 50 to 120 nm. The porosity of the frameworks is confirmed by ethanol vapor adsorption experiments of the solid samples as well as the high loading capacity for a 2.3 nm porphyrin guest in water. The new water-soluble frameworks exhibit low cytotoxicity and form inherent pores with diameters of 5.3 or 6.7 nm, allowing rapid inclusion of proteins such as bovine serum albumin and green and orange fluorescent proteins, and efficient delivery of the proteins into normal and cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis reveals percentages of the delivered cells up to 99.8%.

15.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027482

RESUMO

Although emerging evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is closely related to the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in the midbrain, the clearance of α-syn remains an unmet clinical need. Here, we develop a simple and efficient strategy for fabricating the α-syn nanoscavenger for PD via a reprecipitation self-assembly procedure. The curcumin analogue-based nanoscavenger (NanoCA) is engineered to be capable of a controlled-release property to stimulate nuclear translocation of the major autophagy regulator, transcription factor EB (TFEB), triggering both autophagy and calcium-dependent exosome secretion for the clearance of α-syn. Pretreatment of NanoCA protects cell lines and primary neurons from MPP+-induced neurotoxicity. More importantly, a rapid arousal intranasal delivery system (RA-IDDS) was designed and applied for the brain-targeted delivery of NanoCA, which affords robust neuroprotection against behavioral deficits and promotes clearance of monomer, oligomer, and aggregates of α-syn in the midbrain of an MPTP mouse model of PD. Our findings provide a clinically translatable therapeutic strategy aimed at neuroprotection and disease modification in PD.

16.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 113848, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044354

RESUMO

The enhancement of drug efflux caused by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (including ABCG2 and ABCB1) overexpression is an important factor for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancers. After testing the reversal activities of 19 chalcone and bis-chalcone derivatives on MDR cancer cell lines, we found that non-basic chalcone CYB-2 exhibited the most potent reversal activities against both ABCG2- and ABCB1-mediated MDR. The mechanistic studies show that this compound can increase the accumulation of anticancer drugs in both ABCG2- and ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cell lines, resulting from the blocked efflux function of the MDR cancer cell lines. This inhibition is due to the barred ABCG2 and ABCB1 ATPase activities rather than altering the expression or localization of ABCG2 or ABCB1 transporters. The previous studies showed that non-basic chalcones were ABCG2-specific inhibitors; however, we found that non-basic chalcone CYB-2 can be developed as an ABCG2/ABCB1 dual inhibitor to overcome MDR in cancers that co-express both ABCG2 and ABCB1. Moreover, non-basic chalcone CYB-2 has synthetic tractability compared to other chalcone-based derivatives.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944958

RESUMO

This paper proposes an approach to content-preserving image stitching with regular boundary constraints, which aims to stitch multiple images to generate a panoramic image with a piecewise rectangular boundary. Existing methods treat image stitching and rectangling as two separate steps, which may result in suboptimal results as the stitching process is not aware of the further warping needs for rectangling. We address these limitations by formulating image stitching with regular boundaries in a unified optimization. Starting from the initial stitching results produced by the traditional warping-based optimization, we obtain the irregular boundary from the warped meshes by polygon Boolean operations which robustly handle arbitrary mesh compositions. By analyzing the irregular boundary, we construct a piecewise rectangular boundary. Based on this, we further incorporate line and regular boundary preservation constraints into the image stitching framework, and conduct iterative optimization to obtain an optimal piecewise rectangular boundary. Thus we can make the boundary of the stitching results as close as possible to a rectangle, while reducing unwanted distortions. We further extend our method to video stitching, by integrating the temporal coherence into the optimization. Experiments show that our method efficiently produces visually pleasing panoramas with regular boundaries and unnoticeable distortions.

18.
Zool Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945809

RESUMO

As the oldest venomous animals, centipedes use their venom as a weapon to attack prey and for protection. Centipede venom, which contains many bioactive and pharmacologically active compounds, has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine, as shown by ancient records. Based on comparative analysis, we revealed the diversity of and differences in centipede toxin-like molecules between Scolopendra mojiangica, a substitute pharmaceutical material used in China, and Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. More than 6 000 peptides isolated from the venom were identified by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and inferred from the transcriptome. As a result, in the proteome of S. mojiangica, 246 unique proteins were identified: one in five were toxin-like proteins or putative toxins with unknown function, accounting for a lower percentage of total proteins than that in S. mutilans. Transcriptome mining identified approximately 10 times more toxin-like proteins, which can characterize the precursor structures of mature toxin-like peptides. However, the constitution and quantity of the toxin transcripts in these two centipedes were similar. In toxicity assays, the crude venom showed strong insecticidal and hemolytic activity. These findings highlight the extensive diversity of toxin-like proteins in S. mojiangica and provide a new foundation for the medical-pharmaceutical use of centipede toxin-like proteins.

19.
Phytomedicine ; 67: 153150, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza virus is one of the most important human pathogens, causing substantial seasonal and pandemic morbidity and mortality. Houttuynia cordata is a traditionally used medicinal plant for the treatment of pneumonia. Flavonoids are one of the major bioactive constituents of Houttuynia cordata. PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of flavonoid glycosides from H. cordata on influenza A virus (IAV)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: Flavonoids from H. cordata (HCF) were extracted from H. cordata and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47). HCF (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or Ribavirin (100 mg/kg, the positive control) were administered intragastrically. Survival rates, life spans, weight losses, lung indexes, histological changes, inflammatory infiltration, and inflammatory markers in the lungs were measured. Lung virus titers and neuraminidase (NA) activities were detected. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and levels of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation (NF-κB p65(p)) in the lungs were analysed. The effects of HCF on viral replication and TLR signalling were further evaluated in cells. RESULTS: HCF contained 78.5% flavonoid glycosides. The contents of rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin in HCF were 8.8%, 26.7%, 9.9% and 31.7%. HCF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the survival rate and life span of mice infected with the lethal H1N1 virus. In H1N1-induced ALI, mice treated with HCF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) showed lesser weight loss and lower lung index than the model group. The lungs of HCF-treated ALI mice presented more intact lung microstructural morphology, milder inflammatory infiltration, and lower levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) than in the model group. Further investigation revealed that HCF exerted antiviral and TLR-inhibitory effects in vivo and in vitro. HCF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced lung H1N1 virus titers and inhibited viral NA activity in mice. HCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) elevated the levels of interferon-ß in lungs. HCF also decreased the expression of TLR3/4/7 and level of NF-κB p65(p) in lung tissues. In vitro experiments showed that HCF (50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) significantly inhibited viral proliferation and suppressed NA activity. In RAW 264.7 cells, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 agonist-stimulated cytokine secretion, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were constrained by HCF treatment. Furthermore, among the four major flavonoid glycosides in HCF, hyperin and quercitrin inhibited both viral replication and TLR signalling in cells. CONCLUSION: HCF significantly alleviated H1N1-induced ALI in mice, which were associated with its dual antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects via inhibiting influenzal NA activity and TLR signalling. among the four major flavonoid glycosides in HCF, hyperin and quercitrin played key roles in the therapeutic effect of HCF.

20.
Anal Biochem ; 592: 113577, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926146

RESUMO

Recombinant influenza Virus-Like Particle (VLP) vaccines are promising vaccine candidates to prevent influenza, contain two major viral antigenic glycoproteins, Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA), on the surface of recombinant VLPs. Accurate quantitation of the mass of these antigenic proteins is important to ensure the product quality and proper dosing. Currently, Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) is a recognized assay for determination of the HA immuno-reactive concentration (potency) in vaccine products, based on immuno-reactivity of HA with strain-specific antisera. The SRID assay, however, requires availability of strain-specific and properly calibrated reagents, which can be time-consuming to generate and calibrate. In addition, the assay is not suitable for quantitation of low abundant proteins, such as NA. In order to accelerate the overall production cycle, we have developed and optimized a high-resolution (HR) LC-MS method for absolute quantitation of both HA and NA protein concentrations in influenza VLP vaccine candidates. In this work, we present the method development, optimization and verification of its suitability for the intended purpose, as a prerequisite for its potential application in Quality Control, by assessing specificity, precision and accuracy, detection characteristics, and dynamic linear range. The method can be also used for other HA/NA containing preparations including in-process samples, purified proteins, whole virus preparations, nano-particle and egg-based vaccine preparations, or for calibration of SRID reference antigens.

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