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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147334, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957596

RESUMO

Although previous studies have reported the adverse effect of air pollution exposure during pregnancy on neurodevelopment in children, epidemiological evidence is limited, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to explore the association between prenatal ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and early childhood neurodevelopment in a large birth cohort study of 4009 maternal-child pairs. Prenatal daily PM2.5 exposure concentrations at 1 km spatial revolution were estimated using high-performance machine-learning models. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of children at ages 2, 6, 12, and 24 months were assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Distributed lag nonlinear models were used to identify critical windows of prenatal PM2.5 exposure. General linear mixed models with binomially distributed errors were used to estimate the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on suspected developmental delay (SDD) in five developmental domains based on the longitudinal design. Prenatal PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with decreased scores for all neurodevelopmental domains of children at ages 2, 6, and 24 months. Each 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of SDD for all subjects (RR: 1.52 95% CI: 1.19, 2.03), specifically, in problem-solving domain for girls (RR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.35). Prenatal PM2.5 exposure in weeks 18 to 34 was significantly associated with both ASQ scores and SDDs. Our study proposed that prenatal PM2.5 exposure affected early childhood neurodevelopment evaluated with the ASQ scale. PM2.5 exposure might increase the risk of SDD for boys and girls, specifically in the problem-solving domain for girls.

2.
Mol Ecol ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960545

RESUMO

Microbial abundance and community composition in marine sediments have been widely explored. However, high-resolution vertical changes of benthic microbial diversity and co-occurrence patterns are poorly described. The ecological contributions of abundant and rare species in sediments also remain largely unknown. Here, by analyzing microbial populations at 14 depth layers of ten subseafloor sediment cores (water depth 1250-3530 m) obtained in the South China Sea, we provided the vertical profiles of microbial ß-diversity and co-occurrence influenced by subcommunities of different abundance. These 134 sediment samples were clustered into four groups according to sediment depth (1-2, 6-10, 30-90, and 190-790 cm) with obvious shifts in microbial community compositions. The vertical succession of microorganisms was consistent with redox zonation and influenced by terrestrial inputs. Partitioning of vertical ß-diversity showed extremely high species replacement between deep layers and the surface layer, indicating selection induced loss of rare species and dispersal of dormant cells and spores. While for horizontal ß-diversity, richness of rare species became increasingly significant in deep sediments. Accompanying this ß-diversity profile were clear changes in the association pattern, with microorganisms being less connected in deeper sediment layers, likely reflecting reduced syntrophic interactions. Rare species accounted for an indispensable proportion in the co-occurrence network, and tended to form complex "small world". The rare subcommunity also responded differently to various environmental factors compared with the abundant subcommunity. Our findings expand current knowledge on vertical changes of marine benthic microbial diversity and their association patterns, emphasizing the potential roles of rare species.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117178, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901985

RESUMO

Red mud and phosphogypsum are voluminous industrial by-products worldwide. They have long been disposed of in landfills or open storage, leading to a waste of resource and environmental pollution. This study provides a novel approach to recycle these industrial by-products as sustainable red mud-phosphogypsum-Portland cement (RPPC) binders for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of multimetal-contaminated soil. The physical strength, metal leachability and microstructure of S/S soil were investigated after 7-day and 28-day curing, as well as freezing-thawing (F-T) cycle and wetting-drying (W-D) cycle. The results show that the strength of soil treated by all binders fulfilled the uniaxial compressive strength requirement (350 kPa) of S/S waste in landfills. Microstructural analyses show that the main hydration products of the RPPC S/S soil are ilmenite, ettringite, anhydrite and hydrated calcium silicate. The 10% and 15% RPPC binders have a competitive metal immobilization ability compared with 10% PC, but the immobilization priority is different: Pb > Zn > Cd in RPPC system and Zn > Cd > Pb in PC system, respectively, probably due to the precipiataion of Pb2+ with the abundant SO42- in phosphogypsum in RPPC system. The strength of RPPC and PC treated soil was still higher than 350 kPa except for RPPC7.5 after 10 freeze-thaw or 10 wetting-drying cycles. The RPPC binder performed worse than PC binder after both freeze-thaw and wetting-drying cycles, especially at a lower dosage. Only the metal leaching concentrations of samples treated by RPPC15 and PC10 could fulfil the Chinese standards for hazardous wastes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926104

RESUMO

The contamination of soil by lead (Pb) is a serious and widespread problem in China, especially in mining areas. This paper summarized the available data regarding Pb-contaminated soils around various metal mines in China. Based on these data, the Pb concentration in the soil and its temporal and spatial changes were analyzed. Potential ecological hazards and adult lead models were also used to estimate ecological and health risks. The results indicated that the concentration of Pb was closely related with the type of mine. Compared with other types of mine, soil around lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) and tin (Sn) mines with high Pb contents in the metallic ores and high pollutant emission coefficient were more strongly polluted by Pb. The characteristic spatial and temporal variations of Pb pollution status in China were clarified, and the results showed that the concentration was high in the southern, southwestern, and central regions of China where many mining areas were located, and the mean value passed a turning point in 2012. Ecological risk assessments indicated that some areas around mines were at considerable to high risk, and the risk was relatively severe in Pb-Zn mining areas. According to the adult lead model, Pb-Zn mines had a greater impact on blood Pb concentration than the other types of mine.

5.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810191

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is one of Earth's most abundant organosulfur molecules. Recently, many marine heterotrophic bacteria were shown to produce DMSP, but few studies have combined culture-dependent and independent techniques to study their abundance, distribution, diversity and activity in seawater or sediment environments. Here we investigate bacterial DMSP production potential in East China Sea (ECS) samples. Total DMSP (DMSPt) concentration in ECS seawater was highest in surface waters (SW) where phytoplankton were most abundant, and it decreased with depth to near bottom waters. However, the percentage of DMSPt mainly apportioned to bacteria increased from the surface to the near bottom water. The highest DMSP concentration was detected in ECS oxic surface sediment (OSS) where phytoplankton were not abundant. Bacteria with the genetic potential to produce DMSP and relevant biosynthesis gene transcripts were prominent in all ECS seawater and sediment samples. Their abundance also increased with depth and was highest in the OSS samples. Microbial enrichments for DMSP-producing bacteria from sediment and seawater identified many novel taxonomic groups of DMSP-producing bacteria. Different profiles of DMSP-producing bacteria existed between seawater and sediment samples and there are still novel DMSP-producing bacterial groups to be discovered in these environments. This study shows that heterotrophic bacteria significantly contribute to the marine DMSP pool and that their contribution increases with water depth and is highest in seabed surface sediment where DMSP catabolic potential is lowest. Furthermore, distinct bacterial groups likely produce DMSP in seawater and sediment samples, and many novel producing taxa exist, especially in the sediment.

6.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; : 103579, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894361

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms underlying wing evolution and development have been a point of scientific inquiry for decades. Phloem-feeding aphids are one of the most devastating global insect pests, where dispersal of winged morphs lead to annual movements, migrations, and range expansions. Aphids show a polyphenic wing dimorphism trait, and offer a model to study the role of environment in determining morphological plasticity of a single genotype. Despite recent progresses in the genetic understanding of wing polyphenism, the influence of environmental cues remains unclear. To investigate the involvement of miRNAs in wing development, we sequenced small RNA libraries of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), across six different developmental stages. As a result, we identified 113 conserved and 193 S. avenae-specific miRNAs. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of putative target mRNAs for the six differentially expressed miRNAs are enriched for wing development processes. Dietary uptake of miR-263a, miR-316, and miR-184a agomirs and antagomirs led to significantly higher mortality (>70%) and a lower proportion of winged morphs (<5%). On the other hand, wing malformation was observed in miR-2 and miR-306 agomirs and miR-2 and miR-14 antagomirs, respectively, suggesting their involvement in S. avenae wing morphogenesis. Theses combined results not only shed light on the regulatory role of miRNAs in wing dimorphism, but also provide potential novel targets for the long-term sustainable management of S. avenae, a devastating global grain pest.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905060

RESUMO

Groundwater resource is significantly important for sustainable development of the world, especially for arid endorheic watersheds. A total of 28 groundwaters were collected for hydrogeochemical analysis from the arid Chaka watershed on Tibetan plateau to illustrate the hydrochemical evolution, formation mechanisms and feasibility of groundwater in small arid endorheic watersheds where groundwater is much scarcer. The results showed groundwater has a slightly alkaline nature, and varies from soft fresh HCO3-Ca type to hard brackish/saline Cl-Na type along the groundwater flow path in the watershed with the total hardness in the range of 270-2,127 mg/L and the total dissolved solids in the range of 282-41,770 mg/L. Nitrogen and fluoride in phreatic water are found sporadically exceeding the permissible limits with the maximum value of 118 mg/L for nitrate, 1.2 mg/L for ammonia and 1.2 mg/L for fluoride. Hydrochemistry of phreatic and confined groundwater is naturally governed by water-rock interactions including minerals (halite, gypsum and anhydrite) dissolution, silicate weathering and cation-exchange reaction. The salinity of phreatic water is also dominantly controlled by the strong evaporation. Human activity is one of the important mechanisms influencing the hydrochemical signature of groundwater regardless of the depth. Groundwater has a great hydrogeochemical discrepancy spatially across the watershed and varies from excellent to extremely poor quality in phreatic aquifers. A better water quality that under the good to medium categories was observed in the confined aquifers with 80% of samples having the EWQI value less than 100 and others in the range of 100-150. Phreatic groundwater away from the river and in the downstream area has a relatively poor quality for domestic and agricultural purposes, and should be avoided to direct utilization. This research can improve the understanding of groundwater hydrogeochemical feature, genesis, and its constraints on the availability and feasibility of groundwater resources in small arid watersheds worldwide.

8.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928954, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is mainly induced by the increased content of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in the atmosphere. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of betulinic acid derivative on lung inflammation in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by particulate matter 2.5. MATERIAL AND METHODS The mice were given a PM2.5 (25 µl) suspension for 7 days by the intranasal route to establish a COPD model. The content of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the BALF samples was measured by commercially available ELISA kits. RESULTS The PM2.5-induced higher LDH and ACP levels were significantly alleviated in mouse lung tissues by treatment with betulinic acid derivative. Treatment with betulinic acid derivative also suppressed PM2.5-induced increase in AKP and ALB levels in mouse lung tissues. Betulinic acid derivative reversed PM2.5-mediated suppression of SOD activity and elevation of NOS level in mouse BALF. Moreover, the PM2.5-induced excessive NO and MDA levels in mouse BALF were significantly reduced (P.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145076, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582335

RESUMO

Knowledge of the origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in vegetables is essential to reduce human health risks induced by dietary exposure. The current study developed a vegetation-advanced multimedia model, SESAMe-Veg, to identify the major uptake pathway of 15 priority PAHs in vegetables and assess the PAHs in edible parts of cabbages and carrots in Jinzhong City, Shanxi Province, China. The model was well evaluated against site- and plant-specific measurements. Edible parts exhibited lower PAH concentrations than the other parts for both vegetables. The estimated concentrations of ΣPAH15 were 79 ng/g in cabbage shoots and 83 ng/g in carrot roots. Higher concentrations were estimated in shoots of the leafy vegetable than in roots of the root vegetable for most PAHs. Although air-shoot is the major transport pathway, 98% was deposition of particles, which was attached outside and could be removed relatively easily by washing. Soils might be the origin of PAHs inside vegetables, especially for lighter PAHs. PYR was more likely to be stored in roots than other congeners. The translocation of PAHs inside vegetables was negligible. Adulthood dietary exposure to local vegetables probably caused a high health risk; however, contributions from consuming cabbages and especially carrots were low. Females generally exhibited slightly higher risks than males of exposure to PAHs in local vegetables. Considering the dominant role of particle deposition, carefully vegetable washing before ingestion could reduce this risk. This study has provided a functional tool to evaluate vegetable contamination by PAHs. CAPSULE: A vegetation-advanced multimedia model of PAHs in different parts of vegetables and other environmental media was developed to evaluate the potential health risk to local populations of different sexes and ages via vegetable ingestion.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multimídia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
10.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 643-649, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal stress and nutrition during pregnancy are two of the most commonly studied factors in the context of fetal development. However, few investigators have considered the combined effects of stress and diet in pregnant women and their offspring. AIMS: To determine the impact of maternal stress on offspring birth weight, and the potential mediating role of maternal dietary patterns. METHODS: A total of 3542 pregnant women and their singleton live births were recruited from Shanghai Maternal-Child Pairs Cohort (Shanghai MCPC). Maternal stress was assessed using the Life Event Scale for Pregnant Women (LESPW) in early and late pregnancy. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed to evaluate maternal diet in late pregnancy. Multiple linear regression was conducted to estimate the associations between maternal stress and child birth weight. Logistic regression was performed to calculate the association between maternal stress and small for gestational age (SGA)/large for gestational age (LGA). The bootstrap method was used to investigate the mediating effects of maternal dietary patterns. RESULTS: Maternal subjective events stress (ß = 0.367) and total stress (ß = 0.079) in early pregnancy, and positive objective life events stress (ß = 0.275) in late pregnancy, were positively associated with birth weight. Maternal dietary pattern of "high-fat and sugar" mediated the associations between subjective events stress and total stress during early pregnancy and birth weight. An increased risk for LGA was observed among women exposed to relatively higher stress during early pregnancy (OR, 1.416; 95% CI, 1.035-1.937). No statistically significant associations were found between maternal stress during late pregnancy and child birth weight or SGA/LGA. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal life events stress during early pregnancy significantly increases neonatal birth weight and risk for LGA, which may mediate by a "high-fat and sugar" dietary pattern. LIMITATIONS: The lack of biological markers limits the explanation of the mechanism. The assessment of diet used food intake frequency to evaluate dietary characteristics, which may miss information of energy intake.


Assuntos
Dieta , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
11.
Environ Int ; 147: 106313, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341587

RESUMO

This study was designed to examine the impact of prenatal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on fetal growth and the underlying placental epigenetic mechanism in a cohort of Chinese women. Within the prospective Shanghai Mother-Child Pairs cohort (Shanghai MCPC), 329 women carrying singleton pregnancy with a due date in 2018 were recruited between 2017 and 2018. Maternal PM2.5 exposure levels were estimated using gestational exposure prediction model combining satellite-driven ambient concentrations and personal air sampling. Fetal growth characteristics were evaluated by prenatal ultrasound examinations and anthropometric measurements at birth. In a discovery phase, whole-genome DNA methylation analysis was performed using the Infinium 850 K array. In a validation phase, placental DNA methylation was measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing for five candidate genes that showed the most significant alterations and function relevance in our methylation array screen, including BID (BH3 interacting domain death agonist), FOXN3 (Forkhead box N3), FOXP1 (Forkhead box P1), IGF2 (Insulin-like growth factor 2) and HSD11B2 (Hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2). Multivariate linear regression models were applied to examine the associations among PM2.5 exposure, fetal growth characteristics and DNA methylation on placental candidate genes. Sobel tests were used to evaluate the mediating role of DNA methylation in multivariable models. After excluding women who withdrew or failed to provide placenta, a total of 287 pregnant women with an average age of 30 entered the final analysis. Increased PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with reduced biparietal diameter (BPD) (ß: -0.136 mm, 95% CI: -0.228 to -0.043), head circumference (HC) (ß: -0.462 mm, 95% CI: -0.782 to -0.142), femur length (FL) (ß: -0.113 mm, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.041) and abdominal circumference (AC) (ß: -0.371 mm, 95% CI: -0.672 to -0.071) in the second trimester and birth length (ß: -0.013 cm, 95% CI: -0.025 to -0.001). Prenatal PM2.5 exposure could lead to aberrant changes in DNA methylation profile of placenta genome, which were mainly enriched in reproductive development, energy metabolism and immune response. DNA methylation of IGF2 and BID showed significant associations with PM2.5 exposures during all exposure windows. In addition, BID methylation was negatively correlated with HC (ß: -1.396 mm, 95% CI: -2.582 to -0.209) and BPD (ß: -0.330 mm, 95% CI: -0.635 to -0.026) in the second trimester. Further mediation analysis indicated that BID methylation mediated about 30% of the effects of PM2.5 exposure on HC. These findings collectively suggested that prenatal PM2.5 exposure may cause adverse effects on fetal growth by modifying placental DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Repressoras
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 143949, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340737

RESUMO

Using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is a recently developed alternative method of rapidly evaluating the bioavailability of metals in soil. However, the method has found only limited application in systematic assessment of the bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in red limestone paddy soils treated with different soil amendments. Of the four methods compared for estimating Cd content of rice grains from plants grown in such soils of central China treated with eleven different soil amendments in pot culture, Cd content of DGT-labile soil was significantly correlated to Cd concentrations in brown rice (R = 0.447, p < 0.01). The other three methods involved CaCl2, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), or NH4NO3. Some other properties of soil, such as pH, redox potential, content of dissolved organic matter, and cation exchange capacity were also determined. A simple algorithm developed to evaluate the sensitivity of the four methods also confirmed DGT as the most efficient method to predict the bioavailability of Cd in red limestone paddy soils.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , China , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144550, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373787

RESUMO

Freshwater sludge (FS) is generated in large quantities during the production of drinking water every day. It is largely underutilized, and has long been filter pressed to sludge cake and then disposed of in landfills. The search for more economical and sustainable disposal or reuse options is urgently needed. Biochar and hydrochar are increasingly popular wastes derived materials with huge potential for soil improvement, environmental remediation, and mitigation of climate change, but there is a lack of research on the production of FS derived biochar and hydrochar. In this study, biochar was produced by pyrolysis at 300, 500 or 700 °C for 1 h, and hydrochar was produced by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 140, 160, 180 or 200 °C for 4 h. Proximate analyses show that the biochar has a higher carbon stability and is possibly suitable for carbon sequestration, while the hydrochar contains more labile carbon structures. The ultimate analysis indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is in the order of: biochar > hydrochar > FS. The phytotoxicity tests indicate their positive effects on germination of wheat seeds. This study provides a new treatment to reuse numerous FS and put forward the possible applications of its carbonaceous products, which is expected to facilitate a circular economy and realize the zero-waste target.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Esgotos , Carbono , Água Doce , Temperatura
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21951, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319828

RESUMO

Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most common aphid pests of winter cereals. To facilitate accurate gene expression analyses with qRT-PCR assays, the expression stability of candidate reference genes under specific experimental conditions must be verified before they can be used to normalize target gene expression levels. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes in M. dirhodum were analyzed by qRT-PCR under various experimental conditions. Their expression stability was evaluated with delta Ct, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder methods, and the final stability ranking was determined with RefFinder. The results indicate that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were SDHB and RPL8 across geographic population; RPL8, Actin, and GAPDH across developmental stage; SDHB and NADH across body part; RPL8 and Actin across wing dimorphism and temperature; RPL4 and EF1A across starvation stress; AK and RPL4 across insecticide treatments; RPL8 and NADH across antibiotic treatments; RPL8, RPL4, Actin, and NADH across all samples. The results of this study provide useful insights for establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure for M. dirhodum and may be relevant for identifying appropriate reference genes for molecular analyses of related insects.

15.
Chemosphere ; : 128747, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172670

RESUMO

Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) are the predominant pests coexisting on wheat plants. In this study, the susceptibilities of 29 R. padi and 30 S. avenae populations from 15 provinces in China to pyrethroids (beta-cypermethrin and bifenthrin), neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam), organophosphates (omethoate and chlorpyrifos) and macrolides (avermectin) were determined during 2018-2019. The median lethal insecticide concentrations (LC50) indicated that R. padi was more sensitive than S. avenae to most of the insecticides. Monitor results showed that most wheat aphid populations were moderately resistant to pyrethroids. Two R. padi populations were highly resistant to beta-cypermethrin with 127.3-fold and 442.8-fold resistance ratio (RR), and two were highly resistant to bifenthrin (RR of 293.9 and 320.6, respectively). One S. avenae population was highly resistant to beta-cypermethrin (RR of 136.8) and one was highly resistant to bifenthrin (RR of 313.4). All populations of two wheat aphids exhibited low to moderate resistance to neonicotinoids (RR < 100). But over half populations were sensitive or exhibited low resistance to organophosphates and macrolides. The pair-wise correlation coefficients for the insecticide LC50 revealed a positive correlation between beta-cypermethrin and bifenthrin resistance, as well as between the resistance to bifenthrin and omethoate for the two-aphid species. Similarly, significant correlations were detected between the resistance to beta-cypermethrin and avermectin for R. padi. These results may be relevant for developing effective insecticide management strategies that prevent or delay the development of resistance among wheat aphids.

16.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(5): 2016-2026, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209621

RESUMO

Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge. Current clinical management of lung nodule patients is inefficient and therefore causes patient misclassification, which increases healthcare expenses. However, a precise and robust lung nodule classifier to minimize discomfort for patients and healthcare costs is still lacking. The aim of the present protocol is to evaluate the effectiveness of using a liquid biopsy classifier to diagnose nodules compared to physician estimates and whether the classifier can reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in benign cases. Methods: A prospective cohort of 10,560 patients enrolled at 23 clinical centers in China with non-calcified pulmonary nodules, ranging from 0.5 to 3 cm in diameter, indicated by LDCT or CT will be included. After signed consent forms, the participants' pulmonary nodules will be assessed using three evaluation tools: (I) physician cancer probability estimates (II) validated lung nodule risk models, including Mayo Clinic and Veteran's Affairs models (III) ctDNA methylation classifier previously established. Each patient will undergo LDCT/CT follow-ups for 2 to 3 years and their information and one blood sample will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. The primary study outcomes will be the diagnostic accuracy of the methylation classifier in the cohort. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) will be used to compare the diagnostic value of each testing tool in differentiating benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. Discussion: We are conducting an observational study to explore the accuracy of using a ctDNA methylation classifier for incidental lung nodules diagnosis. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03651986.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156879

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) is one of the viruses that is most frequently associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Previous studies have shown that CV-A16 infections are mostly self-limiting, but in recent years, it has been gradually found that CV-A16 infections can also induce neurological complications and eventually cause death in children with HFMD. Moreover, no curative drugs or preventative vaccines have been developed for CV-A16 infection. Therefore, it is particularly important to investigate the mechanism of CV-A16 infection-induced neuropathy. In the current study, transcriptome sequencing technology was used to identify changes in the transcriptome of SH-SY5Y cells infected with CV-A16, which might hide the mechanism of CV-A16-induced neuropathology. The transcriptome profiling showed that 82,406,974, 108,652,260 and 97,753,565 clean reads were obtained in the Control, CV-A16-12 h and CV-A16-24 h groups, respectively. And it was further detected that a total of 136 and 161 differentially expressed genes in CV-A16-12 h and CV-A16-24 h groups, respectively, when compared with Control group. Then, to explore the mechanism of CV-A16 infection, we focused on the common differentially expressed genes at different time points of CV-A16 infection and found that there were 34 differentially expressed genes based on which clustering analysis and functional category enrichment analysis were performed. The results indicated that changes in oxidation levels were particularly evident in the GO term analysis, while only the "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor pathway" was enriched in the KEGG pathway analysis, which might be closely related to the neurotoxicity caused by CV-A16 infection. Meanwhile, the ID2 closely related to nervous system has been demonstrated to be increased during CV-A16 infection. Additionally, the data on differentially expressed non-protein-coding genes of different types within the transcriptome sequencing results were analyzed, and it was speculated that these dysregulated non-protein-coding genes played a pivotal role in CV-A16 infection. Ultimately, qRT-PCR was utilized to validate the transcriptome sequencing findings, and the results of qRT-PCR were in agreement with the transcriptome sequencing data. In conclusion, transcriptome profiling was carried out to analyze response of SH-SY5Y cells to CV-A16 infection. And our findings provide important information to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms which were linked to the neuropathogenesis of CV-A16 infection.

18.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 10829-10840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149601

RESUMO

Objective: Lung cancer is the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths both worldwide and in China and threatens human health and quality of life. New drugs and therapeutic methods are urgently needed. Our study evaluated the roles of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in lung cancer and further explored its underlying mechanisms. Methods: CCK-8, colony formation and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to detect the cell viability, colony formation ability and cell death. qRT-PCR and Western blotting assays were applied to analyze the expressions of key molecules. Results: DHA inhibited the proliferation and colony formation abilities and enhanced the cell death and induced ferroptosis of lung NCI-H23 and XWLC-05 cancer cells. DHA reduced PRIM2 expression and silencing PRIM2 mimicked the inhibitory roles on proliferation and colony formation and promotive roles on cell death and ferroptosis of DHA in lung NCI-H23 and XWLC-05 cancer cells. We further found that DHA treatment and loss of PRIM2 reduced the GSH level and increased the cellular lipid ROS and mitochondrial MDA levels, and further downregulated the expressions of SLC7A11 and ß-catenin in lung cancer cells, respectively. Exogenetic overexpression of PRIM2 recovered the inhibitory effects of DHA on proliferation and colony formation in lung NCI-H23 cancer cells, meanwhile loss of PRIM2 sensitizes NCI-H23 cells to DHA therapy. In vivo experiment further showed that DHA treatment significantly suppressed the tumor growth and downregulated PRIM2 and SLC7A11. Conclusion: Our study suggested that DHA inhibited the proliferation, colony formation and enhanced cell death and induced ferroptosis of lung cancer cells by inactivating PRIM2/SLC7A11 axis. Loss of PRIM2 induced ferroptosis might developed to be a novel therapeutic method in lung cancer therapy.

19.
J Clin Virol ; 133: 104662, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza C virus causes mild respiratory diseases in humans. Previous studies suggested that the predominant hemagglutinin-esterase gene lineage circulating in children might be selected among the adult population, yet the prevalence of influenza C virus in adults has not been described. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of influenza C virus infection in adults. STUDY DESIGN: We performed hemagglutination inhibition assays of serum samples collected at periodic occupational medical checkups from employees of a hospital. A total of 679 serum samples were collected from 57 subjects who participated in biannual medical checkups between 2011 and 2016 as part of a longitudinal series. Titers of antibodies against the C/Kanagawa and C/Sao Paulo lineage viruses were detected. RESULTS: Ten serum sample pairs from among the 57 subjects showed at least a four-fold increase in influenza C antibody titers. Samples from three subjects exhibited antibody titer increases for both the C/Kanagawa and C/Sao Paulo lineages, four subjects showed an increased titer against the C/Sao Paulo lineage, and three subjects showed an increased titer against the C/Kanagawa lineage. Half of the antibody titer increases for the C/Kanagawa lineage were detected in May 2014, while the increases for the C/Sao Paulo lineage were detected from 2011 to 2016. CONCLUSION: The 5-year influenza C virus infection rate was estimated at 17.5 %. There were antibodies that cross-reacted with the C/Sao Paulo and C/Kanagawa lineages. The results suggest that C/Sao Paulo was the main lineage in the adult population of this area, with cocirculation of the C/Kanagawa lineage.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4658, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938931

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important marine osmolyte. Aphotic environments are only recently being considered as potential contributors to global DMSP production. Here, our Mariana Trench study reveals a typical seawater DMSP/dimethylsulfide (DMS) profile, with highest concentrations in the euphotic zone and decreased but consistent levels below. The genetic potential for bacterial DMSP synthesis via the dsyB gene and its transcription is greater in the deep ocean, and is highest in the sediment.s DMSP catabolic potential is present throughout the trench waters, but is less prominent below 8000 m, perhaps indicating a preference to store DMSP in the deep for stress protection. Deep ocean bacterial isolates show enhanced DMSP production under increased hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, bacterial dsyB mutants are less tolerant of deep ocean pressures than wild-type strains. Thus, we propose a physiological function for DMSP in hydrostatic pressure protection, and that bacteria are key DMSP producers in deep seawater and sediment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Compostos de Sulfônio/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorofila A/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Marinobacter/genética , Marinobacter/isolamento & purificação , Marinobacter/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Mutação , Oceanos e Mares , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prochlorococcus/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sulfetos/análise , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfônio/análise , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Synechococcus/metabolismo
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