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1.
Virus Res ; : 197945, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220619

RESUMO

Enterovirus A71 (EV71) remains the most common causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and the neurological complications induced by EV71 are usually the leading cause of death in children with HFMD. However, the mechanism of nervous system changes caused by EV71 infection is still unclear. Therefore, in the current study, EV71 was inoculated into the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and subsequent transcriptome sequencing was used to examine the alterations of the transcriptome in infected SH-SY5Y cells. It is expected to determine the underlying mechanism of neurological diseases in response to EV71 infection. As a result, a total of 82,406,974, 112,410,808 and 87,780,371 clean reads were found in the control, EV71-12 h and EV71-24 h groups, respectively. Moreover, 160 and 745 differentially expressed genes were identified in the EV71-12 h and EV71-24 h groups, respectively, as compared to the control group. Next, to further explore the pathogenic mechanism triggered by EV71 infection, we mainly focused on the common differentially expressed genes at different time points of EV71 infection. And it was discovered that there were 95 common differentially expressed genes, which were used to conduct GO and pathway analysis. GO enrichment analysis demarcated related biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components, and KEGG pathway analysis enabled annotations of metabolic pathways and revealed interactions among the significantly enriched pathways. The results showed that the enriched GO term "Nervous system development" and enriched pathway "CCKR signaling map" might be important contributors to EV71-induced neuropathological mechanisms. In addition, we also screened 10 up- and down-regulated non-protein coding genes with significantly different expression in our transcriptome profiling, which suggested that these abnormally regulated non-protein-encoding genes might also play important roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection. Eventually, RT-qPCR technology was adopted to validate the transcriptome sequencing data and the experiment demonstrated that the RT-qPCR and transcriptome sequencing results were basically consistent. In summary, this is the first transcriptome analysis of SH-SY5Y cells in response to EV71 infection and provides valuable cues for further exploring the mechanism of nervous system changes caused by EV71 infection.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 264: 150-156, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research suggested that oxytocin might be associated with prenatal anxiety or depression. Also, our previous study indicated that resilience could buffer the effect of stress on prenatal anxiety and depression, which is a kind of psychological adjustment ability to stress in life. The effects of oxytocin and resilience are supposed to be similar but no study was carried out to find the association between them. Current evidence on the effect of oxytocin on prenatal mental health were with small sample size and equivocal results, especially with a lack of studies in Chinese pregnant women. AIMS: To investigate the relationship between oxytocin and resilience, and its role in regulating prenatal anxiety and depression among Chinese women. METHODS: The study was based on a sub-sample of the Shanghai Maternal-Child Pairs Cohort (Shanghai MCPC) by stratified random sampling. A total of 632 participants completed blood collection for serum oxytocin measurement and questionnaires pertaining to early pregnancy stress and resilience in the second trimester, which were assessed by the Life Event Scale for Pregnancy Women (LESPW) and the revised Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), respectively. Prenatal anxiety and depression were assessed by Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively, at the third trimester. Correlation analysis and stratified linear regression analyses were conducted to understand the role of oxytocin in regulating prenatal anxiety and depression. RESULTS: The concentration of serum oxytocin in the second trimester ranged from 98.14 pg⋅ml-1 to 197.28 pg⋅ml-1, and there was no significant difference between different gestational age (r = 0.024, P = 0.579). The association between stress and prenatal anxiety was stronger in high oxytocin group than that in low oxytocin group, with B value of 3.338 and 2.638, respectively, after adjusting for residence, educational level, family income and parity. The same effect was found in the association between stress and prenatal depression, with B value of 2.360 and 2.060, respectively. However, it was not significantly associated with early pregnancy stress (Z = 1.933, P = 0.630), prenatal anxiety (Z = 1.387, P = 0.165), prenatal depression (Z = -0.027, P = 0.978), nor resilience (F = 1.282, P = 0.280). LIMITATIONS: The existence of recall bias and restricted residential areas of the participants may limit the extrapolation of the study. Also, unsynchronized sampling timing of the oxytocin and psychological resilience measures is another limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Serum oxytocin levels in the second trimester had an effect of modification between early pregnancy stress and prenatal anxiety and depression. Pregnant women with high oxytocin in the second trimester should receive more attention and further study is needed on the mechanism of oxytocin for the mental health of pregnant women.

3.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028670

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear hormone receptor family, attract wide attention as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of multiple diseases, and their target selective ligands were also intensively developed for pharmacological agents such as the approved drugs fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Despite their potent pharmacological activities, PPARs are reported to be involved in agent- and pollutant-induced multiple organ toxicity or protective effects against toxicity. A better understanding of the protective and the detrimental role of PPARs will help to preserve efficacy of the PPAR modulators but diminish adverse effects. The present review summarizes and critiques current findings related to PPAR-mediated types of toxicity and protective effects against toxicity for a systematic understanding of PPARs in toxicology and applied pharmacology.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137261, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065894

RESUMO

During a harvest period, a set of field samples, including ambient air (gaseous and particulate phases), dust fall, surface soil and peel-surrounding soil, and yellow carrot tissues (leaf, peel, and core), were collected in a vegetable bases near a large coking manufacturer in Shanxi Province, Northern China. Based on the determinations of the concentrations and compositions of 15 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the statistical results determined by a factor analysis (FA), combined with the isomeric ratios of paired species and the local emission inventory, indicated that coal combustion and vehicular exhaust served as the main emission sources of PAHs in the local environment and in yellow carrot tissues and that the coking industry was a secondary source. In terms of the transport pathways of PAHs in the surrounding media and yellow carrot tissues, the simulation results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that the PAHs in ambient air were closely associated with those in dust fall, and these in turn had a positive correlation with the PAHs in surface soil, due to air-soil exchange. Furthermore, the PAHs in yellow carrot leaf were mainly derived from those in dust fall via leaf surface absorption, while peel uptake played a dominant role in the accumulation of PAHs in the edible core of yellow carrot. This was different from the case of cabbage, which was characterized by the prevailing contribution from leaf surface absorption. The current study supplied additional evidence to explore the transport pathways of PAHs from environmental media to tissues of different vegetables (leafy vegetables and root vegetables). CAPSULE: A combination of structural equation modeling with factor analysis was employed to quantitatively identify the dominant transport pathways of PAHs among multiple surrounding media and the different tissues of yellow carrot.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 137, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens worldwide, especially for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. However, few reports referred to patients' MRSA infections in Yunnan province, southwest China. METHODS: In this study, we selected representative MRSA strains from patients' systemic surveillance in Yunnan province of China, performed the genomic sequencing and compared their features, together with some food derived strains. RESULTS: Among sixty selective isolates, forty strains were isolated from patients, and twenty isolated from food. Among the patients' strains, sixteen were recognized as community-acquired (CA), compared with 24 for hospital-acquired (HA). ST6-t701, ST59-t437 and ST239-t030 were the three major genotype profiles. ST6-t701 was predominated in food strains, while ST59-t437 and ST239-t030 were the primary clones in patients. The clinical features between CA and HA-MRSA of patients were statistical different. Compared the antibiotic resistant results between patients and food indicated that higher antibiotic resistant rates were found in patients' strains. Totally, the average genome sizes of 60 isolates were 2.79 ± 0.05 Mbp, with GC content 33% and 84.50 ± 0.20% of coding rate. The core genomes of these isolates were 1593 genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on pan-genome and SNP of strains showed that five clustering groups were generated. Clustering ST239-t030 contained all the HA-MRSA cases in this study; clustering ST6-t701 referred to food and CA-MRSA infections in community; clustering ST59-t437 showed the heterogeneity for provoking different clinical diseases in both community and hospital. Phylogenetic tree, incorporating 24 isolates from different regions, indicated ST239-t030 strains in this study were more closely related to T0131 isolate from Tianjin, China, belonged to 'Turkish clade' from Eastern Europe; two groups of ST59-t437 clones of MRSA in Yunnan province were generated, belonged to the 'Asian-Pacific' clone (AP) and 'Taiwan' clone (TW) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ST239-t030, ST59-t437 and ST6-t701 were the three major MRSA clones in Yunnan province of China. ST239-t030 clonal Yunnan isolates demonstrated the local endemic of clone establishment for a number of years, whereas ST59-t437 strains revealed the multi-origins of this clone. In general, genomic study on epidemic clones of MRSA in southwest China provided the features and evolution of this pathogen.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941099

RESUMO

Abundant geothermal waters have been reported in the Yalabamei, Zhonggu, Erdaoqiao, and Yulingong geothermal areas of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone of western Sichuan, southwestern China. This study focused on the hydrogeochemical evolution, reservoir temperature, and recharge origin of geothermal waters using hydrochemical and deuterium-oxygen (D-O) isotopic studies. Shallow geothermal waters represented by geothermal springs and shallow drilled water wells are divided into two hydrochemical groups: (1) the Ca-Na-HCO3 type in the Erdaoqiao area, and (2) Na-HCO3 in other areas. Deep geothermal waters represented by deep drilled wells are characterized by the Na-Cl-HCO3 type. The major ionic compositions of geothermal water are primarily determined by the water-rock interaction with silicate and carbonate minerals. The reservoir temperatures estimated by multi-geothermometries have a range of 63-150 °C for shallow geothermal water and of 190-210 °C for deep geothermal water, respectively. The δ18O and δD compositions indicated geothermal waters are recharged by meteoric water from the elevation of 2923-5162 m. Based on the aforementioned analyses above, a conceptual model was constructed for the geothermal system in the Xianshuihe fault zone.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 388: 122031, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951989

RESUMO

This study was designed to assess the effect of lactational polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure on early physical development of both healthy and fetal growth restriction (FGR) infants. Z scores of head circumference-for-age (ZHC), length-for-age (ZLEN), weight-for-age (ZWEI) and weight-for-length (ZWFL) were calculated according to the WHO Child Growth Standards. FGR infants had a higher PBDE exposure level and faster growth speed from 42 days to 6 months compared with healthy infants. Exposure of lower brominated BDEs (BDE28∼154) and the sum of 18 BDE congeners (BDE28∼209) negatively associated with ZHC [mean difference estimate (95 % CI): -0.71 (-1.22, -0.22) and -0.81 (-1.31, -0.33)] in FGR boys. Both BDE153 and BDE196 exposure had a significant correlation with ZLEN of boys in FGR group [mean difference estimate (95 % CI): -0.28 (-0.48, -0.07) and -0.52 (-0.91, -0.14)]. Each 10 ng/g lipid increase in the concentrations of BDE154 were respectively associated with 0.16 increase in ZWEI among boys in healthy group. No significant association was found in girls. Lactational PBDE exposure had effects on the early growth of both FGR and healthy infants. The encouragement of breastfeeding should therefore be considered in conjunction with PBDE contamination levels.

8.
Breast Cancer ; 27(2): 299-307, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis evaluates the difference in deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) versus free breathing (FB) for patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for left breast cancer and provides a useful reference for clinical practice. METHODS: The relevant controlled trials of DIBH versus FB in postoperative radiotherapy for left-side breast cancer were retrieved from the databases of PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. The principal outcome of interest was heart dose, left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) dose, and left lung dose and target coverage. We calculated summary standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: The analysis included 1019 patients from 12 observational studies, of which 576 cases were in the DIBH group and 443 cases in the FB group. Compared with the FB group, the DIBH group can have lower heart dose, left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) dose, and left lung dose more effectively, and the difference was statistically significant (heart dose, SMD = - 1.36, 95% CI - 1.64 ~ - 1.09, P < 0.01. LADCA dose, SMD = - 1.45, 95% CI - 1.62 ~ - 1.27, P < 0.01. Left lung dose, SMD = - 0.52, 95% CI - 0.81 ~ - 0.23, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in target coverage between the two groups (SMD = 0.03, 95% CI - 0.11 ~ 0.18, P = 0.64). CONCLUSION: By this meta-analysis, we found that implementation of DIBH in postoperative radiotherapy for left-side breast cancer can reduce irradiation of heart dose, LADCA dose and left lung dose, without compromising target coverage.

9.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 1-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618665

RESUMO

Triptolide (TP), a principal bioactive component extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. (TWHF), has attracted wide attention of its therapeutic effects on inflammation and autoimmune diseases. However, the therapeutic application of TP is hindered by severe cardiomyocyte toxicity and narrow therapeutic window. We previously identified that the p53 was an indispensable contributor in TP-induced myocardial injury. p53 has an inhibitory effect on IKKß-NF-κB pathway that regulates glucose transporters (GLUT) expression. Based on these evidences, we speculate that p53 mediates TP-disturbed glucose uptake by blocking IKKß-NF-κB signaling. This study focused on the effect of TP on cardiac glucose uptake and the role of p53 in glucose metabolism in cardiomyocytes, and p53 -/- mice. TP treatment depressed glucose consumption and ATP production resulting in myocardial damage. Incubation with ATP (5 mM) remarkably decreased the cellular damage. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence identified that TP suppressed glucose uptake by restricting IKKß-NF-κB signaling activation, GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression. p53 inhibition alleviated the cell damage and the compromise of glucose uptake. Mechanistically, p53 antagonist PFTα abolished TP-induced the inhibition of IKKß, IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and GLUT1, GLUT4 expression. Consistently, in acute heart injury models, p53 deficiency upregulated IKKß-NF-κB activation and GLUT1, GLUT4 protein levels which was also indicated as amelioration of heart histological injury after 1.2 mg kg-1 TP administration. The present findings indicate that TP-induced p53 overactivation suppresses glucose uptake by inhibiting IKKß-NF-κB pathway and downregulating NF-κB-dependent GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/toxicidade , Glucose/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/genética , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
10.
Environ Int ; 135: 105379, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841805

RESUMO

In China, data relating to the historic prevalence of childhood lead poisoning suggest its pervasiveness. This review analysed published epidemiological data on blood lead levels (BLLs) of 735,271 Chinese children aged 0-6 between 1987 and 2017. Among these children, the geometric mean (GM) BLL was 95.1 µg/L (geometric SD = 1.62), and 24.1% suffered lead poisoning (BLL ≥ 100 µg/L). Importantly, there was a temporal decrease in the GM BLL value, from 182.9 µg/L in 1987-1991 to 42.4 µg/L in 2012-2017. However, a rebound was seen in the most recent two years (2016 and 2017). Moreover, the GM BLL among Chinese children has not fallen as low as U.S. children. This indicates that either (1) leaded petrol or lead based-paint exposure sources have not been adequately controlled in China, or (2) other pollution sources, such as industry, traffic, and e-waste, are impacting Chinese children. Drivers behind spatio-temporal variations were explored to provide scientific evidence regarding the prevention of childhood lead poisoning. We found that BLLs among children in the central and eastern areas of China have dropped lower than those in the western area, and that the GM BLL of children living in rural areas now exceeds children in urban areas. These reversals may be associated with the industrial decentralization policy of the late 1980s, when many heavily polluting industries and manufacturers moved away from cities on the east coast. It was discovered that the BLLs of children living in areas associated with mining have remained high (GM BLL = 155.0 µg/L for 2007-2017), and that the lead poisoning rate (LPR) has become exceptionally high in areas associated with e-waste. Finally, the review offers a data comparison with other countries, an overview of potentially influencing factors and sources, as well as some suggested prevention strategies to reduce childhood lead exposure.

11.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124738, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494316

RESUMO

Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) has been widely used in soil remediation to both improve physical properties and immobilize extensive contaminants. GGBS (granulated ground blast furnace slag)-MgO-CaO (GMCs) was used to treat Pb/Zn contaminated soil. The physical and microstructural characteristics of stabilized/solidified contaminated soil were investigated in this study. Microstructural analysis showed that the main hydration products of GMC treated contaminated soil were C-S-H and hydrotalcite like gels (Ht), which dominated the physical strength of S/S soil. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the leachability of GMC treated contaminated soil were improved with the increase in GMC proportion (5%-15%), curing time (7 days and 28 days) and temperature (5 °C, 21 °C and 45 °C) due to the enhanced hydration. The compressive strengths of the majority mixes met the US EPA criterion (0.35 MPa). The strength of S/S soils was less affected by the increase of curing temperature after a longer curing period (28 days). According to the XRD and SEM results, both Pb and Zn in S/S contaminated soil could be immobilized by the precipitation and the adsorption on the surface of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). Zn can also be incorporated into the structure of C-S-H and Ht. The addition of Pb/Zn decreased the physical strength in the order of: Pb(5000 mg/kg)>Pb(10000 mg/kg)>Zn/Pb(5000 mg/kg)>Pb(20000 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Zinco/química , Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , China , Hidróxido de Magnésio/química , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óxidos/química , Silicatos/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Difração de Raios X
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(12): 5224-5233, 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854592

RESUMO

To investigate exposure characteristics and potential health risk of PM2.5-bound heavy metals in housewives in rural areas, 265 personal exposure samples from 143 subjects were collected in the Songjiang district, Shanghai from February 2017 to June 2018. Mass concentrations of 13 elements in PM2.5 were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF). The sources of heavy metal components in PM2.5 were analyzed using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The inhalation health risks of exposure to Ni, V, Cr, Mn, As, and Pb were analyzed using the US EPA health risk assessment model. The results showed that the average concentration of personal exposure to PM2.5 was 40.61 µg·m-3 in housewives, which was higher than the concentration at peripheral monitoring stations. The carcinogenic risks of Cr(Ⅵ)and As exceeded the acceptable risk level (10-6). The non-carcinogenic risks of V, Cr(Ⅵ), Mn, Ni, and As were all below the safety threshold, while the total non-carcinogenic risks of these five elements were higher than the safety threshold (>1). The results of PMF indicated that resuspended dust and indoor dust(43.8%), the metallurgy industry(34.6%), coal combustion(14.5%), and fossil-fuel combustion(7.2%)were the major sources of ten elements (Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb) in PM2.5. Based on the results of health risk assessment of pollution sources, control measures on the metallurgy industry and fossil-fuel combustion should be further strengthened.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Saúde Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Medição de Risco , China , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4262-4269, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854893

RESUMO

Based on the total and available concentrations of heavy metal elements in agricultural soil, and the concentrations of heavy metals in rice collected from Daye city, Hubei province, and the thresholds of available concentrations of heavy metals were derived by species sensitivity distribution (SSD). The over-standard rates of Cd and Cu in the soil were 90.7% and 42.6%, respectively, which indicates that agricultural soil in Daye city exhibits signs of Cd and Cu pollution. The rates of Cd and Pb were 50.9% and 89.8% in brown rice samples, respectively, which exceeds the safety standards of agricultural products. The SSD curves for Cd and Pb were fitted with BurrⅢ distribution based on the ratio of the concentration in brown rice and the available concentration in the soil. The hazardous concentrations (HC5) were derived inversely from the agriculture product safety standards. The thresholds of available Cd and Pb were 0.02 mg·kg-1 and 0.005 mg·kg-1, respectively. Compared with those of available Cd in other countries and studies, the threshold of available Cd is scientifically shown to be reasonable. Soil is not necessarily the main source of Pb in rice; thus, the rice species does not represent the derivation of the threshold of available Pb. Moreover, a lack of the accumulation data of Pb at low accumulation levels and multiple soil pollution levels leads to unreliable derivation. The results indicate that the threshold of available Pb does not have practical significance in soil pollution control.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Solo
14.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105255, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental chemicals with harmful effects on pregnancy, but their effects on adverse developmental outcomes are not fully understood. The placental DNA methylation is strongly influenced by prenatal environmental factors and has been linked to fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between in utero PBDEs exposure, placental DNA methylation changes (growth regulatory genes), and pathophysiology of fetal growth (birth outcomes, fetal growth retardation) in a population-based pregnancy cohort study. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study within the prospective Wenzhou Birth Cohort including 130 fetal growth retardation (FGR) cases and 130 healthy controls and their mothers recruited from June 2016 to June 2017. FGR was diagnosed based on the comprehensive evaluation of ultrasound results at 24, 28, and 32 weeks of gestation. Neonatal birth measurements were obtained from medical records. Gestational exposure to 19 PBDEs, including 13 lower BDE congeners (BDE-17-190) and 6 higher brominated BDE congeners (BDE-196-209), were determined by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the umbilical cord blood. Placental DNA methylation changes of one repetitive element (LINE1) and two candidate genes (HSD11B2, IGF2) were characterized by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations among PBDEs exposure, fetal growth indicators, and DMR (differential methylation region) methylation fractions. Sobel tests were conducted to assess DNA methylation as a mediator in multivariate models. RESULTS: After excluding women who withdrew from the study or were lost to follow-up or failed to provide placenta or umbilical cord blood, 249 mother-newborn pairs (124 FGR cases, 125 controls) were included in the final analysis. Elevated BDE-206 (OR: 1.569, 95% CIs: 1.053-2.338), BDE-17-190 (OR: 2.860, 95% CIs: 1.233-6.634), BDE-196-209 (OR: 1.688, 95% CIs: 1.024-2.783) and ∑19PBDEs (OR: 2.387, 95% CIs: 1.220-4.668) concentrations were associated with increased risk of FGR in newborns. FGR birth was also associated with increased DNA methylation of HSD11B2 (OR: 1.145, 95% CIs: 1.032-1.270) and decreased DNA methylation of IGF2 (OR: 0.892, 95% CIs: 0.845-0.941). In addition, BDE-17-190 showed significant associations with DNA methylation of HSD11B2 and IGF2 (ß: 1.127, 95% CIs: 0.069-2.186; ß: -3.452, 95% CIs: -5.512-1.392), indicating placental DNA methylation changes of HSD11B2 and IGF2 were related to both lower BDE congeners exposure and fetal growth. Further mediation analyses showed that IGF2 methylation mediated about 40% of the effects of BDE-17-190 in umbilical cord blood on neonatal FGR. CONCLUSION: We report an inverse association between in utero exposures to PBDEs and fetal growth and provide evidence supporting epigenetic gene plasticity in these associations. Changes in placental DNA methylation might be part of the underlying biological pathway between prenatal PBDEs exposure and adverse fetal growth.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/urina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1152-1159, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390705

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports that maternal exposure to vanadium (V) is associated with adverse birth outcomes including preterm birth and low birth weight. However, the effect of V exposure on intrauterine fetal growth and the underlying biological mechanism are still unclear. The present study includes 227 mother-infant pairs from the Shanghai Maternal-Child Pairs Cohort to assess the gender-specific effect of intrauterine V exposure on fetal growth and related cytokines. Maternal blood samples were collected to measure V concentration and biomarkers of growth. We used multiple linear regression to evaluate the gender-specific effect of prenatal V exposure on birth parameter and growth-related cytokines. Mixed-effect models were applied to assess the non-linear association between gestational V exposure and intrauterine fetal growth. Covariates adjusted in the regression models as potential confounders including maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weeks, parity, socio-demographic status, etc. Results showed that prenatal V exposure was negatively associated with birth weight (ß = -64.73) in female newborns and body length (ß = -0.10) in male. During the fetal period, maternal V exposure was associated with decreased biparietal diameter (ß = -0.91), head circumference (ß = -2.96), femur length (ß = -0.72) and humerus length (ß = -0.64) in male. Trimester-specific analyses showed that serum V concentration in the second trimester was associated with significant reductions in intrauterine growth parameters. Besides, prenatal V exposure could down-regulate the expression of growth hormone (GH) in both maternal blood (ß = -0.23) and umbilical cord blood (ß = -1.66) in male fetuses, and the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cord blood in females (ß = -0.52). Our results suggest that prenatal V exposure has a gender-specific effect on fetal growth and the second trimester may be a sensitive window. The disruption of grow-related cytokines may potentially be the biological mechanism of these effects.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Vanádio/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
16.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336730

RESUMO

To explore the optimum conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins and flavonols from bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) marc on a single-factor experimental basis, a response surface methodology was adopted for this intensive study. The extraction procedure was carried out in a Waring blender and followed an ultrasonic bath, and the natural antioxidant carnosic acid was added to inhibit oxidation. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a volume fraction of ethanol of 70%, an antioxidant content of 0.02% (the mass of sample) carnosic acid, a liquid-solid ratio of 16 mL/g, a homogenization time of 3 min, a reaction temperature of 55 °C, an ultrasound irradiation frequency of 80 kHz, an ultrasound irradiation power of 200 W, and an ultrasound irradiation time of 40 min. Satisfactory yields of anthocyanins (13.95 ± 0.37 mg/g) and flavonols (3.51 ± 0.16 mg/g) were obtained. The experimental results showed that the carnosic acid played an effective antioxidant role in the extraction process of anthocyanins and flavonols with a green and safety guarantee.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/isolamento & purificação , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solventes , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26963-26971, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309424

RESUMO

In this study, the impact of the curing temperature on leaching behaviour and durability of GGBS-MgO-CaO (GMC)-stabilized/GMC-solidified Pb/Zn-contaminated clay soils was investigated. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test, wetting-drying cycles, freeze-thaw cycles and unconfined compression strength (UCS) test were carried out. The influence of curing temperature, binder dosage and curing time on the performance of these samples was investigated. The results show that the leachability and the durability of all samples were improved by increasing curing temperature, curing time and binder dosage. GMCs are more functional in immobilizing Pb compared with Zn, especially in immobilizing high Pb-contaminated soils. The mass loss and Pb/Zn leachability of all samples increased, while their strength decreased after cyclic wetting-drying and cyclic freeze-thaw. Furthermore, curing at 21 °C and 45 °C, the freeze-thaw resistance of 10% GMC-treated soil (GMC10) was found better than that of 10% Portland cement-treated soil (PC10). After 10 cycles of wetting-drying, GMC10 is more chemically stable than PC10.


Assuntos
Chumbo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Zinco/química , Materiais de Construção , Dessecação , Congelamento , Solo/química , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Chemosphere ; 233: 452-461, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been widely reported that gestational exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) is associated with a series of adverse birth outcomes. However, the discrepancy between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and personal PM2.5 exposure would significantly affect the estimation of exposure-response relationship. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to predict gestational personal exposure to PM2.5 from the satellite-driven ambient concentrations and analyze the influence of other potential determinants. METHOD: We collected 762 72-h personal exposure samples from a panel of 329 pregnant women in Shanghai, China as well as their time-activity patterns from Feb 2017 to Jun 2018. We established an ambient PM2.5 model based on MAIAC AOD at 1 km resolution, then used its output as a major predictor to develop a personal exposure model. RESULTS: Our ambient PM2.5 model yielded a cross-validation R2 of 0.96. Personal PM2.5 exposure levels were almost identical to the corresponding ambient concentrations. After adjusting for time-activity patterns and meteorological factors, our personal exposure has a CV R2 of 0.76. CONCLUSION: We established a prediction model for gestational personal exposure to PM2.5 from satellite-based ambient concentrations and provided a methodological reference for further epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/análise , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Prognóstico , Imagens de Satélites
19.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 479, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191213

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia (CI) is a severe brain injury resulting in a variety of motor impairments combined with secondary injury in remote organs, especially the lung. This condition occurs due to insufficient blood supply to the brain during infancy. However, it has a molecular linkage that needs to be thoroughly covered. Here, we report on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) in lung injury induced by CI. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was depended to establish the animal model of CI. Rats were used and brain ischemia was confirmed through TTC staining. Serum was used for protein chip analysis to study the proteomic interaction. Immunohistochemistry analyses were used to quantify and locate the VEGFC in the lung and brain. The role of VEGFC was detected by siVEGFC technology in SY5Y, HUCEV, and A549 cell lines, under normal and oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions in vitro. As a result, the TTC staining demonstrated that the model of brain ischemia was successfully established, and MPO experiments reported that lung damage was induced in MCAO rats. VEGFC levels were up-regulated in serum. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry showed that VEGFC increased significantly in the cytoplasm of neurons, the endothelium of small trachea and the lung cells of CI animals. On a functional level, siVEGFC effectively inhibited the proliferation of SY5Y cells and decreased the viability of HUVEC cells in normal cell lines. But under OGD conditions, siVEGFC decreased the growth of HUVEC and increased the viability of A549 cells, while no effect was noticed on SYSY cells. Therefore, we confirmed the different role of VEGFC played in neurons and lung cells in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. These findings may contribute to the understanding the molecular linkage of brain ischemia and lung injury, which therefore provides a new idea for the therapeutic approach to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 729-736, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195281

RESUMO

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is one of the most frequently used UV filters in sunscreens and other cosmetic products. Its ubiquitous presence in various environmental matrices and its endocrine disrupting properties have been widely reported. However, we know little about the effect of EHMC exposure on humans, mainly due to its fast metabolism. In this study, urine and plasma of EHMC-dosed rats were analysed to identify its major metabolites. Five metabolites were found, with four firstly reported. Two metabolites were putatively identified as 4-methoxycinnamic acid (4-MCA) and 4'-methoxyacetophenone (4'-MAP). Quantitative results revealed that their excretion concentrations were much higher than the parent compound. Because of these high concentrations, for the human biomonitoring study, EHMC and these two metabolites were detected simultaneously in urine samples from Chinese children and adolescents. The results indicated wide exposure to EHMC, 4-MCA and 4'-MAP. The correlation between urinary concentration of EHMC and 4-MCA as well as 4-MCA and 4'-MAP provided important clues as to the sources and metabolic pathways among these three compounds. Several demographic factors were also assessed with the exposure level. As the first human exposure study of EHMC in a Chinese population, this report would help to establish an exposure database facilitating health risk assessment of EHMC.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/metabolismo , Animais , Cinamatos/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Medição de Risco
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