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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153122

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) have been widely used in different areas of research such as materials science, energy, and biotechnology. On-demand synthesis of NPs and MPs with desired chemical and physical properties is essential for different applications. However, most of the conventional methods for producing NPs/MPs require bulky and expensive equipment, which occupies large space and generally need complex operation with dedicated expertise and labour. These limitations hinder inexperienced researchers to harness the advantages of NPs and MPs in their fields of research. When problems individual researchers accumulate, the overall interdisciplinary innovations for unleashing a wider range of directions are undermined. In recent years, modular and integrated systems are developed for resolving the ongoing dilemma. In this review, we focus on the development of modular and integrated systems that assist the production of NPs and MPs. We categorise these systems into two major groups: systems for the synthesis of (1) NPs and (2) MPs; systems for producing NPs are further divided into two sections based on top-down and bottom-up approaches. The mechanisms of each synthesis method are explained, and the properties of produced NPs/MPs are compared. Finally, we discuss existing challenges and outline the potentials for the development of modular and integrated systems.

2.
Lab Chip ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150901

RESUMO

Microfluidic chips have demonstrated unparalleled abilities in droplet generation, including precise control over droplet size and monodispersity. And yet, their rather complicated microfabrication process and operation can be a barrier for inexperienced researchers, which hinders microdroplets from unleashing their potential in broader fields of research. Here, we attempt to remove this barrier by developing an integrated and modular revolving needle emulsion generator (RNEG) to achieve high-throughput production of uniformly sized droplets in an off-chip manner. The RNEG works by driving a revolving needle to pinch the dispersed phase in a minicentrifuge tube. The system is constructed using modular components without involving any microfabrication, thereby enabling user-friendly operation. The RNEG is capable of producing microdroplets of various liquids with diameters ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometres. We further examine the principle of operation using numerical simulations and establish a simple model to predict the droplet size. Moreover, by integrating curing and centrifugation processes, the RNEG can produce hydrogel microparticles and transfer them from an oil phase into a water phase. Using this ability, we demonstrate the encapsulation and culture of single yeast cells within hydrogel microparticles. We envisage that the RNEG can become a versatile and powerful tool for high-throughput production of emulsions to facilitate diverse biological and chemical research.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt B): 2219-2230, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132123

RESUMO

Spectroscopic analysis of HPLC-purified 7.3-kD Acorus tatarinowii Schott root polysaccharide ASP2-1 (FT-IR, NMR) revealed respective monosaccharide proportions of glucose: galactose: arabinose: xylose: galacturonic acid: mannose: rhamnose: glucuronic acid:fucose of 49.1:16.0:11.6:10.2:5.3:2.9:2.2:1.7:0.8. In vitro, ASP2-1 inhibited osteoclastogenesis-associated bone resorption, RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and F-actin ring formation and suppressed osteoclastogenesis-associated gene expression (e.g., TRAP, OSCAR, Atp6v0d2, αV, ß3, MMP9 and CtsK) as shown via RT-PCR. ASP2-1-treated RANKL-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages exhibited decreased levels of NFATc1 and c-Fos mRNAs and corresponding transcription factor proteins, elevated expression of negative NFATc1 regulators (Mafb, IRF8, Bcl6) and reduced their upstream negative regulator (Blimp1) expression. ASP2-1 inhibition of NFATc1 expression involved PLCγ2-Ca2+ oscillation-calcineurin axis suppression, reflecting suppression of RANKL-induced PLCγ2 activation (and associated Ca2+ oscillation) and calcineurin catalytic subunit PP2BAα expression without inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs activation or phosphorylation. Staining (H&E, TRAP) and micro-CT assays revealed ASP2-1 attenuated bone destruction and osteoclast over-activation and improved tibia micro-architecture in a murine LPS-induced bone loss model. Thus, ASP2-1 may alleviate inflammatory bone loss-associated diseases.

4.
J Mol Histol ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205345

RESUMO

Enteric glial cells are more abundant than neurons in the enteric nervous system. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that enteric glial cells share many properties with astrocytes and play pivotal roles in intestinal diseases. NDRG2 is specifically expressed in astrocytes and is involved in various diseases in the central nervous system. However, no studies have demonstrated the expression of NDRG2 in enteric glial cells. We performed immunostaining of adult mouse tissue, human colon sections, and primary enteric glial cells and the results showed that NDRG2 was widely expressed in enteric glial cells. Meanwhile, our results showed that NDRG2 was upregulated after treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines and exposure to oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation, indicating that NDRG2 might be involved in these conditions. Moreover, we determined that NDRG2 translocated to the nucleus after treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines but not after exposure to oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation. This study is the first to show the expression and distribution of NDRG2 in the enteric glia. Our results indicate that NDRG2 might be involved in the pathogenesis of enteric inflammation and ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study shows that NDRG2 might be a molecular target for enteric nervous system diseases.

5.
Langmuir ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175536

RESUMO

Peptides with a sequence of Nap-Ix-GPLGLAG-R4-NH2 (x = 2, 4, and 6, shorted as I2R4, I4R4, and I6R4) were used as capping agents for the synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) in water. Peptide addition can significantly inhibit the growth of ZIF-8 crystals. The shape and size of ZIF-8 crystals was related closely to the number of isoleucine (Ile, I) residues as well as concentration of the peptide. The shape of ZIF-8 crystals changes from rhomboid dodecahedron to truncated rhombic dodecahedron to cube with the decreasing number of isoleucine residues from six to two. At a peptide concentration of 1.0 mM, the morphology of ZIF-8 crystals was cubic, truncated rhombic dodecahedron, and typical rhombic dodecahedron in the cases of I2R4, I4R4, and I6R4, respectively. Also, the particle size can be regulated from ca. 1.7 µm to <100 nm by controlling the peptide concentration from 0 to 2.0 mM. This work develops a simple and green method for the synthesis of ZIF-8 crystals with controllable shape and size in water, which shows high potential for biomedical and biological applications.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17746, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082389

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the serial multiple mediation of physical activity and perceived stress in the relationship between individual social capital and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors (BCSs). This study was conducted among 520 BCSs between March and April 2017 in Shanghai, China. Data were collected using the Individual Social Capital Scale, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II, the Perceived Stress Scale-14 and the EORTC QLQ-C30. Ordinary least-squares regression and the bootstrap method was used to test the significance of the serial multiple mediation model. The serial-multiple mediations of physical activity and perceived stress were found significant in the relationship of QOL with all five dimensions of individual social capital. The separate mediations of two single mediating variables were found significant in the relationship of QOL with control over life and feeling about the community. In the relationship of QOL with social participation, social network and social support, the separate mediation of physical activity was significant, while the separate mediation of perceived stress was not significant. A multidisciplinary team approach and a variety of delivery systems are needed to address the social, physical and psychological issues for improving QOL among BCSs.

7.
Technol Health Care ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with severe neuromuscular disorders caused by an accident or congenital disease cannot normally interact with the physical environment. The intelligent robot technology offers the possibility to solve this problem. However, the robot can hardly carry out the task without understanding the subject's intention as it relays on speech or gestures. Brain-computer interface (BCI), a communication system that operates external devices by directly converting brain activity into digital signals, provides a solution for this. OBJECTIVE: In this study, a noninvasive BCI-based humanoid robotic system was designed and implemented for home service. METHODS: A humanoid robot that is equipped with multi-sensors navigates to the object placement area under the guidance of a specific symbol "Naomark", which has a unique ID, and then sends the information of the scanned object back to the user interface. Based on this information, the subject gives commands to the robot to grab the wanted object and give it to the subject. To identify the subject's intention, the channel projection-based canonical correlation analysis (CP-CCA) method was utilized for the steady state visual evoked potential-based BCI system. RESULTS: The offline results showed that the average classification accuracy of all subjects reached 90%, and the online task completion rate was over 95%. CONCLUSION: Users can complete the grab task with minimum commands, avoiding the control burden caused by complex commands. This would provide a useful assistance means for people with severe motor impairment in their daily life.

8.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022743

RESUMO

Yeast has been engineered for cost-effective organic acid production through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques. However, cell growth assays in these processes were performed in bulk at the population level, thus obscuring the dynamics of rare single cells exhibiting beneficial traits. Here, we introduce the use of monodisperse picolitre droplets as bioreactors to cultivate yeast at the single-cell level. We investigated the effect of acid stress on growth and the effect of potassium ions on propionic acid tolerance for single yeast cells of different species, genotypes, and phenotypes. The results showed that the average growth of single yeast cells in microdroplets experiences the same trend to those of yeast populations grown in bulk, and microdroplet compartments do not significantly affect cell viability. This approach offers the prospect of detecting cell-to-cell variations in growth and physiology and is expected to be applied for the engineering of yeast to produce value-added bioproducts.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076258

RESUMO

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can automatically learn features from pressure information, and some studies have applied CNNs for tactile shape recognition. However, the limited density of the sensor and its flexibility requirement lead the obtained tactile images to have a low-resolution and blurred. To address this issue, we propose a bilinear feature and multi-layer fused convolutional neural network (BMF-CNN). The bilinear calculation of the feature improves the feature extraction capability of the network. Meanwhile, the multi-layer fusion strategy exploits the complementarity of different layers to enhance the feature utilization efficiency. To validate the proposed method, a 26 class letter-shape tactile image dataset with complex edges was constructed. The BMF-CNN model achieved a 98.64% average accuracy of tactile shape. The results show that BMF-CNN can deal with tactile shapes more effectively than traditional CNN and artificial feature methods.

10.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108195

RESUMO

A highly chemoselective domino condensation/aza-Prins cyclization/retro-aldol between 2-alkenylanilines with ß-dicarbonyl compounds under metal-free conditions was accomplished, giving a large category of valuable 2-substituted quinolines in good yields with excellent functional group toleration. This newly established process, adopting ß-ketoesters as masked C1 synthons via C-C cleavage, could even be simplified into a three-component [3 + 2 + 1] domino version consisting of exceedingly low-priced commercial starting materials. The synthetic application of products was exemplified by several intriguing chemical operations.

11.
Insects ; 11(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065996

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi are naturally existing microbes, that can serve as a key regulator of insect pests in integrated pest management strategies. Besides having no hazardous effects on the environment, these entomopathogens are alternatives to synthetic insecticides that can control notorious insect-like Plutella xylostella, a destructive pest of cruciferous crops. Three different species of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated before the selection (high larval mortality and least LC50) of Metarhizum anisopliae. The study was designed to investigate the mortality, development, and immune responses of P. xylostella when challenged with M. anisopliae, a naturally existing soil-borne entomopathogenic fungus. M. anisopliae resulted in high pest mortality by killing 93% of larvae. However, no statistically significant effect on hemocyte concentration was observed. The activity of enzymes (Phenoloxidase and Superoxide dismutase) and immune genes (Defensin, Spaetzle, Cecropin, Lysozyme, and Hemolin) did vary at different time points (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) after exposure to M. anisopliae. Disturbance in the biological cycles of P. xylostella was also detected, significantly shorter adult life span (8.11:6.87, M:F) and reduced fecundity (101 eggs/female) were observed along with disturbed larval and pupal duration. Results suggest that M. anisopliae can efficiently hinder the P. xylostella defense and developmental system, resulting in mortality and disturbed demography.

12.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 4050-4060, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037652

RESUMO

Impaired lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver is a crucial characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Coniferaldehyde (CA), a kind of phenolic compound found in many edible plants, has multiple biological and pharmacological functions. However, since the effect and molecular mechanism of CA on hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism disorders in NAFLD remain unknown, this study investigated its impact on the lipid and glucose metabolism of palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 cells. Compared with the HepG2 cells treated only with PA, supplementation with 25, 50, and 100 µM CA reduced the levels of intracellular triglyceride (by 7.11%, 19.62%, and 31.57%) and total cholesterol (by 8.46%, 23.32%, and 27.17%), and enhanced glucose uptake (by 40.91%, 57.49%, and 61.32%) and intracellular glycogen content (by 12.75%, 41.27%, and 53.77%). Moreover, CA supplementation downregulated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 related to lipogenesis while upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α related to fatty acid oxidation. CA supplementation also upregulated the glucose transporter 2 protein expression and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß while downregulating the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase. Most importantly, most of these effects of CA were reversed by pretreatment with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor and small interfering RNA-liver kinase B1 (LKB1). In conclusion, CA ameliorated the lipid and glucose metabolism in PA-induced HepG2 cells via the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, coniferaldehyde appeared to be effective in ameliorating hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism disorders in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing the levels of intracellular triglyceride and total cholesterol and enhancing glucose uptake and intracellular glycogen content via the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in vitro. Therefore, our findings provide new evidence in support of that supplementation with coniferaldehyde or food rich in coniferaldehyde might be considered as a viable dietary intervention strategy for preventing and treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

13.
Protoplasma ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918206

RESUMO

The salivary glands of Panorpidae usually exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism and are closely related to the nuptial feeding behavior. In this study, the salivary glands of Neopanorpa longiprocessa were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are tubular labial glands and consist of a scoop-shaped salivary pump, a common salivary duct, and a pair of salivary tubes. The male and female salivary glands are remarkably different in the bifurcation position of the common salivary duct and the length and shape of the secretory tubes. Compared with the simple female salivary glands, the male's are more developed as their paired elongated salivary tubes can be divided into two parts, the glabrate anterior tube and the posterior tube with many secretory tubules. The ultrastructural study shows that the male salivary tubes have strong secretory function. The existence of different secretion granules indicates that there are some chemical reactions or mixing occurring in the lumen. Based on the ultrastructural characteristics, the functions of the different regions of the salivary tube have been speculated. The relationship between the salivary glands and nuptial feeding behavior of N. longiprocessa has been briefly discussed based on the structure of the salivary glands.

14.
Brain Behav ; : e01859, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this was to discover disease-causing gene mutations linked to genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) in a family in the Southern Chinese Han population. Of a three-generation pedigree of 18 members in this family, 4 were affected with GEFS+. METHOD: Blood samples of 7 family members-3 affected and 4 unaffected individuals-were collected. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to assess for genetic mutations in two of the affected individuals and two of the unaffected individuals. RESULTS: Fourteen potentially consequential mutations were found in the two affected individuals and were validated with the Sanger sequencing method. Blood DNA tested in polymerase chain reaction with KCNAB3 primers revealed that one novel missense mutation, c.773A>G (p.H258R) in the KCNAB3 gene, which encoded the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A regulatory ß subunit 3 (KCNAB3), was shared by all three affected and one unaffected family member. However, this mutation did not appear in 300 unrelated control subjects. According to the bioinformatics tools SIFT and PROVEAN, p.H258R was thought to affect protein function. Functional verification showed that the KCNAB3 mutation could accelerate the inactivation of potassium channels, thus inhibiting potassium current, increasing neuronal excitability, and promoting epileptic convulsion. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that mutations in the KCNAB3 gene may be associated with GEFS+.

15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898273

RESUMO

Genetic recombination characterized by reciprocal exchange of genes on paired homologous chromosomes is the most prominent event in meiosis of almost all sexually reproductive organisms. It contributes to genome stability by ensuring the balanced segregation of paired homologs in meiosis, and it is also the major driving factor in generating genetic variation for natural and artificial selection. Meiotic recombination is subjected to the control of a highly stringent and complex regulating process and meiotic recombination frequency (MRF) may be affected by biological and abiotic factors such as sex, gene density, nucleotide content and chemical/temperature treatments, having motivated tremendous researches for artificially manipulating MRF. Whether genome polyploidization would lead to a significant change in MRF has attracted both historical and recent research interests, however tackling this fundamental question is methodologically challenging due to the lack of appropriate methods for tetrasomic genetic analysis, thus has led to controversial conclusions in the literature. This paper presents a comprehensive and rigorous survey of genome duplication mediated change in MRF using S. cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model. It demonstrates that genome duplication can lead to consistently significant increase in MRF and rate of crossovers across all sixteen chromosomes of S. cerevisiae, including both cold and hot spots of MRF. This ploidy driven change in MRF is associated with weakened recombination interference, enhanced double-strand break density and loosened chromatin histone occupation. The study illuminates a significant evolutionary feature of genome duplication and opens an opportunity to accelerate response to artificial and natural selection through polyploidization.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142076, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920391

RESUMO

Individual cell heterogeneity within a population can be critical to its peculiar function and fate. Conventional algal cell-based assays mainly analyze the average responses from a population of algal cells. Therefore, the mechanisms through which changes in population characteristics are driven by the behavior of single algal cells are still not well understood. Algal cells may modulate their physiology and metabolism by changing their morphology in response to environmental stress. In this study, an algal single-cell culture and analysis system was developed to investigate the potential role of morphological changes by algal cells during adaptation to nutrient stress based on a microwell array chip. The surface-to-volume ratio of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) and the volume of Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) significantly increased with increasing culture time under nutrient stress. The eccentricity of M. aeruginosa and S. obliquus gradually increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing culture time, indicating that the morphology of M. aeruginosa and S. obliquus became increasingly irregular and regular, respectively, under nutrient stress. There were significant correlations between the morphological characteristics and physiological characteristics of M. aeruginosa and S. obliquus under nutrient stress. In M. aeruginosa, an increased surface-to-volume ratio facilitated a high specific fluorescence intensity, specific Raman intensity, and maximum electron transport rate. In S. obliquus, increased cell volume enhanced nutrient absorption, which facilitated a higher specific growth rate. M. aeruginosa and S. obliquus adopted different adaptation strategies in response to nutrient stress based on morphological changes. These findings facilitate the development of management strategies for controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms.

17.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 70(11): 528-540, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877950

RESUMO

Loratadine (LOR) and its major metabolite, desloratadine (DL) are new-generation antihistamines. The hydroxylated metabolites of them, 6-OH-DL, 5-OH-DL and 3-OH-DL are also active because of their ability to inhibit binding of pyrilamine to brain H1 receptors and a tendency for distributing to specific immune-regulatory tissues. In this study, a new validated LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously quantify LOR, DL, 6-OH-DL, 5-OH-DL and 3-OH-DL in plasma and tissues was established and applied to an investigation of their pharmacokinetics and target-tissue distribution tendency for the first time. Pharmacokinetics parameters in rat were measured and the results suggest that the body's exposure to active metabolites were much higher than to the prodrug with LOR, but much lower with DL. The tissue distribution study shows that LOR, DL and their active metabolites were widely distributed in the liver, spleen, thymus, heart, adrenal glands and pituitary gland. For immune-regulatory tissues, the concentrations of LOR, DL and their active metabolites in the spleen were much higher than in the thymus, which is related to the spleen, one of the sites where immune responses occur. LOR and its metabolites might inhibit immune-mediated allergic inflammation through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It was also found that the concentration of LOR in the heart was highest after liver and adrenal glands while those of DL, 6-OH-DL and 5-OH-DL in the liver, adrenal glands and spleen were all higher than those in the heart, which suggests that LOR may have a greater tendency to distribute in the heart than its metabolites.

18.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790001

RESUMO

This study examined the role of inhibitory control in the development of analogical reasoning using inter-task priming paradigms. In Experiment 1, 25 seven-year-olds, 27 nine-year-olds, and 27 adults completed Stroop tasks, which activated general inhibitory control ability, before analogical reasoning tasks. Children and adults performed faster on analogical reasoning tasks when they were primed by Stroop tasks. This priming effect was found to be stronger in children than in adults. In Experiment 2, 25 seven-year-olds, 28 nine-year-olds, and 28 adults completed relative number matching tasks, a more task-relevant inhibitory control task, before analogical reasoning tasks. The children and adults performed faster on analogical reasoning tasks when primed by relative number matching tasks. The priming effect was greater in seven-year-olds than in nine-year-olds and was greater in nine-year-olds than in adults. Thus, inhibitory control, whether assessed with general or specific tasks, played a priming role in analogical reasoning.

19.
Environ Res ; 190: 110011, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763282

RESUMO

Since the effect of electro-dewatering (EDW) on sludge water holding capacity was unknown, tests were conducted in this study to investigate the water holding capacity of EDW sludge and the potential mechanism related to the sludge physicochemical characteristics, EPS properties and sludge structure. Sludge was dewatered to the average moisture content (AMC) of 80%, 70% and 60% with different applied voltages at 20, 30 and 40V in EDW, respectively. Then the dewatered sludge near the anode and cathode were rewatered. The variation of sludge water holding capacity in EDW process was evaluated in terms of filterability and saturated moisture content (SMC), and the filterability was assessed by the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of rewatered sludge. The results indicated that SRF of rewatered sludge near the cathode increased greatly. The proteins/polysaccharides (PN/PS) of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) was significantly positively correlated with SRF (r = 0.891, p < 0.01). Moreover, the exposure of hydrophobic sites or groups in PN near the cathode improved the surface hydrophobicity of sludge, which reduced the filterability. In addition, higher voltage could destroy the sludge structure near the anode at the later stage of EDW process, leading to the decrease of SRF and SMC. These results expanded the knowledge about changes in sludge properties and water holding capacity during EDW process.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(33): 36957-36966, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814381

RESUMO

The overuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. There is an urgent need to develop alternative therapeutic strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity related to drug-resistant bacterial infections. Self-synthesized tetrahedral framework nucleic acids (tFNAs) are used as the drug loading platform to deliver ampicillin to combat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The results of average dimension, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry showed that tFNAs-ampicillin combined with a sufficient encapsulation rate and good stability. tFNAs-ampicillin had a better affinity to MRSA than free ampicillin because it had a better uptake by MRSA cells. Additionally, tFNAs-ampicillin had a better antibacterial effect and lower levels of resistance development than free ampicillin. The downregulation of genes related to bacterial cell wall synthesis (murA and murZ) and upregulation of a gene related to antibiotic sensibility (PBP2) were responsible for the enhanced killing effect of tFNAs-ampicillin against MRSA.

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