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1.
Opt Express ; 32(6): 9747-9766, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571201

RESUMO

We investigated secondary cavitation bubble dynamics during laser-induced bubble formation in a small container with a partially confined free surface and elastic thin walls. We employed high-speed photography to record the dynamics of sub-mm-sized laser-induced bubbles and small secondary bubble clouds. Simultaneous light scattering and acoustic measurements were used to detect the oscillation times of laser-induced bubbles. We observed that the appearance of secondary bubbles coincides with a prolonged collapse phase and with re-oscillations of the laser-induced bubble. We observed an asymmetric distribution of secondary bubbles with a preference for the upstream side of the focus, an absence of secondary bubbles in the immediate vicinity of the laser focus, and a migration of laser-induced bubble toward secondary bubbles at large pulse energies. We found that secondary bubbles are created through heating of impurities to form initial nanobubble nuclei, which are further expanded by rarefaction waves. The rarefaction waves originate from the vibration of the elastic thin walls, which are excited either directly by laser-induced bubble or by bubble-excited liquid-mass oscillations. The oscillation period of thin walls and liquid-mass were Twall = 116 µs and Tlm ≈ 160 µs, respectively. While the amplitude of the wall vibrations increases monotonically with the size of laser-induced bubbles, the amplitude of liquid-mass oscillation undulates with increasing bubble size. This can be attributed to a phase shift between the laser-induced bubble oscillation and the liquid-mass oscillator. Mutual interactions between the laser-induced bubble and secondary bubbles reveal a fast-changing pressure gradient in the liquid. Our study provides a better understanding of laser-induced bubble dynamics in a partially confined environment, which is of practical importance for microfluidics and intraluminal laser surgery.

2.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 95(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557883

RESUMO

Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) provides 3D structural and morphological information for label free living cells. Unfortunately, this quantitative phase information cannot meet doctors' diagnostic requirements of the clinical "gold standard," which displays stained cells' pathological states based on 2D color features. To make QPI results satisfy the clinical "gold standard," the virtual staining method by QPI for label free lymphocytes based on self-supervised iteration Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks (CycleGANs) is proposed herein. The 3D phase information of QPI is, therefore, trained and transferred to a kind of 2D "virtual staining" image that is well in agreement with "gold standard" results. To solve the problem that unstained QPI and stained "gold standard" results cannot be obtained for the same label free living cell, the self-supervised iteration for the CycleGAN deep learning algorithm is designed to obtain a trained stained result as the ground truth for error evaluation. The structural similarity index of our virtual staining experimental results for 8756 lymphocytes is 0.86. Lymphocytes' area errors after converting to 2D virtual stained results from 3D phase information are less than 3.59%. The mean error of the nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio is 2.69%, and the color deviation from the "gold standard" is less than 6.67%.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Coloração e Rotulagem
3.
Small ; : e2400513, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545999

RESUMO

Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (HDLC) is a promising solid lubricant for its superlubricity which can benefit various industrial applications. While HDLC exhibits notable friction reduction in macroscale tests in inert or reducing environmental conditions, ultralow friction is rarely observed at the nanoscale. This study investigates this rather peculiar dependence of HDLC superlubricity on the contact scale. To attain superlubricity, HDLC requires i) removal of ≈2 nm-thick air-oxidized surface layer and ii) shear-induced transformation of amorphous carbon to highly graphitic and hydrogenated structure. The nanoscale wear depth exceeds the typical thickness of the air-oxidized layer, ruling out the possibility of incomplete removal of the air-oxidized layer. Raman analysis of transfer films indicates that shear-induced graphitization readily occurs at shear stresses lower than or comparable to those in the nanoscale test. Thus, the same is expected to occur at the nanoscale test. However, the graphitic transfer films are not detected in ex-situ analyses after nanoscale friction tests, indicating that the graphitic transfer films are pushed out of the nanoscale contact area due to the instability of transfer films within a small contact area. Combining all these observations, this study concludes the retention of highly graphitic transfer films is crucial to achieving HDLC superlubricity.

4.
Circulation ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive cardiopulmonary disease with a high mortality rate. Although growing evidence has revealed the importance of dysregulated energetic metabolism in the pathogenesis of PH, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we focused on ME1 (malic enzyme 1), a key enzyme linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We aimed to determine the role and mechanistic action of ME1 in PH. METHODS: Global and endothelial-specific ME1 knockout mice were used to investigate the role of ME1 in hypoxia- and SU5416/hypoxia (SuHx)-induced PH. Small hairpin RNA and ME1 enzymatic inhibitor (ME1*) were used to study the mechanism of ME1 in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Downstream key metabolic pathways and mediators of ME1 were identified by metabolomics analysis in vivo and ME1-mediated energetic alterations were examined by Seahorse metabolic analysis in vitro. The pharmacological effect of ME1* on PH treatment was evaluated in PH animal models induced by SuHx. RESULTS: We found that ME1 protein level and enzymatic activity were highly elevated in lung tissues of patients and mice with PH, primarily in vascular endothelial cells. Global knockout of ME1 protected mice from developing hypoxia- or SuHx-induced PH. Endothelial-specific ME1 deletion similarly attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH development in mice, suggesting a critical role of endothelial ME1 in PH. Mechanistic studies revealed that ME1 inhibition promoted downstream adenosine production and activated A2AR-mediated adenosine signaling, which leads to an increase in nitric oxide generation and a decrease in proinflammatory molecule expression in endothelial cells. ME1 inhibition activated adenosine production in an ATP-dependent manner through regulating malate-aspartate NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen) shuttle and thereby balancing oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. Pharmacological inactivation of ME1 attenuated the progression of PH in both preventive and therapeutic settings by promoting adenosine production in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that ME1 upregulation in endothelial cells plays a causative role in PH development by negatively regulating adenosine production and subsequently dysregulating endothelial functions. Our findings also suggest that ME1 may represent as a novel pharmacological target for upregulating protective adenosine signaling in PH therapy.

5.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 28(2): 929-940, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37930923

RESUMO

Semi-supervised learning methods have been explored to mitigate the scarcity of pixel-level annotation in medical image segmentation tasks. Consistency learning, serving as a mainstream method in semi-supervised training, suffers from low efficiency and poor stability due to inaccurate supervision and insufficient feature representation. Prototypical learning is one potential and plausible way to handle this problem due to the nature of feature aggregation in prototype calculation. However, the previous works have not fully studied how to enhance the supervision quality and feature representation using prototypical learning under the semi-supervised condition. To address this issue, we propose an implicit-explicit alignment (IEPAlign) framework to foster semi-supervised consistency training. In specific, we develop an implicit prototype alignment method based on dynamic multiple prototypes on-the-fly. And then, we design a multiple prediction voting strategy for reliable unlabeled mask generation and prototype calculation to improve the supervision quality. Afterward, to boost the intra-class consistency and inter-class separability of pixel-wise features in semi-supervised segmentation, we construct a region-aware hierarchical prototype alignment, which transmits information from labeled to unlabeled and from certain regions to uncertain regions. We evaluate IEPAlign on three medical image segmentation tasks. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other popular semi-supervised segmentation methods and achieves comparable performance with fully-supervised training methods.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
6.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 101: 106664, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931344

RESUMO

We investigated laser-induced cavitation dynamics in a small container with elastic thin walls and free or partially confined surface both experimentally and by numerical investigations. The cuvette was only 8-25 times larger than the bubble in its center. The liquid surface was either free, or two thirds were confined by a piston-shaped pressure transducer. Different degrees of confinement were realized by filling the liquid up to the transducer surface or to the top of the cuvette. For reference, some experiments were performed in free liquid. We recorded the bubble dynamics simultaneously by high-speed photography, acoustic measurements, and detection of probe beam scattering. Simultaneous single-shot recording of radius-time curves and oscillation times enabled to perform detailed investigations of the bubble dynamics as a function of bubble size, acoustic feedback from the elastic walls, and degree of surface confinement. The bubble dynamics was numerically simulated using a Rayleigh-Plesset model extended by terms describing the acoustically mediated feedback from the bubble's environment. Bubble oscillations were approximately spherical as long as no secondary cavitation by tensile stress occurred. Bubble expansion was always similar to the dynamics in free liquid, and the environment influenced mainly the collapse phase and subsequent oscillations. For large bubbles, strong confinement led to a slight reduction of maximum bubble size and to a pronounced reduction of the oscillation time, and both effects increased with bubble size. The joint action of breakdown-induced shock wave and bubble expansion excites cuvette wall vibrations, which produce alternating pressure waves that are focused onto the bubble. This results in a prolongation of the collapse phase and an enlargement of the second oscillation, or in time-delayed re-oscillations. The details of the bubble dynamics depend in a complex manner on the degree of surface confinement and on bubble size. Numerical simulations of the first bubble oscillation agreed well with experimental data. They suggest that the alternating rarefaction/compression waves from breakdown-induced wall vibrations cause a prolongation of the first oscillation. By contrast, liquid mass movement in the cuvette corners result in wall vibrations causing late re-oscillations. The strong and rich interaction between the bubble and its surroundings may be relevant for a variety of applications such as intraluminal laser surgery and laser-induced cavitation in microfluidics.

7.
Biomed Opt Express ; 14(9): 4696-4712, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37791256

RESUMO

LED array microscopy is a novel computational imaging technique that can achieve two-dimensional (2D) phase imaging and three-dimensional (3D) refractive index imaging with both high resolution and a large field of view. Although its experimental setup is simple, the errors caused by LED array position and light source central wavelength obviously decrease the quality of reconstructed results. To solve this problem, comprehensive error parameters optimized by the phase smoothing criterion are put forward in this paper. The central wavelength error and 3D misalignment model with six freedom degree errors of LED array are considered as the comprehensive error parameters when the spatial positional and optical features of arbitrarily placed LED array are unknown. Phase smoothing criterion is also introduced to the cost function for optimizing comprehensive error parameters to improve the convergence results. Compared with current system correction methods, the simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper has the best reconstruction accuracy, which can be well applied to an LED array microscope system with unknown positional and optical features of the LED array.

8.
J Biomed Opt ; 28(6): 065006, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37396684

RESUMO

Significance: Resealing time based loading efficiency of optoporation is the key parameter for drug or gene delivery. This work describes a comparatively simple optical approach to directly measure the cell membrane resealing time of the gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation. Aim: To establish a membrane potential detection optical system, which can provide a direct measurement of resealing time of the optoporated cells. Approach: Voltage sensitive dye has been used to label the gold nanoparticle covered cell before laser activation and the resealing time was estimated from the voltage change due to the fluorescence light intensity change before and after laser activation. The approach has been validated by the simulated data based on diffusion model and Monte Carlo simulation and the experimental data obtained from a flow cytometry analysis. Results: The measured resealing time after perforation varied from 28.6 to 163.8 s on Hela cells when the irradiation fluence was increased, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9938. This result is in agreement with the resealing time (1-2 min) of photothermal porated Hela cells measured by electrical impedance method. The intracellular delivery efficiency of extracellular macromolecular under the same irradiation fluence depends mainly on diffusion velocity rather than pore size. Conclusion: The method described here can be used to directly measure resealing time of optoporated cells for accurately estimating the loading efficiency on discovering the mechanism of optoporation.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Humanos , Células HeLa , Membrana Celular , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Mamíferos
9.
Cell Rep ; 42(7): 112770, 2023 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37422761

RESUMO

Increased metabolic activity usually provides energy and nutrients for biomass synthesis and is indispensable for the progression of the cell cycle. Here, we find a role for α-ketoglutarate (αKG) generation in regulating cell-cycle gene transcription. A reduction in cellular αKG levels triggered by malic enzyme 2 (ME2) or isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) depletion leads to a pronounced arrest in G1 phase, while αKG supplementation promotes cell-cycle progression. Mechanistically, αKG directly binds to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and increases the level of RNAPII binding to the cyclin D1 gene promoter via promoting pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly, consequently enhancing cyclin D1 transcription. Notably, αKG addition is sufficient to restore cyclin D1 expression in ME2- or IDH1-depleted cells, facilitating cell-cycle progression and proliferation in these cells. Therefore, our findings indicate a function of αKG in gene transcriptional regulation and cell-cycle control.


Assuntos
Ciclina D1 , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II , Ciclo Celular , Fase G1
10.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 32: 2593-2607, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37126632

RESUMO

Salient object detection (SOD) is an important task in computer vision that aims to identify visually conspicuous regions in images. RGB-Thermal SOD combines two spectra to achieve better segmentation results. However, most existing methods for RGB-T SOD use boundary maps to learn sharp boundaries, which lead to sub-optimal performance as they ignore the interactions between isolated boundary pixels and other confident pixels. To address this issue, we propose a novel position-aware relation learning network (PRLNet) for RGB-T SOD. PRLNet explores the distance and direction relationships between pixels by designing an auxiliary task and optimizing the feature structure to strengthen intra-class compactness and inter-class separation. Our method consists of two main components: A signed distance map auxiliary module (SDMAM), and a feature refinement approach with direction field (FRDF). SDMAM improves the encoder feature representation by considering the distance relationship between foreground-background pixels and boundaries, which increases the inter-class separation between foreground and background features. FRDF rectifies the features of boundary neighborhoods by exploiting the features inside salient objects. It utilizes the direction relationship of object pixels to enhance the intra-class compactness of salient features. In addition, we constitute a transformer-based decoder to decode multispectral feature representation. Experimental results on three public RGB-T SOD datasets demonstrate that our proposed method not only outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, but also can be integrated with different backbone networks in a plug-and-play manner. Ablation study and visualizations further prove the validity and interpretability of our method.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(23): e2217869120, 2023 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37253016

RESUMO

T cell lymphomas (TCLs) are a group of rare and heterogeneous tumors. Although proto-oncogene MYC has an important role in driving T cell lymphomagenesis, whether MYC carries out this function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that malic enzyme 2 (ME2), one of the NADPH-producing enzymes associated with glutamine metabolism, is essential for MYC-driven T cell lymphomagenesis. We establish a CD4-Cre; Myc flox/+transgenic mouse mode, and approximately 90% of these mice develop TCL. Interestingly, knockout of Me2 in Myc transgenic mice almost completely suppresses T cell lymphomagenesis. Mechanistically, by transcriptionally up-regulating ME2, MYC maintains redox homeostasis, thereby increasing its tumorigenicity. Reciprocally, ME2 promotes MYC translation by stimulating mTORC1 activity through adjusting glutamine metabolism. Treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, blocks the development of TCL both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our findings identify an important role for ME2 in MYC-driven T cell lymphomagenesis and reveal that MYC-ME2 circuit may be an effective target for TCL therapy.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Malato Desidrogenase , Linfócitos T , Animais , Camundongos , Glutamina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37108223

RESUMO

Simulated-daylight photodynamic therapy (SD-PDT) may be an efficacious strategy for treating melanoma because it can overcome the severe stinging pain, erythema, and edema experienced during conventional PDT. However, the poor daylight response of existing common photosensitizers leads to unsatisfactory anti-tumor therapeutic effects and limits the development of daylight PDT. Hence, in this study, we utilized Ag nanoparticles to adjust the daylight response of TiO2, acquire efficient photochemical activity, and then enhance the anti-tumor therapeutic effect of SD-PDT on melanoma. The synthesized Ag-doped TiO2 showed an optimal enhanced effect compared to Ag-core TiO2. Doping Ag into TiO2 produced a new shallow acceptor impurity level in the energy band structure, which expanded optical absorption in the range of 400-800 nm, and finally improved the photodamage effect of TiO2 under SD irradiation. Plasmonic near-field distributions were enhanced due to the high refractive index of TiO2 at the Ag-TiO2 interface, and then the amount of light captured by TiO2 was increased to induce the enhanced SD-PDT effect of Ag-core TiO2. Hence, Ag could effectively improve the photochemical activity and SD-PDT effect of TiO2 through the change in the energy band structure. Generally, Ag-doped TiO2 is a promising photosensitizer agent for treating melanoma via SD-PDT.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Prata/química , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química
13.
Metabolites ; 13(4)2023 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37110198

RESUMO

Cancer metastasis is still a major challenge in clinical cancer treatment. The migration and invasion of cancer cells into surrounding tissues and blood vessels is the primary step in cancer metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of regulating cell migration and invasion are not fully understood. Here, we show the role of malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in promoting human liver cancer cell lines SK-Hep1 and Huh7 cells migration and invasion. Depletion of ME2 reduces cell migration and invasion, whereas overexpression of ME2 increases cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, ME2 promotes the production of pyruvate, which directly binds to ß-catenin and increases ß-catenin protein levels. Notably, pyruvate treatment restores cell migration and invasion of ME2-depleted cells. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of the link between ME2 and cell migration and invasion.

14.
Cancer Genet ; 274-275: 33-40, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36966725

RESUMO

A cohort of leukemia cases is presented with ancillary testing that includes microarray studies, karyotyping, FISH, and RNA sequencing to illustrate clonal evolution. Common evolution etiology with each case is apparent homologous mitotic recombination (HMR). The cohort includes: four cases of Pre B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with a single translocation derivative (19)t(1;19)(q23.3;p13.3), an acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) case with a paracentric inversion of 11q13.3q23 in both homologues confirmed as a rare KMT2A-MAML2 gene fusion, and a transplant patient in AML relapse with a t(6;11)(6q27;q23) and evolution to an additional derivative 6 chromosome. The PBX1-TCF3 fusion in the t(1;19) B-ALL subgroup has long been associated with clones that show either the balanced translocation (∼25%) or the unbalanced single derivative 19 (∼75%).  Evidence from the CMAs and FISH is consistent with HMR initiating at either the PBX1 translocation breakpoint or at a more proximal long arm site that mediates the evolution to the unbalanced form. This is contrary to the previous assumptions of either nondisjunction duplication of the normal homologue with loss of the translocation derivative 1 or an original trisomy 1 that loses the translocation derivative 1. Relapse from an unrelated transplant donor created unique allele dosage ratios in the microarray of the AML patient with the t(6;11) KMT2A-AFDN fusion.  An HMR-based evolution initiation site proximal to the 6q27 AFDN fusion gene is evident in the microarray of chromosome 6, the known oncogenic fusion derivative. The HMR selection driver in both AML cases is very likely associated with the DNA doubling of the oncogenic fusions in 6q and 11q, respectively. Since the oncogenic derivatives in the 1;19 cases are clearly the retained derivative 19, selection for the HMR clonal evolution in 1q is apparently based on the known proliferative advantage of extra copies of 1q in B-ALL and other malignancies. Although selection-based HMR can effectively initiate at any site proximal to a driver gene fusion, it appears that the translocation breaksite is common for many translocations. In addition, evidence from HMR evolution related distal 11q mutations, numerous unbalanced CCND1/IGH translocations, and the double MAML2/KMT2A presented in this study suggest that a recombinatorial "hot spot" exists near the CCND1 gene in many rearrangements or mutations within 11q.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B , Humanos , Translocação Genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Doença Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Recidiva
15.
EMBO J ; 42(8): e112304, 2023 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36825429

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor p53 is critical for tumor suppression, but the regulatory role of p53 in alcohol-induced fatty liver remains unclear. Here, we show a role for p53 in regulating ethanol metabolism via acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a key enzyme responsible for the oxidization of alcohol. By repressing ethanol oxidization, p53 suppresses intracellular levels of acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation, leading to the inhibition of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) gene expression. Mechanistically, p53 directly binds to ALDH2 and prevents the formation of its active tetramer and indirectly limits the production of pyruvate that promotes the activity of ALDH2. Notably, p53-deficient mice exhibit increased lipid accumulation, which can be reversed by ALDH2 depletion. Moreover, liver-specific knockdown of SCD1 alleviates ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis caused by p53 loss. By contrast, overexpression of SCD1 in liver promotes ethanol-induced fatty liver development in wild-type mice, while it has a mild effect on p53-/- or ALDH2-/- mice. Overall, our findings reveal a previously unrecognized function of p53 in alcohol-induced fatty liver and uncover pyruvate as a natural regulator of ALDH2.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico , Fígado Gorduroso , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Animais , Camundongos , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Etanol/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/genética , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Piruvatos/metabolismo , Piruvatos/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
16.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 97: 31-45, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586627

RESUMO

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a leading diagnostic imaging modality that supports high contrast of soft tissues with no invasiveness or radiation. Nonetheless, it suffers from long scan time owing to the inherent physics in its data acquisition process, hampering its development and applications. Traditional strategies such as Compressed Sensing (CS) and Parallel Imaging (PI) allow for MRI acceleration via sub-sampling strategy, and multiple coils, respectively. When Deep Learning (DL) joins in, both strategies get re-vitalized to achieve even faster reconstruction in various reconstruction methods, among which the variational network is a previously proposed method that combines the mathematical structure of variational models with DL for fast MRI reconstruction. However, in our study we observe that the information of MR features is either not efficiently or explicitly exploited in former works based on the variational network. Instead, we introduce a variational network with explicit feature fusion that combines the CS, PI, with DL for accelerated multi-coil MRI reconstruction. By explicitly leveraging the extra information via feature fusion following feature extraction, our proposed method achieves comparably satisfying performance to the state-of-the-art methods without too much computation overhead on a public multi-coil brain dataset under 5-fold and 10-fold acceleration.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aceleração , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(37): 41834-41850, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073504

RESUMO

Combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy has shown great potential against cancers, but the shedding of NK group 2, member D ligands (NKG2DLs) on tumor cells inhibited NK cell activation in the tumor microenvironment. Herein, we assembled microenvironment-/light-responsive bio-nanosystems (MLRNs) consisting of SB-3CT-containing ß-cyclodextrins (ß-CDs) and photosensitizer-loaded liposomes, in which SB-3CT was considered to remodel the tumor microenvironment. ß-CDs and liposomes were linked by metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) responsive peptides, enabling sequential release of SB-3CT and chlorin e6 triggered by the MMP-2-abundant tumor microenvironment and 660 nm laser irradiation, respectively. Released SB-3CT blocked tumor immune escape by antagonizing MMP-2 and promoting the NKG2D/NKG2DL pathway, while liposomes were taken up by tumor cells for PDT. MLRN-mediated photo-immunotherapy significantly induced melanoma cell cytotoxicity (83.31%), inhibited tumor growth (relative tumor proliferation rate: 1.13% of that of normal saline) in the xenografted tumor model, and enhanced tumor-infiltrating NK cell (148 times) and NKG2DL expression (9.55 and 16.52 times for MICA and ULBP-1, respectively), achieving a synergistic effect. This study not only provided a simple insight into the development of new nanomedicine for programed release of antitumor drugs and better integration of PDT and immunotherapy but also a novel modality for clinical NK cell-mediated immunotherapy against melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Melanoma , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Lipossomos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Melanoma/patologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Solução Salina , Sulfonas , Triazenos , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099219

RESUMO

RGB-depth (RGB-D) salient object detection (SOD) recently has attracted increasing research interest, and many deep learning methods based on encoder-decoder architectures have emerged. However, most existing RGB-D SOD models conduct explicit and controllable cross-modal feature fusion either in the single encoder or decoder stage, which hardly guarantees sufficient cross-modal fusion ability. To this end, we make the first attempt in addressing RGB-D SOD through 3-D convolutional neural networks. The proposed model, named, aims at prefusion in the encoder stage and in-depth fusion in the decoder stage to effectively promote the full integration of RGB and depth streams. Specifically, first conducts prefusion across RGB and depth modalities through a 3-D encoder obtained by inflating 2-D ResNet and later provides in-depth feature fusion by designing a 3-D decoder equipped with rich back-projection paths (RBPPs) for leveraging the extensive aggregation ability of 3-D convolutions. Toward an improved model, we propose to disentangle the conventional 3-D convolution into successive spatial and temporal convolutions and, meanwhile, discard unnecessary zero padding. This eventually results in a 2-D convolutional equivalence that facilitates optimization and reduces parameters and computation costs. Thanks to such a progressive-fusion strategy involving both the encoder and the decoder, effective and thorough interactions between the two modalities can be exploited and boost detection accuracy. As an additional boost, we also introduce channel-modality attention and its variant after each path of RBPP to attend to important features. Extensive experiments on seven widely used benchmark datasets demonstrate that and perform favorably against 14 state-of-the-art RGB-D SOD approaches in terms of five key evaluation metrics. Our code will be made publicly available at https://github.com/PPOLYpubki/RD3D.

19.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(3): 837-848, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715898

RESUMO

Minimally invasive photodynamic therapy, destroying lesions with a light-activated photosensitizer, has been increasingly performed since it is highly efficiency, safe, synergistically compatible, repeatable, and minimally-invasive, with few adverse reactions. However, the most present photosensitizer or nanodrug delivery system containing a photosensitizer can target tumor cells but rarely cell nuclei. In this regard, the nucleus-targeting drug delivery system has been developed aiming impair tumor cells in an efficient and direct manner. In this study, the cationic liposome (Clip) drug delivery system integrated with low dose nucleus-targeting chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (DOX) and photosensitizer AlPcS4 (Clip-AlPcS4@DOX) was synthesized. Among them, Clip was used to efficiently load drugs into cells almost at the same time, low dose DOX was used to open the channel for the materials to enter the nucleus on the premise of ensuring low cytotoxicity and then introduced photosensitizer into the nucleus, AlPcS4 photosensitizer was used to damage directly and efficiently through the photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect after entering the nucleus. In summary, a nucleus-targeting nanodrug delivery system (Clip-AlPcS4@DOX) was designed and synthesized and could be induced cell apoptosis more quickly and efficiently. Therefore, it could be a promising nucleus-targeting nanosized reagent integrating the PDT and chemotherapy for gastric therapy.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipossomos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia
20.
Med Image Anal ; 79: 102458, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500497

RESUMO

Pixel-wise error correction of initial segmentation results provides an effective way for quality improvement. The additional error segmentation network learns to identify correct predictions and incorrect ones. The performance on error segmentation directly affects the accuracy on the test set and the subsequent self-training with the error-corrected pseudo labels. In this paper, we propose a novel label rectification method based on error correction, namely ECLR, which can be directly added after the fully-supervised segmentation framework. Moreover, it can be used to guide the semi-supervised learning (SSL) process, constituting an error correction guided SSL framework, called ECGSSL. Specifically, we analyze the types and causes of segmentation error, and divide it into intra-class error and inter-class error caused by intra-class inconsistency and inter-class similarity problems in segmentation, respectively. Further, we propose a collaborative multi-task discriminative error prediction network (DEP-Net) to highlight two error types. For better training of DEP-Net, we propose specific mask degradation methods representing typical segmentation errors. Under the fully-supervised regime, the pre-trained DEP-Net is used to directly rectify the initial segmentation results of the test set. While, under the semi-supervised regime, a dual error correction method is proposed for unlabeled data to obtain more reliable network re-training. Our method is easy to apply to different segmentation models. Extensive experiments on gland segmentation verify that ECLR yields substantial improvements based on initial segmentation predictions. ECGSSL shows consistent improvements over a supervised baseline learned only from labeled data and achieves competitive performance compared with other popular semi-supervised methods.


Assuntos
Colo , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Humanos
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