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1.
Bioact Mater ; 7: 478-490, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466747

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be effective in alleviating the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, low MSC retention and survival at the injection site frequently require high doses of cells and/or repeated injections, which are not economically viable and create additional risks of complications. In this study, we produced MSC-laden microcarriers in spinner flask culture as cell delivery vehicles. These microcarriers containing a low initial dose of MSCs administered through a single injection in a rat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection model of OA achieved similar reparative effects as repeated high doses of MSCs, as evaluated through imaging and histological analyses. Mechanistic investigations were conducted using a co-culture model involving human primary chondrocytes grown in monolayer, together with MSCs grown either within 3D constructs or as a monolayer. Co-culture supernatants subjected to secretome analysis showed significant decrease of inflammatory factors in the 3D group. RNA-seq of co-cultured MSCs and chondrocytes using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed processes relating to early chondrogenesis and increased extracellular matrix interactions in MSCs of the 3D group, as well as phenotypic maintenance in the co-cultured chondrocytes. The cell delivery platform we investigated may be effective in reducing the cell dose and injection frequency required for therapeutic applications.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149780, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461478

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the potential risk of surface water acidification in regions with historically-elevated acid deposition and to measure the recovery of such ecosystems after policy changes, critical loads and their exceedances were estimated for 349 headwater streams across China using a modified SSWC model. Such a model considered the acid-neutralizing capacity derived from high base cation deposition and the robust retention of sulfate and nitrate. Results indicated that China's streams had higher critical loads (averaged at 4.7 keq·ha-1·yr-1) and were less sensitive to acid deposition as compared to Europe and North America. The proportion of surveyed streams with acid deposition exceeded critical load decreased from 40.4% in 2005 to 29.5% in 2018, indicating a significant decrease in risk of surface water acidification, and thus a benefit from the emission abatement in recent years. Nonetheless, a relatively high risk of acidification still existed in southeast China with lower critical loads and most critical load exceedances. More efforts should be put into implementing emission control policies in the future.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Sulfatos , Enxofre/análise
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 451-461, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509119

RESUMO

In this study, a functionalized Co3O4-Bi2O3-Ti catalytic membrane (CBO-Ti-M) was prepared and applied for removing organic pollutants via activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) in the dead-end filtration mode. Characterizations including scanning electron microcopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the Co3O4-Bi2O3 catalyst was successfully supported on the Ti membrane. The CBO-Ti-M /PMS system could efficiently remove various organic pollutants such as sulfamethoxazole, methyl orange, bisphenol A and methylene blue, achieving removal efficiencies of 98.0%-99.5%. The effects of PMS concentration, flow rate and solution environment on degradation efficiency were investigated in detail. Furthermore, quenching experiments, electron spin resonance (ESR) and in-situ open circuit potential (OCP) tests collectively demonstrated that singlet oxygen as well as the non-radical electron transfer pathway mainly contributed in the reaction mechanism. The synergistic effect of Co and Bi was illustrated according to XPS results, and the possible degradation pathway of MB was proposed based on LC-MS analysis. Reusability test showed that pollutant removal efficiency with the CBO-Ti-M /PMS system remained stable in four runs and limited metal leaching was observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Água , Peróxidos , Titânio
4.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 643-648, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380905

RESUMO

It remains unclear whether limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) increase the risk of stroke in older Chinese adults. This longitudinal study used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to investigate the effects of limitations in ADL on the incidence of stroke in older adults. Between 2002 and 2011, 46,728 participants from 22 provinces in China were included in this study. Of participants, 11,241 developed limitations in ADL at baseline. A 3-year follow-up was performed to determine the incidence of stroke. During the 3-year follow-up, 929 participants (8.26%) and 2434 participants (6.86%) experienced stroke in the ADL limitations group and non-ADL limitations group, respectively. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of ADL limitations on the risk of stroke. The results showed that after adjusting for the confounding factors gender, age, weight, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, natural teeth, hearing impairment, visual impairment, smoking, alcohol abuse, exercise, ethnicity, literacy, residential area, and poverty, the ADL limitations group had a 77% higher risk of developing stroke than the non-ADL limitations group. After propensity score matching, the ADL limitations group still had a 33% higher risk of developing stroke than the non-ADL limitations group (OR = 1.326, 95% CI: 1.174-1.497). These findings suggest that limitations in ADL are a stroke risk factor.

5.
ISA Trans ; 119: 208-220, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648733

RESUMO

Back-stepping design method is widely used in high-performance tracking control tasks As is known to all, the controller based on back-stepping design will become complex as the model order increases, which is the so called "explosion of terms" problem. In this paper, a tracking differentiator (TD) based back-stepping controller is proposed to handle the "explosion of terms" problem. Instead of calculating the derivatives of intermediate control variables through tedious analytical expressions, for the proposed method, the tracking differentiator is embedded into each recursive procedure to generate the substitute derivative signal for every intermediate control variable. As a result, the complexity of implementation procedure of back-stepping controller is significantly reduced. The discrepancies between the derivative substitutes and the real derivatives are considered. And the effects on control performances caused by the discrepancies are analyzed. In addition to giving the theoretical results and the stability proofs with Lyapunov methods, the developed controller design method is evaluated through a series of experiments with a hydraulic robot arm position serve system. The control performance of the proposed controller is verified by the experiments results.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 126984, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523478

RESUMO

Membrane fouling is an inevitable problem in forward osmosis (FO) treatment of algal-rich water (ARW). Natural ARW has a complex composition. Therefore, the coexisting components (Ca2+, natural organic humic acid [HA], and inorganic particulate kaolinite) in the influence of ARW on FO membrane fouling were studied. The analysis of extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory and the confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the addition of coexisting components increased the attraction between pollutants and membranes, as well as among pollutants to varying degrees, and promoted the development of membrane fouling. Furthermore, Ca2+ and HA aggravated irreversible membrane fouling. All coexisting components changed the distribution and thickness of the fouling layer, and the addition of Ca2+ increased the content of extracellular organic matter (proteins and polysaccharides). The present results enhance the understanding of the mechanism through which natural ingredients affect microalgal membrane fouling and provide a basis for membrane fouling control to treat ARW.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150101, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517320

RESUMO

Adding magnesium ions (Mg2+) to produce struvite is an important method to recover nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Both the Mg2+ source and subsequent separation of struvite are key factors for the utilization of struvite. In this study, we developed an efficient method to recover nutrient salts from wastewater using sacrificial Mg anodes to generate struvite, with its simultaneous separation through cathode electrodeposition. The anode-released Mg2+ reacted with NH4+-N and PO43--P in bulk solution to form struvite, which was more intense on the cathode surface due to the relatively higher pH environment from hydrogen evolution, resulting in most of the struvite being deposited on the cathode surface and simultaneously separated out of the bulk solution. Using a cathode with a higher solution-cathode interface area and relatively low current density facilitated struvite deposition. Results showed that under optimal electrolysis condition (5.76 A/m2, pH 8.5, 180 min, and 1.2:1.0 Mg:P), 91% of the undissolved substances as the phosphate precipitation were deposited on the graphite cathode surface, and the proportion of struvite in the deposition reached 41.52%. This study provides a novel electrochemical method for struvite synthesis and separation for the recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater.


Assuntos
Galvanoplastia , Magnésio , Eletrodos , Fósforo , Estruvita
8.
Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci ; 26(1): 100966, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840515

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed fundamental limitations in the current model for infectious disease diagnosis and serology, based upon complex assay workflows, laboratory-based instrumentation, and expensive materials for managing samples and reagents. The lengthy time delays required to obtain test results, the high cost of gold-standard PCR tests, and poor sensitivity of rapid point-of-care tests contributed directly to society's inability to efficiently identify COVID-19-positive individuals for quarantine, which in turn continues to impact return to normal activities throughout the economy. Over the past year, enormous resources have been invested to develop more effective rapid tests and laboratory tests with greater throughput, yet the vast majority of engineering and chemistry approaches are merely incremental improvements to existing methods for nucleic acid amplification, lateral flow test strips, and enzymatic amplification assays for protein-based biomarkers. Meanwhile, widespread commercial availability of new test kits continues to be hampered by the cost and time required to develop single-use disposable microfluidic plastic cartridges manufactured by injection molding. Through development of novel technologies for sensitive, selective, rapid, and robust viral detection and more efficient approaches for scalable manufacturing of microfluidic devices, we can be much better prepared for future management of infectious pathogen outbreaks. Here, we describe how photonic metamaterials, graphene nanomaterials, designer DNA nanostructures, and polymers amenable to scalable additive manufacturing are being applied towards overcoming the fundamental limitations of currently dominant COVID-19 diagnostic approaches. In this paper, we review how several distinct classes of nanomaterials and nanochemistry enable simple assay workflows, high sensitivity, inexpensive instrumentation, point-of-care sample-to-answer virus diagnosis, and rapidly scaled manufacturing.

9.
Small ; : e2106000, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854571

RESUMO

Imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment are beneficial for precise localization of the malignant lesions and combination of multiple cell killing mechanisms in eradicating stubborn thermal-resistant cancer cells. However, overcoming the adverse impact of tumor hypoxia on PDT efficacy remains a challenge. Here, carrier-free nano-theranostic agents are developed (AIBME@IR780-APM NPs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided synergistic PTT/thermodynamic therapy (TDT). Two IR780 derivatives are synthesized as the subject of nanomedicine to confer the advantages for the nanomedicine, which are by feat of amphiphilic IR780-PEG to enhance the sterical stability and reduce the risk from reticuloendothelial system uptake, and IR780-ATU to chelate Mn2+ for T1 -weighted MRI. Dimethyl 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionate) (AIBME), acting as thermally decomposable radical initiators, are further introduced into nanosystems with the purpose of generating highly cytotoxic alkyl radicals upon PTT launched by IR780 under 808 nm laser irradiation. Therefore, the sequentially generated heat and alkyl radicals synergistically induce cell death via synergistic PTT/TDT, ignoring tumor hypoxia. Moreover, these carrier-free nano-theranostic agents present satisfactory biocompatibility, which could be employed as a powerful weapon to hit hypoxic tumors via MRI-guided oxygen-independent PTT and photonic TDT.

10.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766352

RESUMO

Summer maize is frequently subjected to waterlogging damage because of increased and variable rainfall during the growing season. The application of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) can effectively mitigate the waterlogging effects on plant growth and increase the grain yield of waterlogged summer maize. However, the mechanisms underlying this process and the involvement of 6-BA in relevant signal transduction pathways remain unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of 6-BA on waterlogged summer maize using a phosphoproteomic technique to better understand the mechanism by which summer maize growth improves following waterlogging. Application of 6-BA inhibited the waterlogging-induced increase in abscisic acid (ABA) content and increased the phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in ABA signaling; accordingly, stomatal responsiveness to exogenous ABA increased. In addition, the application of 6-BA had a long-term effect on signal transduction pathways and contributed to rapid responses to subsequent stresses. Plants primed with 6-BA accumulated more ethylene and jasmonic acid in response to subsequent waterlogging; accordingly, leaf SPAD, antioxidase activity, and root traits improved by 6-BA priming. These results suggest that the effects of 6-BA on hormone signal transduction pathways are anamnestic, which enables plants to show faster or stronger defense responses to stress.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771178

RESUMO

Solid-state batteries (SSBs) have attracted considerable attention for high-energy-density and high-safety energy storage devices. Many efforts have focused on the thin solid-state-electrolyte (SSE) films with high room-temperature ionic conductivity, flexibility, and mechanical strength. Here, we report a composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) reinforced by electrospun PI nanofiber film, combining with succinonitrile-based solid composite electrolyte. In situ photo-polymerization method is used for the preparation of the CPE. This CPE, with a thickness around 32.5 µm, shows a high ionic conductivity of 2.64 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature. It is also fireproof and mechanically strong, showing great promise for an SSB device with high energy density and high safety.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(91): 12155-12158, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726213

RESUMO

We report a highly sensitive and selective multiplex assay by empowering an electrochemical DNA sensor with isothermal rolling circle amplification. The assay could simultaneously detect and discriminate three common entero-pathogens in a single reaction, with femtomolar sensitivity. It is useful for field- or resource-limited settings.

13.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3800-3807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790056

RESUMO

Background: Intrathoracic ribs are very rare congenital anomalies, and often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Since its first description by Lutz in 1947, approximately 50 cases have been reported in the literature till date. The aim is to review the all reported intrathoracic ribs, summarize their clinical features, and propose a potential classification. Methods: All relevant literatures were searched and reviewed. The terms include intrathoracic rib, intrathoracic bifid rib, trans-thoracic rib and intrathoracic rib anomaly. We have summarized the first finding events, origination, distribution, related anomalies and imaging features of intrathoracic rib, and propose an updated classification. Results: The patients' age at initial finding was from six weeks to 79 years old. Of all, sixty percent was less than 30 years old. There was no difference in gender. Most of them were reported by authors in western countries (85.3%, 58/68), and incidental findings by radiologist and respiratory physician. The intrathoracic rib occurs more frequently on the right side, and is usually single and unilateral. According to the new classification, type I and II was account for 45.6% and 35.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Intrathoracic rib is rare findings in clinical practice. It is useful that radiologists or clinician are familiarized with the imaging appearances of these malformations. These anomalies reflect some disturbances during the embryo development, leading us to propose a potential classification that could contribute to a better understanding of this rib anomaly.

14.
JMIR Cancer ; 7(4): e25783, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, the internet has become one of the most important ways to obtain information about breast cancer. However, quantitative evaluations of the quality of Chinese health websites and the breast cancer treatment information they publish are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Chinese breast cancer websites and the value, suitability, and accuracy of the breast cancer treatment information they publish. METHODS: Chinese breast cancer health websites were searched and manually screened according to their Alexa and Baidu search engine rankings. For each website included in the survey, which was conducted on April 8, 2019, the three most recently published papers on the website that met the inclusion criteria were included for evaluation. Three raters assessed all materials using the LIDA, DISCERN, and Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tools and the Michigan Checklist. Data analysis was completed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and Microsoft Excel 2010. RESULTS: This survey included 20 Chinese breast cancer websites and 60 papers on breast cancer treatment. The LIDA tool was used to evaluate the quality of the 20 websites. The LIDA's scores of the websites (mean=54.85, SD 3.498; total possible score=81) were low. In terms of the layout, color scheme, search facility, browsing facility, integration of nontextual media, submission of comments, declaration of objectives, content production method, and robust method, more than half of the websites scored 0 (never) or 1 (sometimes). For the online breast cancer treatment papers, the scores were generally low. Regarding suitability, 32 (53.33%) papers were evaluated as presenting unsuitable material. Regarding accuracy, the problems were that the papers were largely not original (44/60, 73%) and lacked references (46/60, 77%). CONCLUSIONS: The quality of Chinese breast cancer websites is poor. The color schemes, text settings, user comment submission functions, and language designs should be improved. The quality of Chinese online breast cancer treatment information is poor; the information has little value to users, and pictorial information is scarcely used. The online breast cancer treatment information is accurate but lacks originality and references. Website developers, governments, and medical professionals should play a full role in the design of health websites, the regulation of online health information, and the use of online health information.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 767999, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744748

RESUMO

Background: Real-world studies on the allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT), omalizumab, and dupilumab associated anaphylactic events are limited. We aimed to analyze the characteristics of drug associated anaphylaxis, and to compare the differences among different drugs. Methods: A disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were used in data mining to identify suspected anaphylaxis associated with AIT, omalizumab, and dupilumab based on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from January 2004 to March 2021. Demographic information, time interval to onset, and death rates of AIT, omalizumab, and dupilumab associated anaphylaxis were also analyzed. Results: Totally 9,969 anaphylactic events were identified. Reports of AIT, omalizumab, and dupilumab associated anaphylactic events were 64, 7,784, and 2,121, respectively. AIT had a high reporting odds ratio (ROR) of 5.03 [95%confidental interval (CI) 3.69-6.85], followed by omalizumab (ROR 2.24, 95% CI 2.18-2.29), and dupilumab had a negative signal for anaphylaxis. In children, most anaphylactic reactions (68%) were reported in the 12-17-year-old group. More reports of anaphylaxis related to AIT were in boys (73%), while more reports of anaphylaxis related to omalizumab (63%) and dupilumab (58%) were in girls. Most symptoms occurred on the day of drug initiation. The death rate of AIT related anaphylaxis was the lowest (0%), the death rate of omalizumab was 0.87%, while the death rate of dupilumab was 4.76%. No significant differences were observed among these drugs. Conclusion: AIT and omalizumab had a positive signal for anaphylaxis, while dupilumab had a negative signal for anaphylaxis. Patients should be strictly monitored after administration of AIT and also biologics. It also gives us a suggestion for choosing a combined biologics with AIT when the risk of anaphylaxis was considered.

17.
J Hypertens ; 39(12): 2535, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738995
18.
Front Oncol ; 11: 743540, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733785

RESUMO

Background: Tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) play a key role in immunoregulatory networks and are related to tumor development. Emerging evidence shows that these cells are associated with sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the predictive role of TIICs in the outcomes of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is unclear. Methods: Imaging mass cytometry (IMC) was performed to comprehensively assess the immune status before nCRT in 6 patients with LARC (3 achieved pathological complete response (pCR), 3 did not) with matched clinicopathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD8, CD163 and Foxp3 on biopsy samples from 70 patients prior to nCRT and logistic regression analysis were combined to further evaluate its predictive value for treatment responses in an independent validation group. Results: A trend of increased CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and decreased CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the pCR group was revealed by IMC. In the validation group, CTLs and TAMs were strong predictors of the clinical response to nCRT. High levels of CTLs were positively associated with the pCR ratio (OR=1.042; 95% CI: 1.015~1.070, p=0.002), whereas TAMs were correlated with a poor response (OR=0.969; 95% CI: 0.941~0.998, p=0.036). A high density of TAMs was also associated with an advanced cN stage. Conclusion: CTLs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) may improve the response to nCRT, whereas TAMs have the opposite effect. These results suggest that these cells might be potential markers for the clinical outcomes of nCRT and aid in the clinical decision-making of LARC for improved clinical outcomes.

19.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1482, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734034

RESUMO

Background: Recent evidence has emerged concerning hypoglycemia following the application of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). Nevertheless, few real-world investigations have been performed to determine the clinical characteristics, onset, and outcomes of hypoglycemia associated with different GLP-1RAs. This study aimed to compare and assess the relationship between various GLP-1RAs and hypoglycemia in a large population based on updated data from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Methods: Bayesian and disproportionality analyses were applied to data mining in order to investigate suspected cases of hypoglycemia following various GLP-1RAs using the FAERS data between January 2004 and September 2020. We also evaluated the onset time, fatality risks, and hospitalization proportions of GLP-1RA-related hypoglycemia. Results: We identified 1,164 GLP-1RA-associated hypoglycemia cases, which seemed to affect more middle-aged patients than elderly ones. Also, females were more affected than males. Lixisenatide demonstrated a stronger association with hypoglycemia compared to other GLP-1RAs, according to the highest reporting odds ratio (ROR) (28.03, 95% confidence interval =15.92, 49.32), empirical Bayes geometric mean [26.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 16.20], and proportional reporting ratio (PRR) (26.01, χ2=313.37). The median time to hypoglycemia onset was 5 days (interquartile range, 0-67.75 days) following GLP-1RA treatment. In general, GLP-1RA-associated hypoglycemia resulted in fatality and hospitalization proportions of 3.53% and 56.08%, respectively. Conclusions: By analyzing the FAERS data, we outlined the association between hypoglycemia and different GLP-1RAs in greater detail in terms of clinical features, onset, and outcomes. Among all six GLP-1RAs, lixisenatide demonstrated the strongest association with hypoglycemia while no relationship between albiglutide and hypoglycemia was observed. Attention should be given to GLP-1RAs when used in patients with high risks of hypoglycemia.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786936

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak provides a "controlled experiment" to investigate the response of aerosol pollution to the reduction of anthropogenic activities. Here we explore the chemical characteristics, variations, and emission sources of organic aerosol (OA) based on the observation of air pollutants and combination of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis in Beijing in early 2020. By eliminating the impacts of atmospheric boundary layer and the Spring Festival, we found that the lockdown effectively reduced cooking-related OA (COA) but influenced fossil fuel combustion OA (FFOA) very little. In contrast, both secondary OA (SOA) and O3 formation was enhanced significantly after lockdown: less-oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA, 37% in OA) was probably an aged product from fossil fuel and biomass burning emission with aqueous chemistry being an important formation pathway, while more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 41% in OA) was affected by regional transport of air pollutants and related with both aqueous and photochemical processes. Combining FFOA and LO-OOA, more than 50% of OA pollution was attributed to combustion activities during the whole observation period. Our findings highlight that fossil fuel/biomass combustion are still the largest sources of OA pollution, and only controlling traffic and cooking emissions cannot efficiently eliminate the heavy air pollution in winter Beijing.

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