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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607898

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution of fine particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is associated with millions of premature deaths per year, recognized as a leading global health concern. The dose-response relation between ambient PM2.5 exposure and mortality risk is the most fundamental information for assessments of the health effects of PM2.5. The existing dose-response relations were generally developed based on the assumption of equal contribution to toxicity from various sources. However, the sources of PM2.5 may significantly influence health effects. In this study, we conducted an ecological study to investigate the global long-term correlation between source-specific PM2.5 exposure and cause-specific mortality risk (SPECM) based on the regional aggregate data of the publically available official health databases from 528 regions worldwide with a total registered population of 3.2 billion. The results provided preliminary epidemiological evidence for differing chronic health effects across various sources. The relative mortality risks of lung cancer and circulatory diseases were closely correlated with the primary emissions from industrial and residential combustion sources. Chronic lower respiratory diseases were mostly associated with the mass concentration of particulate matter.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies on the mechanism and scope of interosseous membrane injury in Maisonneuve fractures have been inconsistent. In order to better guide clinical treatment, the characteristics and mechanism of interosseous membrane injuries and proximal 1/3 fibular fracture in typical Maisonneuve fracture were investigated. METHODS: The study comprised 15 patients between January 2019 and June 2021 with Maisonneuve fracture. All patients received X-ray and MRI examination of the calf and ankle joint, and CT scanning of the ankle joint. The injuries of medial structure, inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis, fibula, posterior malleolus, and interosseous membrane were evaluated. RESULTS: MR images of the calf showed that the injury of interosseous membrane (IOM) was from the syndesmosis to the proximal fibular fracture site in two patients, with a range of 32.3 and 29.8 cm, respectively. In the other 13 patients, the IOM rupture was not only confined to the distal third of the calf, but also close to the fibula fracture, and the IOM was intact between the two fracture sites. The range of distal IOM rupture was 3.7-12.2 cm, with an average of 8.06 ± 2.35 cm. The proximal IOM was completely ruptured from the fibular side at the site of the fibular fracture and the range was 4.1-9.1 (average: 6.75 ± 1.64) cm. The average length of the integrate middle segment of the IOM was 14.55 ± 4.11 (5.6-20.3) cm. MR images of the calf also showed partial rupture of the posterior tibial muscle at the ending point on the fibula in 15 cases, partial rupture of soleus muscle and flexor hallucis longus in seven cases. CONCLUSIONS: The rupture of the IOM was caused by a combination of abduction and external rotation violence. It was manifested in two forms, most of which was not only distal end but also near fibular fracture site ruptures with the middle part intact, and a few were ruptures of the IOM from the ankle to the near fibular fracture site. The tibialis posterior muscle may be related to the location of the fibular fracture.

3.
J Mol Histol ; 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705783

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scar is an unavoidable result of wound healing following burns and trauma, which remains a challenging problem for clinicians. Previously, we demonstrated that exosomal microRNAs (miRs) of human amniotic epithelial cells accelerated wound healing and inhibited scar formation. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this particular study, we found that miR-let-7d reduced collagen deposition, and this was accompanied by decreased level of iron content in myofibroblasts. Importantly, inhibition of miR-let-7d in myofibroblasts accelerated collagen deposition and promoted cell proliferation. In addition, bioinformatics prediction combined with classical dual-luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated that the cellular iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) was a target gene of miR-let-7d, and the miR-let-7d mimics inhibited the expression of DMT1 in myofibroblasts. Moreover, silencing of DMT1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the deposition of extracellular matrix. Consistent with the results in vitro, the miR-let-7d mimics effectively ameliorated hypertrophic scar fibrosis in a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model. Taken together, our results indicated for the first time that miR-let-7d attenuated hypertrophic scar fibrosis through modulation of iron metabolism by reducing iron uptake through DMT1, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for hypertrophic scar.

4.
J Med Virol ; 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700393

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Recent evidence has emerged concerning delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions after infliximab or adalimumab applications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A few real-world studies compared the events, clinical features, and prognosis of infliximab- or adalimumab-related delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were utilized to determine the suspected adverse events of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions after infliximab or adalimumab use based on the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting Systems (FAERS) from May 2020 to December 2021. Additionally, the times to onset and fatality rates of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions following infliximab or adalimumab were compared. RESULTS: In total, 475 reports of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions were associated with infliximab or adalimumab. Females were affected almost twice more than males. Among the two therapies, infliximab had the highest association with delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions based on the highest reporting odds ratio (2.14, 95% two-sided confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.81), proportional reporting ratio (1.95, χ2 = 7.03), and empirical Bayesian geometric mean (1.94, 95% one-sided CI = 1.2). Infliximab-related delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions had earlier onset (0 [interquartile range (IQR): 0-0] days vs. 166.5 (IQR: 18-889.5) days, p < 0.05), while adalimumab-related delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions have higher fatality rate (0.44% vs. 0.00%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the FAERS database, we profiled delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions related to infliximab or adalimumab application in patients with COVID-19 with more points of occurrences, clinical characteristics, and prognosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662352

RESUMO

Rapid industrial and agricultural development as well as urbanization affect the water environment significantly, especially in sub-watersheds where the contaminants/constituents present in the pollution sources are complex, and the flow is unstable. Water quality assessment and quantitative identification of pollution sources are the primary prerequisites for improving water management and quality. In this work, 168 water samples were collected from seven stations throughout 2018-2019 along the Laixi River, a vital pollution control unit in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Multivariate statistics and positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling techniques were used to evaluate the characteristics of the river-water quality and reveal the pollution sources. Principal component analysis was employed to screen the crucial parameters and establish an optimized water quality assessment procedure to reduce the analysis cost and improve the assessment efficiency. Cluster analysis further illustrates the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of river-water quality. Results indicated that high-pollution areas are concentrated in the tributaries, and the high-pollution periods are the spring and winter, which verifies the reliability of the evaluation system. The PMF model identified five and six potential pollution sources in the cold and warm seasons, respectively. Among them, pollution from agricultural activities and domestic wastewater shows the highest contributions (33.2% and 30.3%, respectively) during the cold and warm seasons, respectively. The study can provide theoretical support for pollutant control and water quality improvement in the sub-watershed, avoiding the ecological and health risks caused by the deterioration of water quality.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2205289, 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683149

RESUMO

Though gut microbiome disturbance may be involved in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), data on the gut microbiome's dynamic change during pregnancy and associations with gestational glucose metabolism are still inadequate. In this prospective study comprising 120 pairs of GDM patients and matched pregnant controls, a decrease in the diversity of gut microbial species and changes in the microbial community composition with advancing gestation are found in controls, while no such trends are observed in GDM patients. Multivariable analysis identifies 10 GDM-related species (e.g., Alistipes putredinis), and the integrated associations of these species with glycemic traits are modified by habitual intake of fiber-rich plant foods. In addition, the microbial metabolic potentials related to fiber fermentation (e.g., mannan degradation pathways) and their key enzymes consistently emerge as associated with both GDM status and glycemic traits. Microbial features especially those involved in fiber fermentation, provide an incremental predictive value in a prediction model with established risk factors of GDM. These data suggest that the gut microbiome remodeling with advancing gestation is different in GDM patients compared with controls, and dietary fiber fermentation contributes to the influence of gut microbiome on gestational glycemic regulation.

8.
Lung Cancer ; 176: 132-139, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638588

RESUMO

Thymic carcinoma (TC) is a rare cancer and patients failing initial chemotherapy (relapse/refractory) face limited therapeutic options given no approved options or consensus standard of care. This study aimed to identify and summarize clinical outcomes of all regimens evaluated in clinical trials of relapsed or refractory patients. Interventional trials enrolling advanced TC patients who failed first-line chemotherapy and reported outcomes in this group were eligible for inclusion in our systemic literature review (SLR). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed to determine the feasibility of pooling specific studies and treatments. Objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and duration of response (DOR) endpoints were of interest for meta-analysis. Nineteen trials were identified in the SLR. Three trials with one or two TC patients were removed from our assessment to reduce publication bias. Response rates among studies with at least ten TC patients varied from 9 % to 38 %. Pooled ORRs in patients receiving S-1 (46 patients), sunitinib (46 patients), or pembrolizumab (66 patients) were 28 %, 24 %, and 21 %, respectively. Prolonged duration of response with pembrolizumab was observed with a pooled median of 23.8 months (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 12, not reached). Median PFS of five months or greater was reported in patients treated with sunitinib, lenvatinib, pembrolizumab, capecitabine + gemcitabine, everolimus, or S-1. Median OS of 20 months or greater was reported in trials evaluating S-1 or pembrolizumab; this endpoint was not reached in trials evaluating lenvatinib, regorafenib, or sunitinib. Generalizability of treatment effects is challenging in the research of rare diseases and meta-analysis of clinical outcomes may help to increase precision and relevance of results to the larger TC population. Our study found limited treatment options upon relapse, demonstrating a need for further investigations into novel therapeutics and well-powered clinical trials to better inform on optimal treatments.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 868: 161635, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657674

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composes a substantial fraction of atmospheric particles, yet the formation and aging mechanism of SOA remains unclear. Here we investigate the initial oxidation of primary organic aerosol (POA) and further aging of SOA in winter Beijing by using aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements along with offline molecular tracer analysis. Multilinear engine (ME-2) source apportionment was conducted to capture the characteristic of source-related SOA, and connect them with specific POA. Our results show that urban cooking and fossil fuel burning sources contribute significantly (17 % and 20 %) to total organic aerosol (OA) in winter Beijing. Molecular tracer analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-ToF-MS) reveals that cooking SOA (CSOA) is produced through both photooxidation and aqueous-phase processing, while less oxidized SOA (LO-SOA) is the photooxidation product of fossil fuel burning OA (FFOA) and may experience aqueous-phase aging to form more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA). Furthermore, CHOm/z 69 and CHOm/z 85 are mass spectral tracers indicating the initial photooxidation, while CHO2+ and C2H2O2+ imply further aqueous-phase aging of OA. Tracer analysis indicates that the formation of diketones is involved in the initial photooxidation of POA, while the formation of glyoxal and diacids is involved in the further aqueous-phase aging of SOA.

10.
EMBO J ; : e111549, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598329

RESUMO

YAP/TAZ transcriptional co-activators play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis. In the Hippo pathway, diverse signals activate the MST-LATS kinase cascade that leads to YAP/TAZ phosphorylation, and subsequent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by SCFß-TrCP . When the MST-LATS kinase cascade is inactive, unphosphorylated or dephosphorylated YAP/TAZ translocate into the nucleus to mediate TEAD-dependent gene transcription. Hippo signaling-independent YAP/TAZ activation in human malignancies has also been observed, yet the mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we report that the ubiquitin E3 ligase HERC3 can promote YAP/TAZ activation independently of its enzymatic activity. HERC3 directly binds to ß-TrCP, blocks its interaction with YAP/TAZ, and thus prevents YAP/TAZ ubiquitination and degradation. Expression levels of HERC3 correlate with YAP/TAZ protein levels and expression of YAP/TAZ target genes in breast tumor cells and tissues. Accordingly, knockdown of HERC3 expression ameliorates tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Our results establish HERC3 as a critical regulator of the YAP/TAZ stability and a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598729

RESUMO

The debate over the role of fiscal decentralization and industrial structure upgrading in China's environmental governance has received increasing attention. Based on China's provincial panel data from 2003 to 2019, this paper investigates the impact of fiscal decentralization and industrial structure upgrading on carbon emissions to provide empirical evidence for the above theoretical argument. The results show that fiscal decentralization and industrial structure upgrading are negatively correlated with carbon emissions, while the interaction term for fiscal decentralization with industrial structure upgrading presents a facilitating effect on carbon emissions. Besides, fiscal decentralization, industrial structure upgrading, and the interaction term have significant regional heterogeneity on carbon emissions. When fiscal decentralization and industrial structure upgrading are taken as threshold variables, the effects of industrial structure upgrading and fiscal decentralization are significantly nonlinear. Moreover, environmental regulation, transportation infrastructure, and carbon emissions are positively correlated. There exists an inverted U-shaped relationship between carbon emissions and economic growth, which proves environmental Kuznets curve theorem. However, FDI and urbanization have no significant effect on carbon emissions. According to the above conclusions, it is necessary to strengthen the positive interaction between fiscal decentralization and industrial structure upgrading in mitigating carbon emissions, promoting the green and low-carbon transformation of China's economy, thus realizing the goals of "carbon peak" and "carbon neutrality."

12.
Structure ; 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649707

RESUMO

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of various important physiological functions. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of the Hsp90-AhR-p23 complex with or without bound XAP2, where the structure of the mouse AhR PAS-B domain is resolved. A highly conserved bridge motif of AhR is responsible for the interaction with the Hsp90 dimeric lumen. The ligand-free AhR PAS-B domain is attached to the Hsp90 dimer and is stabilized in the complex with bound XAP2. In addition, the DE-loop and a group of conserved pocket inner residues in the AhR PAS-B domain are found to be important for ligand binding. These results reveal the structural basis of the biological functions of AhR. Moreover, the protein purification method presented here allows the isolation of stable mouse AhR protein, which could be used to develop high-sensitivity biosensors for environmental pollutant detection.

13.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615622

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), with facile synthesis, unique structure, high stability, and low cost, has been the hotspot in the field of photocatalysis. However, the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4 is still unsatisfactory due to insufficient capture of visible light, low surface area, poor electronic conductivity, and fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Thus, different modification strategies have been developed to improve its performance. In this review, the properties and preparation methods of g-C3N4 are systematically introduced, and various modification approaches, including morphology control, elemental doping, heterojunction construction, and modification with nanomaterials, are discussed. Moreover, photocatalytic applications in energy and environmental sustainability are summarized, such as hydrogen generation, CO2 reduction, and degradation of contaminants in recent years. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives on the challenges, and suggestions for exploiting g-C3N4-based photocatalysts are presented. This review will deepen the understanding of the state of the art of g-C3N4, including the fabrication, modification, and application in energy and environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Luz , Catálise
14.
Life Sci ; 314: 121355, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596407

RESUMO

AIMS: This study mainly evaluated the protective mechanism of histidine against the hepatic oxidative stress after high-salt exposure (HSE) through combined analysis of non-targeted metabolomics and biological metabolic networks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats were fed with normal-salt diet or HSE ± histidine in addition to drinking water for 14 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the hepatic metabolites. The metabolic profile was analyzed by SIMCA-14.1, the metabolic correlation network was performed using Gephi-0.9.2, and pathway enrichment was analyzed using MetaboAnalyst 5.0 online website. KEY FINDINGS: Results indicated that HSE disturbed the hepatic metabolic profile, generated abnormal liver metabolism and exacerbated oxidative stress. Histidine supplementation significantly reversed the hepatic metabolic profile. Of note, 14 differential metabolic pathways were enriched after histidine supplementation, most of which played an important role in ameliorating redox and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Histidine administration decreased the levels of hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione S-transferase and Glutathione reductases). Histidine effectively enhanced the endogenous synthesis of glutathione by increasing the levels of glutamate and cysteine, thereby enhancing the antioxidant capacity of the glutathione system. After histidine administration, lysine, glutamate, and hypotaurine owned a higher metabolic centrality in the correlation network. In addition, histidine could also effectively increase the endogenous synthesis of NO by enhancing the L-arginine/NO pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: This study offers new insights into the metabolic mechanisms underlying the antioxidant protective effect of histidine on the liver.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Histidina , Ratos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Histidina/farmacologia , Histidina/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredução , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Metabolômica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Mecanismos de Defesa
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(2)2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562355

RESUMO

The function of human dicarbonyl/L­xylulose reductase (DCXR) in the pathophysiology of breast cancer is yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the function of DCXR in glycolysis and the cell cycle of breast cancer cells with respect to cell proliferation. Differential expressed DCXR was identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and verified in clinical breast cancer tissue. DCXR silencing and overexpression were induced by RNA interference and lentiviral vectors, respectively. Cell cycle progression, proliferation and glycolytic activity of breast cancer cells were detected by flow cytometry, Cell Counting Kit­8 assay and chemical methods, respectively. Tumorigenicity was detected using nude mice xenograft models. The expression of DCXR was increased in TCGA breast cancer database and the function of DCXR was enriched in 'glycolysis' and 'cell cycle'. Further analysis using clinical breast cancer samples confirmed upregulation of DCXR. The silencing of DCXR suppressed proliferation and cell cycle progression of breast cancer cells and significantly decreased the capacity for glycolysis, thereby demonstrating the effect of DCXR on the function of breast cancer cells. Similar conclusions were obtained in DCXR overexpressing cells; notably, DCXR overexpression promoted proliferation, cell cycle progression at S phase and glycolysis. 2­Deoxy­D­glucose inhibited the effect of DCXR on the proliferation and cell cycle progression of breast cancer cells. The present study revealed that DCXR regulated breast cancer cell cycle progression and proliferation by increasing glycolysis activity and thus may serve as an oncogene for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar , Efeito Warburg em Oncologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Camundongos Nus , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/genética , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/metabolismo
16.
Bioorg Chem ; 131: 106306, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493621

RESUMO

Norepinephrine (NE), as an important neurotransmitter, is closely associated with the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders. Effective monitoring of NE fluctuation aids in the diagnosis of depression and the therapeutic assessment of the antidepressant intervention. The construction of novel fluorescent probes with high specificity towards NE for imaging in depression models is still in demand urgently. In this work, a novel resorufin-based red-emitting fluorescent probe for real-time tracking NE was developed. NE can significantly increase the fluorescence of probe LNE by triggering deprotection of carbonothioate ligand via nucleophilic substitution. The probe LNE demonstrated significant NE selectivity and sensitivity over other analytes in vitro. In addition, probe LNE showed a fast response time (<10 min), and the change in fluorescence signal was positively linked with NE concentration, which could be utilized to track the dysregulation of NE in vivo. More importantly, this powerful probe was successfully employed for real-time visual and imaging of NE in living cells and depression-like behavior animals.


Assuntos
Depressão , Norepinefrina , Camundongos , Animais , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Corantes Fluorescentes , Fluorescência , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
17.
Environ Res ; 219: 115138, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565844

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicated an association between PM2.5 exposure and cognitive function, but the causal effect and the cognitive effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure remain elusive. We obtained 15,099 subjects from a nationally representative sample of China and measured their cognitive performance. We ascertained subjects' prenatal PM2.5 exposure and chronic PM2.5 exposure of the recent two years. Using this national sample, we found that PM2.5 exposure during the mid- to late-pregnancy was significantly associated with declined cognition and income; chronic PM2.5 exposure was also independently associated with cognition and income measured at adulthood with greater magnitude. Negative effect modification was observed between prenatal and chronic PM2.5 exposure. Instrumental variable approach and difference-in-difference study verified causal effects: every 1 µg/m3 increase in prenatal and chronic PM2.5 exposures were causally associated with -0.22% (-0.38%, -0.06%) and -0.17% (-0.31%, -0.03%) changes in cognitive function, respectively. People with low cognition and low income were more vulnerable to PM2.5 exposure with greater cognitive and income decline. In the future, although China's improved air quality continues to benefit people and reduce cognitive decline induced by chronic PM2.5 exposure, high prenatal PM2.5 exposure will continue to hurt the overall cognition of Chinese population, since in total 360 million people were born during the 2000-2020 polluted era. Prenatal PM2.5-induced cognitive decline would remain largely unchanged before 2050 and gradually reduce after 2065, regardless of environmental policy scenarios. The long-lasting cognitive impact of PM2.5 is worth considering while enacting environmental policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Vitaminas , Cognição
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 126: 234-248, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503752

RESUMO

Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) are closely related to the deterioration of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. However, the metabolic mechanisms that drive GAOs remain unclear. Here, the two-thirds supernatant of a reactor were decanted following the anaerobic period to enrich GAOs. Long-term monitoring demonstrated that the system was stable and exhibited typical characteristics of GAOs metabolism. Acetate was completely consumed after 60 min of the anaerobic phase. The level of glycogen decreased from 0.20 to 0.14 g/gSS during the anaerobic phase, whereas the level of glycogen significantly increased to 0.21g/gSS at the end of the aerobic period. Moreover, there was almost no phosphate release and absorption in the complete periods, thus confirming the successful construction of a GAOs enrichment system. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that Ca. Contendobacter was among the core functional genera and showed the highest activity among all of the communities. Furthermore, our study is the first to identify the involvement of the ethyl-malonyl-CoA pathway in the synthesis of polyhydroxyvalerate via croR, ccr, ecm, mcd, mch and mcl genes. The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway was preferentially used via glgP. Furthermore, the glyoxylate cycle was the main source of ATP under anaerobic conditions, whereas the tricarboxylic acid cycle provided ATP under aerobic conditions. aceA and mdh appeared to be major modulators of the glyoxylate pathway for controlling energy flow. Collectively, our findings not only revealed the crucial metabolic mechanisms in a GAOs enrichment system but also provided insights into the potential application of Ca. Contendobacter for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Glicogênio , Microbiota , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Trifosfato de Adenosina
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(1): 1879-1890, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584397

RESUMO

The conversion of CO2 as a C1 source into value-added products is an attractive alternative in view of the green synthesis. Among the reported approaches, the cyclization reaction of aziridines with CO2 is of great significance since the generated N-containing cyclic skeletons are extensively found in pharmaceutical chemistry and industrial production. However, a low turnover number (TON) and homogeneous catalysts are often involved in this catalytic system. Herein, one novel copper-organic framework {[Cu2(L4-)(H2O)2]·3DMF·2H2O}n (1) (H4L = 2'-fluoro-[1,1':4',1″-Terphenyl]-3,3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid) assembled by nanosized [Cu12] cages was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized, which exhibits high CO2/N2 selectivity due to the strong interactions between CO2 and open Cu(II) sites and ligands in the framework. Catalytic investigations suggest that 1 as a heterogeneous catalyst can effectively catalyze the cyclization of aziridines with CO2, and the TON can reach a record value of 90.5. Importantly, 1 displays excellent chemical stability, which can be recycled at least five times. The combination explorations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-isotope labeling experiments, and density functional theory (DFT) clearly uncover the mechanism of this aziridine/CO2 coupling reaction system, in which 1 and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) can highly activate the substrate molecule, and the synergistic catalytic effect between them can greatly reduce the reaction energy barrier from 51.7 to 36.2 kcal/mol.

20.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 836, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the rapid development of clinical immunology technologies, students majoring in laboratory medicine should master the technological principles and application of clinical laboratory immunology. However, many are required to take online courses due to COVID-19 restrictions, which highlights the need to revisit teaching strategies. Recently, various medical education courses (such as Biochemistry, Physiology, etc.) have implemented the flipped classroom (FC) and team-based learning (TBL) methods, resulting in more positive teaching evaluations. To promote the students' mastery of the difficult knowledge effectively during the online teaching work, we evaluated the performance of online FC-TBL in a clinical laboratory immunology course. METHODS: Sixty-two third-year students from two classes majoring in Laboratory Medicine were recruited and divided into two groups, including one group with traditional lecture-based learning teaching strategy (LBL group) and the other group with LBL or online FC combined with TBL teaching strategy (FC-TBL group). We selected three chapters to conduct FC-TBL teaching in class. All participants took in-class quizzes and final examinations that targeted the same knowledge points. Finally, all participants completed anonymous questionnaires asking for their perceptions of the respective teaching models. In addition, we conducted a survey of teaching suggestions by a FC-TBL class of students majoring in Laboratory Medicine. RESULTS: The FC-TBL group (vs LBL group) had significantly higher scores on the in-class quizzes and final examinations, and also reported high satisfaction with the FC-TBL model. These findings indicate that FC-TBL is suitable for clinical laboratory immunology, as the participants quickly gained essential knowledge. Specifically, FC-TBL helped to "increase learning motivation," "promote self-directed learning skills," "extend more related knowledge," "enhance problem-solving abilities," "enhance clinical reasoning abilities," and "enhance communication skills." For participants' suggestions, 48.38% (15/31) students held positive attitude to FC-TBL teaching strategy compared to 25.81% (8/31) students who considered FC-TBL teaching strategy still needs continuous improvement, and 25.81% (8/31) students reported that they believed FC-TBL teaching strategy was perfect and no further suggestions. CONCLUSIONS: Online FC-TBL effectively enhanced learning activity among students of a clinical laboratory immunology course. This is particularly useful in the COVID-19 context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Laboratórios Clínicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Laboratórios , Aprendizagem
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