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1.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121156, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744211

RESUMO

With continuous mine exploitation, regional ecosystems have been damaged, resulting in a decline in the carbon sink capacity of mining areas. There is a global shortage of effective soil ecological restoration techniques for mining areas, especially for vanadium (V) and titanium (Ti) magnetite tailings, and the impact of phytoremediation techniques on the soil carbon cycle remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effects of long-term Pongamia pinnata remediation on soil organic carbon transformation of V-Ti magnetite tailing to reveal the bacterial community driving mechanism. In this study, it was found that four soil active organic carbon components (ROC, POC, DOC, and MBC) and three carbon transformation related enzymes (S-CL, S-SC, and S-PPO) in vanadium titanium magnetite tailings significantly (P < 0.05) increased with P. pinnata remediation. The abundance of carbon transformation functional genes such as carbon degradation, carbon fixation, and methane oxidation were also significantly (P < 0.05) enriched. The network nodes, links, and modularity of the microbial community, carbon components, and carbon transformation genes were enhanced, indicating stronger connections among the soil microbes, carbon components, and carbon transformation functional genes. Structural equation model (SEM) analysis revealed that the bacterial communities indirectly affected the soil organic carbon fraction and enzyme activity to regulate the soil total organic carbon after P. pinnata remediation. The soil active organic carbon fraction and free light fraction carbon also directly regulated the soil carbon and nitrogen ratio by directly affecting the soil total organic carbon content. These results provide a theoretical reference for the use of phytoremediation to drive soil carbon transformation for carbon sequestration enhancement through the remediation of degraded ecosystems in mining areas.

2.
Cancer Cell Int ; 24(1): 168, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "Disulfide death," a form of cellular demise, is triggered by the abnormal accumulation of intracellular disulfides under conditions of glucose deprivation. However, its role in the prognosis of glioma remains undetermined. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to establish prognostic signature based on disulfide death-related genes (DDRGs) and to provide new solutions in choosing the effective treatment of glioma. METHODS: The RNA transcriptome, clinical information, and mutation data of glioma samples were sourced from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA), while normal samples were obtained from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). DDRGs were compiled from previous studies and selected through differential analysis and univariate Cox regression analysis. The molecular subtypes were determined through consensus clustering analysis. Further, LASSO analysis was employed to select characteristic genes, and subsequently, a risk model comprising seven DDRGs was constructed based on multivariable Cox analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were employed to assess survival differences between high and low-risk groups. Additionally, functional analyses (GO, KEGG, GSEA) were conducted to explore the potential biological functions and signaling pathways of genes associated with the model. The study also explored immune checkpoint (ICP) genes, immune cell infiltration levels, and immune stromal scores. Finally, the effect of Importin-4(IPO4) on glioma has been further confirmed through RT-qPCR, Western blot, and cell functional experiments. RESULTS: 7 genes associated with disulfide death were obtained and two subgroups of patients with different prognosis and clinical characteristics were identified. Risk signature was subsequently developed and proved to serve as an prognostic predictor. Notably, the high-risk group exhibited an immunosuppressive microenvironment characterized by a high concentration of M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs). In contrast, the low-risk group showed lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Therefore, patients in the high-risk group may benefit more from immunotherapy, while patients in the low-risk group may benefit more from chemotherapy. In addition, in vitro experiments have shown that inhibition of the expression of IPO4 leads to a significant reduction in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. CONCLUSION: This study identified two glioma subtypes and constructed a prognostic signature based on DDRGs. The signature has the potential to optimize the selection of patients for immune- and chemotherapy and provided a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are key to detection and recognition of external chemical signals associated with survival. OBP7 in Spodoptera frugiperda's larval stage (SfruOBP7) may search for host plants by sensing plant volatiles, which are important sources of pest attractants and repellents. However, the atomic-level basis of binding modes remains elusive. RESULTS: SfruOBP7 structure was constructed through homology modeling, and complex models of six plant volatiles ((E)-2-hexenol, α-pinene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, lauric acid, O-cymene and 1-octanol) and SfruOBP7 were obtained through molecular docking. To study the detailed interactions between the six plant volatile molecules and SfruOBP7, we conducted three 300 ns molecular dynamics simulations for each study object. The correlation coefficients between binding free energy obtained by molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area together with solvated interaction energy methods and experimental values are 0.90 and 0.88, respectively, showing a good correlation. By comparing binding free energy along with interaction patterns between SfruOBP7 and the six volatile molecules, hotspot residues of SfruOBP7 when binding with different volatile molecules were determined. Hydrophobic interactions stemming from van der Waals interactions play a significant role in SfruOBP7 and these plant volatile systems. CONCLUSION: The optimized three-dimensional structure of SfruOBP7 and its binding modes with six plant volatiles revealed their interactions, thus providing a means for estimating the binding energies of other plant volatiles. Our study will help to guide the rational design of effective and selective insect attractants. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

4.
Cell ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772371

RESUMO

Peripheral sensory neurons widely innervate various tissues to continuously monitor and respond to environmental stimuli. Whether peripheral sensory neurons innervate the spleen and modulate splenic immune response remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that nociceptive sensory nerve fibers extensively innervate the spleen along blood vessels and reach B cell zones. The spleen-innervating nociceptors predominantly originate from left T8-T13 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), promoting the splenic germinal center (GC) response and humoral immunity. Nociceptors can be activated by antigen-induced accumulation of splenic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and then release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which further promotes the splenic GC response at the early stage. Mechanistically, CGRP directly acts on B cells through its receptor CALCRL-RAMP1 via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway. Activating nociceptors by ingesting capsaicin enhances the splenic GC response and anti-influenza immunity. Collectively, our study establishes a specific DRG-spleen sensory neural connection that promotes humoral immunity, suggesting a promising approach for improving host defense by targeting the nociceptive nervous system.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 269(Pt 2): 132144, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729476

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated the synergistic effects of jet milling (JM) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on the fractionation of grapevine lignin and the consequent enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis. Grapevine, a substantial byproduct of the wine industry, was subjected to JM pretreatment to produce finely powdered particles (median diameter D50 = 98.90), which were then further treated with acidic ChCl-LA and alkaline K2CO3-EG DESs. The results revealed that the combined JM + ChCl-LA pretreatment significantly increased the cellulose preservation under optimal conditions (110 °C, 4 h, and 20 % water content), achieving removal rates of 74.18 % xylan and 66.05 % lignin, respectively. The pretreatment temperature and inhibitor production were reduced, resulting in a remarkable threefold increase in glucose yield compared to untreated samples. Moreover, the structural analysis of the pretreated lignin indicated an enrichment of phenolic units, leading to enhanced antioxidant and antibacterial activities, particularly in the JM pretreated samples. These findings underscore the promising potential of the synergistic JM and DES pretreatment in facilitating the efficient utilization of grapevine lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable biorefinery technologies.

6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(5): e13310, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of viruses can cause acute respiratory infections (ARIs), resulting in a high disease burden worldwide. To explore the dominant viruses and their prevalence characteristics in children with ARIs, comprehensive surveillance was carried out in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai. METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2022, the basic and clinical information, and respiratory tract specimens of 0-14 years old children with ARIs were collected in five sentinel hospitals in Shanghai Pudong. Each specimen was tested for eight respiratory viruses, and the positive rates of different age groups, case types (inpatient or outpatient) were analyzed. RESULTS: In our study, 30.67% (1294/4219) children with ARIs were positive for at least one virus. Influenza virus (IFV) was the most commonly detected respiratory virus (349/4219, 8.27%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (217/4219, 5.14%), para-influenza virus (PIV) (215/4219, 5.10%), and human coronavirus (HCoV, including 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1) (184/4219, 4.36%). IFV was the leading respiratory virus in outpatients aged 5-14 years (201/1673, 12.01%); RSV was the most prevalent respiratory virus in both inpatients (61/238, 25.63%) and outpatients (4/50, 8.00%) for ARI patients aged <6 months old. For PIV, HMPV, HCoV, and HRV, the risk of infection usually was higher among young children. Co-infection with more than two viruses was seen in 3.25% (137/4219). CONCLUSIONS: IFV and RSV played important roles in ARIs among children, but the risk populations were different. There are needs for targeted diagnosis and treatment and necessary immunization and non-pharmaceutical interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Criança , Lactente , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Prevalência , Recém-Nascido , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia
7.
J Virol ; : e0049424, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757985

RESUMO

Mitochondria are energy producers in cells, which can affect viral replication by regulating the host innate immune signaling pathways, and the changes in their biological functions are inextricably linked the viral life cycle. In this study, we screened a library of 382 mitochondria-targeted compounds and identified the antiviral inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis pathway of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Our data showed that the inhibitors interfered with viral RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) ranging from 0.975 to 26.635 nM. Remarkably, DHODH inhibitors obstructed CSFV replication by enhancing the innate immune response including the TBK1-IRF3-STAT1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the data from a series of compound addition and supplementation trials indicated that DHODH inhibitors also inhibited CSFV replication by blocking the de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Remarkably, DHODH knockdown demonstrated that it was essential for CSFV replication. Mechanistically, confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays showed that the non-structural protein 4A (NS4A) recruited and interacted with DHODH in the perinuclear. Notably, NS4A enhanced the DHODH activity and promoted the generation of UMP for efficient viral replication. Structurally, the amino acids 65-229 of DHODH and the amino acids 25-40 of NS4A were pivotal for this interaction. Taken together, our findings highlight the critical role of DHODH in the CSFV life cycle and offer a potential antiviral target for the development of novel therapeutics against CSF. IMPORTANCE: Classical swine fever remains one of the most economically important viral diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar worldwide. dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors have been shown to suppress the replication of several viruses in vitro and in vivo, but the effects on Pestivirus remain unknown. In this study, three specific DHODH inhibitors, including DHODH-IN-16, BAY-2402234, and Brequinar were found to strongly suppress classical swine fever virus (CSFV) replication. These inhibitors target the host DHODH, depleting the pyrimidine nucleotide pool to exert their antiviral effects. Intriguingly, we observed that the non-structural protein 4A of CSFV induced DHODH to accumulate around the nucleus in conjunction with mitochondria. Moreover, NS4A exhibited a strong interaction with DHODH, enhancing its activity to promote efficient CSFV replication. In conclusion, our findings enhance the understanding of the pyrimidine synthesis in CSFV infection and expand the novel functions of CSFV NS4A in viral replication, providing a reference for further exploration of antiviral targets against CSFV.

8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 258: 116349, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705072

RESUMO

Detection of cancer-related exosomes in body fluids has become a revolutionary strategy for early cancer diagnosis and prognosis prediction. We have developed a two-step targeting detection method, termed PS-MIPs-NELISA SERS, for rapid and highly sensitive exosomes detection. In the first step, a phospholipid polar site imprinting strategy was employed using magnetic PS-MIPs (phospholipids-molecularly imprinted polymers) to selectively isolate and enrich all exosomes from urine samples. In the second step, a nanozyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NELISA) technique was utilized. We constructed Au/Na7PMo11O39 nanoparticles (NPs) with both surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) property and peroxidase catalytic activity, followed by the immobilization of CD9 antibodies on the surface of Au/Na7PMo11O39 NPs. The Au/Na7PMo11O39-CD9 antibody complexes were then used to recognize CD9 proteins on the surface of exosomes enriched by magnetic PS-MIPs. Lastly, the high sensitivity detection of exosomes was achieved indirectly via the SERS activity and peroxidase-like activity of Au/Na7PMo11O39 NPs. The quantity of exosomes in urine samples from pancreatic cancer patients obtained by the PS-MIPs-NELISA SERS technique showed a linear relationship with the SERS intensity in the range of 6.21 × 107-2.81 × 108 particles/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.82 × 107 particles/mL. The SERS signal intensity of exosomes in urine samples from pancreatic cancer patients was higher than that of healthy volunteers. This bidirectional MIPs-NELISA-SERS approach enables noninvasive, highly sensitive, and rapid detection of cancer, facilitating the monitoring of disease progression during treatment and opening up a new avenue for rapid early cancer screening.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Exossomos , Ouro , Análise Espectral Raman , Humanos , Exossomos/química , Ouro/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/urina , Limite de Detecção , Impressão Molecular , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Tetraspanina 29/urina , Tetraspanina 29/análise , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química
9.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 40, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pretomanid is a key component of new regimens for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) which are being rolled out globally. However, there is limited information on the prevalence of pre-existing resistance to the drug. METHODS: To investigate pretomanid resistance rates in China and its underlying genetic basis, as well as to generate additional minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF)/breakpoint setting, we performed MIC determinations in the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube™ (MGIT) system, followed by WGS analysis, on 475 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolated from Chinese TB patients between 2013 and 2020. RESULTS: We observed a pretomanid MIC distribution with a 99% ECOFF equal to 0.5 mg/L. Of the 15 isolates with MIC values > 0.5 mg/L, one (MIC = 1 mg/L) was identified as MTB lineage 1 (L1), a genotype previously reported to be intrinsically less susceptible to pretomanid, two were borderline resistant (MIC = 2-4 mg/L) and the remaining 12 isolates were highly resistant (MIC ≥ 16 mg/L) to the drug. Five resistant isolates did not harbor mutations in the known pretomanid resistant genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results further support a breakpoint of 0.5 mg/L for a non-L1 MTB population, which is characteristic of China. Further, our data point to an unexpected high (14/475, 3%) pre-existing pretomanid resistance rate in the country, as well as to the existence of yet-to-be-discovered pretomanid resistance genes.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Genótipo , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564325

RESUMO

Drought is the most severe form of stress experienced by plants worldwide. Cucumber is a vegetable crop that requires a large amount of water throughout the growth period. In our previous study, we identified that overexpression of CsHSFA1d could improve cold tolerance and the content of endogenous jasmonic acid in cucumber seedlings. To explore the functional diversities of CsHSFA1d, we treat the transgenic plants under drought conditions. In this study, we found that the heat shock transcription factor HSFA1d (CsHSFA1d) could improve drought stress tolerance in cucumber. CsHSFA1d overexpression increased the expression levels of galactinol synthase (CsGolS3) and raffinose synthase (CsRS) genes, encoding the key enzymes for raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) biosynthesis. Furthermore, the lines overexpressing CsHSFA1d showed higher enzymatic activity of GolS and raffinose synthase to increase the content of RFO. Moreover, the CsHSFA1d-overexpression lines showed lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and higher ROS-scavenging enzyme activity after drought treatment. The expressions of antioxidant genes CsPOD2, CsAPX1 and CsSOD1 were also upregulated in CsHSFA1d-overexpression lines. The expression levels of stress-responsive genes such as CsRD29A, CsLEA3 and CsP5CS1 were increased in CsHSFA1d-overexpression lines after drought treatment. We conclude that CsHSFA1d directly targets and regulates the expression of CsGolS3 and CsRS to promote the enzymatic activity and accumulation of RFO to increase the tolerance to drought stress. CsHSFA1d also improves ROS-scavenging enzyme activity and gene expression indirectly to reduce drought-induced ROS overaccumulation. This study therefore offers a new gene target to improve drought stress tolerance in cucumber and revealed the underlying mechanism by which CsHSFA1d functions in the drought stress by increasing the content of RFOs and scavenging the excessive accumulation of ROS.

11.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591101

RESUMO

A chemical investigation on the marine sponge Dysidea sp. resulted in the isolation of a series of diketopiperazines, including two new compounds, dysidines A (1) and B (2) as well as six known ones (3-8). Their structures with absolute configurations were determined on the basis of UV, IR, HRMS, NMR and calculated ECD method. Additionally, the cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral activities of 1-8 were also tested. However, none of them exhibited significant bioactivities.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 666: 472-480, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613970

RESUMO

All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) are considered promising energy storage systems due to their high energy density and inherent safety. However, scalable fabrication of ASSLBs based on transition metal sulfide cathodes through the conventional powder cold-pressing method with ultrahigh stacking pressure remains challenging. This article elucidates a dry process methodology for preparing flexible and high-performance FeS2-based ASSLBs under low stack pressure by utilizing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder. In this design, fibrous PTFE interweaves Li6PS5Cl particles and FeS2 cathode components, forming flexible electrolyte and composite cathode membranes. Beneficial to the robust adhesion, the composite cathode and Li6PS5Cl membranes are tightly compacted under a low stacking pressure of 100 MPa which is a fifth of the conventional pressure. Moreover, the electrode/electrolyte interface can sustain adequate contact throughout electrochemical cycling. As expected, the FeS2-based ASSLBs exhibit outstanding rate performance and cyclic stability, contributing a reversible discharged capacity of 370.7 mAh g-1 at 0.3C after 200 cycles. More importantly, the meticulous dQ/dV analysis reveals that the three-dimensional PTFE binder effectively binds the discharge products with sluggish kinetics (Li2S and Fe) to the ion-electron conductive network in the composite cathode, thereby preventing the electrochemical inactivation of products and enhancing electrochemical performance. Furthermore, FeS2-based pouch-type cells are fabricated, demonstrating the potential of PTFE-based dry-process technology to scale up ASSLBs from laboratory-scale mold cells to factory-scale pouch cells. This feasible dry-processed technology provides valuable insights to advance the practical applications of ASSLBs.

13.
Fitoterapia ; 175: 105960, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621426

RESUMO

Five undescribed eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, remophilanetriols E-I (1-5), along with seven known compounds (6-12) were isolated from the fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic data analysis and their absolute configurations were determined by comparing their calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and experimental ECD spectra. The anti-pulmonary fibrosis activities of all compounds were evaluated in vitro by MTT methods, and compounds 2, 8, 10, and 12 exhibited excellent anti-pulmonary fibrosis activities. In addition, compound 2 can reduce the levels of ROS and apoptosis in TGF-ß1-induced BEAS-2B cells.

14.
J Mol Model ; 30(5): 127, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594491

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Human estrogen-related receptor γ (hERRγ) is a key protein involved in various endocrines and metabolic signaling. Numerous environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can impact related physiological activities through receptor signaling pathways. Focused on hERRγ with 4-isopropylphenol, bisphenol-F (BPF), and BP(2,2)(Un) complexes, we executed molecular docking and multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations along with molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) and solvation interaction energy (SIE) calculation to study the detailed dynamical structural characteristics and interactions between them. Molecular docking showed that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were the prime interactions to keep the stability of BPF-hERRγ and hERRγ-BP(2,2)(Un) complexes. Through MD simulations, we observed that all complexes reach equilibrium during the initial 50 ns of simulation, but these three EDCs lead to local structure changes in hERRγ. Energy results further identified key residues L268, V313, L345, and F435 around the binding pockets through CH-π, π-π, and hydrogen bonds interactions play an important stabilizing role in the recognition with EDCs. And most noticeable of all, hydrophobic methoxide groups in BP(2,2)(Un) is useful for decreasing the binding ability between EDCs and hERRγ. These results may contribute to evaluate latent diseases associated with EDCs exposure at the micro level and find potential substitutes. METHOD: Autodock4.2 was used to conduct the molecular docking, sietraj program was performed to calculate the energy, and VMD software was used to visualize the structure. Amber18 was conducted to perform the MD simulation and other analyses.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas , Software , Ligação Proteica
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2348505, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686553

RESUMO

China, with the third largest share of global tuberculosis cases, faces a substantial challenge in its healthcare system as a result of the high burden of multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB). This study employs a genomic epidemiological approach to assess recent tuberculosis transmissions between individuals, identifying potential risk factors and discerning the role of transmitted resistant isolates in the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China. We conducted a population-based retrospective study on 5052 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from 70 surveillance sites using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Minimum spanning tree analysis identified resistance mutations, while epidemiological data analysis pinpointed transmission risk factors. Of the 5052 isolates, 23% (1160) formed 452 genomic clusters, with 85.6% (387) of the transmissions occurring within the same counties. Individuals with younger age, larger family size, new cases, smear positive, and MDR/RR were at higher odds for recent transmission, while higher education (university and above) and occupation as a non-physical workers emerged as protective factors. At least 61.4% (251/409) of MDR/RR-TB were likely a result of recent transmission of MDR/RR isolates, with previous treatment (crude OR = 2.77), smear-positive (cOR = 2.07) and larger family population (cOR = 1.13) established as risk factors. Our findings highlight that local transmission remains the predominant form of TB transmission in China. Correspondingly, drug-resistant tuberculosis is primarily driven by the transmission of resistant tuberculosis isolates. Targeted interventions for high-risk populations to interrupt transmission within the country will likely provide an opportunity to reduce the prevalence of both tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/transmissão , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Adolescente , Idoso , Rifampina/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla
16.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 197: 104353, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615869

RESUMO

Bortezomib is the first-line standard and most effective chemotherapeutic for multiple myeloma; however, bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) severely affects the chemotherapy regimen and has long-term impact on patients under maintenance therapy. The pathogenesis of BIPN is poorly understood, and basic research and development of BIPN management drugs are in early stages. Besides chemotherapy dose reduction and regimen modification, no recommended prevention and treatment approaches are available for BIPN apart from the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines for peripheral neuropathy in myeloma. An in-depth exploration of the pathogenesis of BIPN, development of additional therapeutic approaches, and identification of risk factors are needed. Optimizing effective and standardized BIPN treatment plans and providing more decision-making evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment of BIPN are necessary. This article reviews the recent advances in BIPN research; provides an overview of clinical features, underlying molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic approaches; and highlights areas for future studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Bortezomib , Mieloma Múltiplo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Humanos , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/terapia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9317, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653748

RESUMO

Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates can efficiently repair or enhance the mechanical properties of the square hollow section. However, the loading end of such a CFRP-strengthened member is prone to local bearing failure under compressive load. Given this limitation, an innovative CFRP-plate-strengthened square hollow section composite member (CFRP-SHSCM) was raised, and the thick-walled section was welded on both ends of the thin-walled steel column. The mechanical properties of CFRP-SHSCMs were investigated through parameter finite element (FE) analysis, focusing on the influence of the amount of CFRP layers (nc), the slenderness ratio (λ), the initial geometric imperfections (v0), the CFRP layouts (2S and 4S) and the length of the exposed steel column (Le). The load-displacement curves, the bearing force, and typical failure modes were also acquired. Results indicated that with increasing nc and v0, and decreasing λ, the conventional CFRP-SHSCMs were prone to local bearing failure with poor ductility, leading to the insufficient use of the CFRP plate, in contrast, the improved CFRP-SHSCMs primarily underwent overall buckling failure and exhibited better bearing force and ductility. Finally, the modified Perry-Robertson formula was put forward to predict the ultimate load of the CFRP-SHSCMs. The coefficients of variation between the FE simulation and the theoretical results were 0.00436 and 0.0292, respectively.

18.
Asian J Androl ; 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657119

RESUMO

Tumor metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer development, and targeting metabolic vulnerabilities has been proven to be an effective approach for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treatment. Nevertheless, treatment failure inevitably occurs, largely due to cellular heterogeneity, which cannot be deciphered by traditional bulk sequencing techniques. By employing computational pipelines for single-cell RNA sequencing, we demonstrated that epithelial cells within the prostate are more metabolically active and plastic than stromal cells. Moreover, we identified that neuroendocrine (NE) cells tend to have high metabolic rates, which might explain the high demand for nutrients and energy exhibited by neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), one of the most lethal variants of prostate cancer (PCa). Additionally, we demonstrated through computational and experimental approaches that variation in mitochondrial activity is the greatest contributor to metabolic heterogeneity among both tumor cells and nontumor cells. These results establish a detailed metabolic landscape of PCa, highlight a potential mechanism of disease progression, and emphasize the importance of future studies on tumor heterogeneity and the tumor microenvironment from a metabolic perspective.

19.
Food Chem X ; 22: 101387, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38665629

RESUMO

A Se site targeted-two circles antioxidant of polyphenols EGCG and genistein in glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4)-like catalytic peroxide H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide degradation was demonstrated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Se atom's active center is presenting a 'low-oxidation' and a 'high-oxidation' catalytic cycle. The former is oxidized to selenenic acid (SeO-) with a Raman bond at 619/ 610 cm-1 assigned to the νO - Se by the hydroperoxide substrate at 544/ 551 cm-1 assigned to ωHSeC decreased. Under oxidative stress, the enzyme shifted to 'high-oxidation' catalytic cycle, in which GPx4 shuttles between R-SeO- and R-SeOO- with a Raman intensity of bond at 840/ 860 cm-1 assigned to νO[bond, double bond]Se. EGCG could act as a reducing agent both in H2O2 and Cu-OOH degradation, while, genistein can only reduce Cu-OOH, because it binds more readily to the selenium site in GPx4 than EGCG with a closer proximity, therefore may affect its simultaneous binding to coenzymes.

20.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(2): 157-169, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582978

RESUMO

Objective: China is among the 30 countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, and TB remains a public health concern. Kashgar Prefecture in the southern Xinjiang Autonomous Region is considered as one of the highest TB burden regions in China. However, molecular epidemiological studies of Kashgar are lacking. Methods: A population-based retrospective study was conducted using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to determine the characteristics of drug resistance and the transmission patterns. Results: A total of 1,668 isolates collected in 2020 were classified into lineages 2 (46.0%), 3 (27.5%), and 4 (26.5%). The drug resistance rates revealed by WGS showed that the top three drugs in terms of the resistance rate were isoniazid (7.4%, 124/1,668), streptomycin (6.0%, 100/1,668), and rifampicin (3.3%, 55/1,668). The rate of rifampicin resistance was 1.8% (23/1,290) in the new cases and 9.4% (32/340) in the previously treated cases. Known resistance mutations were detected more frequently in lineage 2 strains than in lineage 3 or 4 strains, respectively: 18.6% vs. 8.7 or 9%, P < 0.001. The estimated proportion of recent transmissions was 25.9% (432/1,668). Multivariate logistic analyses indicated that sex, age, occupation, lineage, and drug resistance were the risk factors for recent transmission. Despite the low rate of drug resistance, drug-resistant strains had a higher risk of recent transmission than the susceptible strains (adjusted odds ratio, 1.414; 95% CI, 1.023-1.954; P = 0.036). Among all patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), 78.4% (171/218) were attributed to the transmission of DR-TB strains. Conclusion: Our results suggest that drug-resistant strains are more transmissible than susceptible strains and that transmission is the major driving force of the current DR-TB epidemic in Kashgar.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Mutação
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