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1.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review evaluated the impacts of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and periodontitis in order to explore causality and assess the potential benefits of co-management. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Open GREY. Interventional studies of adult patients suffering from CKD and periodontitis were investigated. Effect of NSPT on renal function was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 109 participants from four case-series studies and 97 participants from one randomized controlled trial were included in this review. Sixty percent of the eligible studies (3/5) aimed at the effect of NSPT on nutritional status and systemic inflammation in dialysis patients. The other two studies concluded a beneficial impact of NSPT on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with CKD stages 2-4. Moreover, two meta-analyses were accomplished on eGFR and serum creatinine to evaluate the changes between baseline and 3-month follow-up. The pooled mean of eGFR was not significantly different pre- and post-NSPT using random and fixed-effect models. The change for creatinine was not significant using the random effect model but was significant when the fixed effect model was used (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to conclude the potential benefit of NSPT on renal function in CKD patients with periodontitis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Periodontitis contributes to the inflammatory burden and has been associated with impaired kidney function in many observational studies. However, well-designed clinical trials in pre-dialysis patients investigating the impact of NSPT on renal function-related parameters are missing.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713959

RESUMO

Black phosphorene has attracted much attention as a semiconducting two-dimensional material. Violet phosphorus is another layered semiconducting phosphorus allotrope with unique electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, no confirmed violet crystals or reliable lattice structure of violet phosphorus has been obtained. The further exploration of violet phosphorus and violet phosphorene are restricted. The violet phosphorus single crystal has been produced and the lattice structure has been obtained by single-crystal x-ray diffraction to be monoclinic with space group of P 2/n (13) (a=9.210, b=9.128, c=21.893 Å, ß=97.776°). The lattice structure obtained has been confirmed to be reliable and stable compared with the well adopted one by dynamical stability investigation. The optical bandgap of the violet phosphorus was measured to be around 1.7 eV, consistent with the calculated one. The thermal decomposition temperature of violet phosphorus was measured to be 52 °C higher than its black phosphorus counterpart which was assumed to be the most sable one, indicating that violet phosphorus is the most stable phosphorus allotrope. The violet phosphorene was easily obtained by both mechanical and solution exfoliation under ambient conditions.

3.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698900

RESUMO

Phosphate-containing metabolites and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity are useful biomarkers for many types of diseases. However, there are few straightforward, sensitive, and efficient colorimetric methods for the quantification of them only when resorting to unstable transition metal ions or specially designed organic substrates. Herein, we have demonstrated that histidine-protected gold nanoclusters (His-AuNCs) possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity with Au atom facilitated formation of superoxide anions (O2•-) and their electron transfer ability. More interestingly, phosphate-containing metabolites can severely inhibit the peroxidase-like activity of His-AuNCs by blocking the generation of O2•- and electron transfer, and then ALP is able to restore the inhibition process through hydrolyzing the phosphate-containing metabolites. Therefore, using peroxidase-triggered chromogenic reaction of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as an amplifier, a colorimetric on-off-on switch has been developed for sensing phosphate-containing metabolites and ALP based on the logical regulation of such deactivation and reactivation processes for the first time. According to the intrinsic mimic enzyme-catalyzed amplification and clear response mechanism, our colorimetric assay exhibits excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and sensing performance. Furthermore, on the basis of the proposed colorimetric sensors, a combinatorial "NOR+IMPLICATION" logic gate is further rationally constructed.

4.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701600

RESUMO

Plants have evolved powerful immune systems to recognize pathogens and avoid invasions, but the genetic basis of plant susceptibility is less well-studied, especially to oomycetes, which cause disastrous diseases in many ornamental plants and food crops. In this research, we identified a negative regulator of plant immunity to the oomycete Phytophthora parasitica, AtRTP5 (Arabidopsis thaliana Resistant to Phytophthora 5), which encodes a WD40 repeat domain-containing protein. The AtRTP5 protein, which was tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP), is localized in the nucleus and plasma membrane. Both the A. thaliana T-DNA insertion rtp5 mutants and the Nicotiana benthamiana RTP5 (NbRTP5) silencing plants showed enhanced resistance to P. parasitica, while overexpression of AtRTP5 rendered plants more susceptible. The transcriptomic analysis showed that mutation of AtRTP5 suppressed the biosynthesis of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-dependent responses. In contrast, salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and SA-dependent responses were activated in the T-DNA insertion mutant rtp5-3. These results show that AtRTP5 acts as a conserved negative regulator of plant immunity to Phytophthora pathogens by interfering with JA and SA signalling pathways.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121570, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753669

RESUMO

Hierarchical and heterogeneous CuO/NiO nanowall arrays were in situ grown on ceramic tubes via a facile template-free hydrothermal route, and then were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. The resultant composites exhibit network-like CuO/NiO array structures constructed by interconnected porous nanosheets, in which the decoration of CuO nanoparticles in NiO nanowall arrays was confirmed by XRD, XPS and TEM analyses. The 2.84 at % CuO decorated NiO sensor exhibits excellent sensing properties at 133 °C. The response to 5 ppm H2S attains 36.9, which increases as high as 5.6 times compared to the NiO one. The detection limit to H2S is further decreased from 1 ppb for the pure NiO sensor to 0.5 ppb. The CuO/NiO sensor shows a wide linear range from 50 to 1000 ppb, good repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, which is expected to be a candidate for ppb-level H2S detection in real and complex environment of industrial production. Furthermore, the dominant H2S sensing mechanism is discussed from the view of the homo- and hierarchical architecture of the CuO/NiO arrays as well as the chemical and electronic sensitization effects of CuO decoration.

6.
Eur J Radiol ; 121: 108715, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and lesion characteristics of hepatic hemangioma (HH) with arterioportal shunt (APS) based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHOD: Ninety-eight consecutive patients with 189 HHs who underwent DSA, CT and/or MR imaging of the liver between January 2014 and December 2017 were included. The diagnosis of APS was established by DSA. APS was categorized as peripheral and central shunt based on imaging findings. The incidence and appearance of APS on DSA were compared with those on CT/MR images. Eleven possible lesion characteristics associated with APS were compared between HHs with and those without APS. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to identify the independent lesion characteristics associated with APS. RESULTS: APS was diagnosed in 103 (103/189, 54.5%) HHs on DSA, of which 96 lesions appeared as peripheral APS and 7 appeared as central. In contrast, APS was detected only in 57 HHs (57/103, 55.34%) on CT/MR imaging, of which 50 (50/96, 52.08%) appeared as peripheral APS while 7 (7/7, 100%) appeared as central. Lesion size (P <  .001), enhancement rapidity (P =  .031), and vascularization degree (P <  .001) were found to be significant independent imaging characteristics associated with APS. CONCLUSIONS: APS can occur in HH with high frequency. DSA was superior to CT/MR imaging in detection of APS, particularly for the peripheral APS. Lesion size, enhancement rapidity and vascularization degree were associated with the presence of APS.

7.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e1237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical significance and correlation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: The observation group contained 184 patients, while the control group contained 150 patients. The expression of miR-21 in the serum of each group was detected by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 184 patients and their family members were followed-up for 30 days, among which 35 patients died and 149 patients survived, resulting in a survival rate of 80.97%. According to univariate analysis, there were significant differences in age, cardiac troponin (cTn), heart rate, Killip grade, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) operation rate, miR-21 and NLR. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) values of miR-21 and NLR for the diagnosis of AMI were 0.909 and 0.868, respectively, and the area under the combined detection curve was 0.960. In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the survival of patients with high miR-21 expression and NLR was significantly higher than that of patients with low miR-21 expression and NLR (p=0.027; p=0.001). The correlation showed that miR-21 expression in serum was positively correlated with the NLR in the observation group (r=0.528, p<0.05). cTn, heart rate, Killip classification, PCI operation rate, miR-21, NLR are independent risk factors for AMI. CONCLUSION: miR-21 and NLR play a role in the diagnosis of AMI and can be used as predictors for the survival of AMI.

8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 148: 111834, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706175

RESUMO

Efficient platforms for detecting telomerase activity are essential for early tumor monitoring and diagnosis. Herein, an enzyme-free electroanalytical strategy was developed for reliable and highly sensitive telomerase activity assay based on the increased electrochemical signals of methylene blue (MB) catalyzed by well monodisperse Au nanorods (AuNRs). In the presence of dNTPs and telomerase extracts, the assistant DNA 1 in the double stranded DNA can be extended to telomere repeat units (TTAGGG)n, which could form a hairpin structure by telomerase-triggered extension. The assistant DNA 2 was ingeniously dissociated from the double stranded DNA to combine with capture DNA. As a result, a large amount of AuNRs could be anchored on the surface of these sequences and used for electrocatalytic oxidation of MB. The developed biosensor showed a low limit of detection of 8.20 HeLa cells mL-1 and a wide dynamic range from 30 to 1.04 × 107 HeLa cells mL-1 for the determination of telomerase activity, which can provide a new way for telomerase activity assays in early diagnosis for cancers.

9.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 75(Pt 11): 1494-1501, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686660

RESUMO

A new potassium dysprosium polyborate, K3DyB6O12, has been prepared via the high-temperature molten salt method and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure can be described as a three-dimensional framework composed of isolated bicyclic [B5O10]5- groups and Dy3+ and K+ ions. The Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra were investigated. A series of K3Gd1-xDyxB6O12 phosphors was prepared and their photoluminescence properties were studied. The K3Gd1-xDyxB6O12 phosphors exhibit a strong yellow emission band at 577 nm (the 4F9/2→6H13/2 transition of Dy3+) under UV excitation of 275 nm (the 8S7/2→6IJ transition of Gd3+), suggesting the occurrence of the energy transfer Gd3+→Dy3+. The optimized doping concentration of the Dy3+ ion was 8 mol%. We may expect that K3Gd1-xDyxB6O12 is a promising pale-yellow emission phosphor for visual displays or solid-state lighting.

10.
Environ Int ; 134: 105209, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677597

RESUMO

Understanding the responses of local forests to the gradually rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ca) and changing environment is critical for appropriate management activities. This work used tree ring width measures (i.e. basal areal increment, BAI) and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) signals to explore the intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and tree growth dynamics of three major tree species (Pinus massoniana, P.tabuliformis and Larix gmelinii) in the Miyun Reservae Basin (MRB) of Beijing. The results indicate that ca was a primary contributor to tree growths, especially at the remote site where rising ca accounted for 92% and 74% of BAI changes for P. tabuliformis and L. gmelinii, respectively. N deposition was found to have a positive effect on BAI at this site. The controlling effect of ca on tree growth at the close-to-city site was smaller (52% and 44% of the contributions for P. tabuliformis and P. massoniana, respectively), while the negative influences of N deposition on BAI tends to be intensified. iWUE showed consistent increase during the entire growth period at all sites. Quadratic relationships between iWUE and BAI were observed, which indicated that the rising ca stimulated photosynthesis, contributing to the initial BAI and iWUE increase. However, the intensified water stress resulting from reduced precipitation and increased temperature led to a reduction in tree stomatal conductance causing the subsequent increase in iWUE but decrease in BAI. Of the site- and species-related responses of tree growth to ca, climatic and environmental changes in the MRB, the site-related variation dominated. The non-linear relationship between BAI and ca combined with the quadratic relationship between BAI and iWUE indicate a decreased ability of forests to capture atmospheric CO2 once the CO2 tipping point has passed.

11.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7063-7080, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621728

RESUMO

Evidence has proven that the gut microbiota is an important environmental factor contributing to obesity by altering host energy harvest and storage. We performed a high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing association study and serum metabolomics profiling in rats with a high-sugar diet. Our studies revealed that the high sugar diet reduced the diversity of cecal microorganisms, while the combination of theabrownin and the high sugar diet increased the diversity of cecal microorganisms and promoted reproduction of Alloprevotella, Coprostanoligenes_group, Bacteroides, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Desulfovibrio, Intestinimonas, Alistipes, Bifidobacterium, Phascolarctobacterium, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-010 and Staphylococcus. The combination also inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus, Prevotellaceae_Ga6A1_group and Tyzzerella. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio can be significantly reduced after the intervention of theabrownin in high sugar diet rats, and the reproduction of Bacteroides acidifaciens (BA) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus can be promoted. We found that the obesity-associated gut microbial species were linked to the changes in circulating metabolites. Serum levels of deoxycholic acid, cholic acid, 1H-indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indole acrylic acid and melatonin were negatively correlated with BA and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, but positively correlated with Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum and Gut_metagenome. 2-Hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-3-carboxylic acid, l-homoserine, and 1,7-dimethylxanthine were positively correlated with BA and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, but negatively correlated with Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum, and Gut_metagenome. In a high sugar diet mode, theabrownin reduced the body weight and triglycerides and improved insulin resistance mainly by targeting the reproduction of intestinal microorganisms such as BA, Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum, Gut_metagenome and so on. A strong correlation between cecal microorganisms and serum metabolites, obesity and insulin resistance was observed. Theabrownin has high potential in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes and obesity.

12.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 30(10): 118, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628540

RESUMO

The use of a pedicle screw fixation system with rods made of more compliant materials has become increasingly popular for spine fusion surgery in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare stress responses of the implants in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) when using flexible and conventional rigid posterior fixation systems. A previously validated intact L1-S1 finite element model was modified to simulate single-level (L4-L5) TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation using two types of connecting rod (rigid and flexible rods). The von Mises stresses in the implants (including TLIF cage, pedicle screws and rods) for the rigid and flexible fixations were analyzed under static and vibration loadings. The results showed that compared with the rigid fixation, the use of flexible fixation decreased the maximum stress in the pedicle screws, but increased the maximum stress in the cage and the ratio of maximum stress in the rods to the yield stress. It was also found that with decreasing diameter of the flexible rod (i.e. increasing flexibility of the rod), the maximum stress was decreased in the pedicle screws but increased in the cage and the rods. The findings imply that compared with the rigid rod, application of the flexible rod in the pedicle screw fixation system for the TLIF might decrease the breakage risk of pedicle screws but increase the risk of cage subsidence and rod breakage. Moreover, flexibility of the rod in the flexible fixation system should be carefully determined.

13.
Int J Pharm ; 571: 118706, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593811

RESUMO

Mononuclear phagocytes are efficient drug delivery targets for cancers owing to their cancerous tissue-accumulating nature. As receptors of sialic acid, Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins) are noticeably found on peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which renew by the differentiation of recruited PBMs at the tumor site and positively correlate with tumor growth. Given this, a sialic acid-octadecylamine conjugate (SA-ODA) was synthesized and then modified on the surface of liposomal epirubicin (EPI-SAL) as a potent tumor-targeting delivery strategy. A cellular uptake assay indicated that SA-modified liposomes provided improved distribution of the drug in both PBMs and TAMs. Pharmacodynamic tests demonstrated that the antitumor efficacy of the EPI-SAL group was better than that of the other groups, owing to both inhibition of TAMs by EPI-SAL, and high-efficiency targeting of PBMs by EPI-SAL, after which PBMs containing EPI-SAL were recruited to the tumor site and then killed by EPI. Thus, an SA-based targeted delivery strategy effectively interdicted the generation of TAMs. Our research provides the feasibility of the SA-ODA decorated liposome as an active carrier for cancer immunotherapy.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(46): 23192-23201, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659037

RESUMO

Species assemble into communities through ecological and evolutionary processes. Phylogenetic niche conservatism-the tendency of species to retain ancestral ecological distributions-is thought to influence which species from a regional species pool can persist in a particular environment. We analyzed data for seed plants in China to test hypotheses about the distribution of species within regional floras. Of 16 environmental variables, actual evapotranspiration, minimum temperature of the coldest month, and annual precipitation most strongly influenced regional species richness, phylogenetic dispersion, and phylogenetic diversity for both gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants) and angiosperms (flowering plants). For most evolutionary clades at, and above, the family level, the relationships between metrics of phylogenetic dispersion (i.e., average phylogenetic distance among species), or phylogenetic diversity, and the 3 environmental variables were consistent with the tropical niche conservatism hypothesis, which predicts closer phylogenetic relatedness and reduced phylogenetic diversity with increasing environmental stress. The slopes of the relationships between phylogenetic relatedness and the 3 environmental drivers identified in this analysis were steeper for primarily tropical clades, implying greater niche conservatism, than for primarily temperate clades. These observations suggest that the distributions of seed plants across large-scale environmental gradients in China are constrained by conserved adaptations to the physical environment, i.e., phylogenetic niche conservatism.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14734-14740, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625734

RESUMO

A series of 3D porous lanthanide-substituted polyoxometalate frameworks, Na2[Ln2(H2O)11]2[Ln3(H2O)3(α-SiW11O39)2]2·69H2O (1-Ln, Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy), are built from novel hexadecahedral {Ln6W8O28} heterometallic cage-shaped clusters. Intriguingly, every tetrameric {[Ln3(H2O)3(α-SiW11O39)2]2}14- cage-cluster is linked with another eight tetrameric cage-clusters by Ln3+ cations, leading to a novel 3D inorganic porous framework, which exhibits good thermal and chemical stability, excellent water vapor adsorption capacity, and moderate proton conductive properties. Furthermore, the solid state luminescence spectra demonstrate that 1-Sm, 1-Eu, 1-Tb, and 1-Dy display the lanthanide characteristic emission bands. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility indicates that there are antiferromagnetic interactions in 1-Tb and 1-Dy.

16.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. This study explored whether elderly patients with stage I hypertension (HPs) and normotensive patients (NPs) showed differences in the recovery of postoperative attention network function, according to attentional network test (ANT) performance. METHODS: Of 110 patients screened, 25 HPs and 25 NPs completed this study. All participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination 1 day preoperatively and the ANT on postoperative days (PODs) 2 and 7. RESULTS: Compared with NPs, HPs had significantly lower alerting network effect scores and more difficulty resolving conflict on POD 7. However, no significant difference was observed between groups on POD 2. Orienting network performance was similar between groups at all timepoints. Significant differences in alerting and executive control network performance were observed between PODs 2 and 7 within each group. CONCLUSIONS: HPs showed selective cognitive impairment at different timepoints following elective hip or knee arthroplasty. Compared with NPs, HPs were more likely to experience delayed recovery of alerting and executive control network function, but not orienting network function, during the first postoperative week.

17.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581856

RESUMO

As our ongoing chemical investigation, two new pregnane steroidal glycosides, cynataihosides G (1), with a new aglycone, and H (2) were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of Cynanchum taihangense. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1 D and 2 D NMR spectral data, HR-ESI-MS analysis and qualitative chemical methods. The compounds were subjected to detect the cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines (HL-60, THP-1 and PC-3). The compounds displayed no significant cytotoxicity.

18.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(3): 1650, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590527

RESUMO

Acoustic tweezers allow for manipulation of small objects like elastic spheres with a force generated by the radiation pressure which arises from the nonlinear interaction between the incident and scattered waves by the object. The accurate control of the object by acoustic tweezers requires the study of the components of the three-dimensional (3D) force. If the physical properties of the elastic sphere are known, then the 3D components of the force can be calculated thanks to a decomposition of the incident acoustic field in the spherical functions basis. This study proposes evaluating the expansion coefficients. Three methods are used and compared. The first one consists of measuring the acoustic field on a spherical surface centered on the theoretical position of the object and to calculate the spherical functions decomposition by Lebedev quadratures. The second method is based on the measurement of the acoustic field at random points in a spherical volume and on the resolution of the inverse problem by a sparse method called the orthogonal matching pursuit. In the third method, the incident beam is measured on a transverse plane, decomposed into a sum of plane waves, and then the expansion coefficients are calculated. The results of the three methods will be presented and compared.

19.
Poult Sci ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573605

RESUMO

Wooden breast (WB) results in significant losses to the broiler industry due to reductions in meat quality. While the etiology of WB is unknown, it is believed to be associated with localized hypoxia and decreased lactate levels in skeletal muscles, indicating the presence of altered lactate metabolism in WB. We hypothesized that the expression levels of the major signaling molecules that control lactate metabolism, including lactate dehydrogenases (LDHA and LDHB) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1 and MCT4), were altered in WB. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate whether there were changes in mRNA and protein levels of LDHA, LDHB, MCT1, and MCT4 in WB compared to normal breast (NB) muscles. Biochemical analysis for LDH enzyme activity in NB and WB muscles was studied. MicroRNA375 (miR-375) expression, known to be inversely associated with LDHB protein expression in human cells, was also investigated. The level of LDHA mRNA was 1.7-fold lower in WB tissues than in NB tissues (P < 0.0001). However, the LDHA protein levels were similar in WB and NB tissues. In contrast, the levels of LDHB mRNA and protein were 8.4-fold higher (P < 0.002) and 13.6-fold higher (P < 0.02) in WB than in NB tissues, respectively. The level of miR-375 was not different between WB and NB muscles. The specific LDH isoenzyme activity that converted lactate to pyruvate was 1.8-fold lower in WB compared to NB tissues (P < 0.01). The level of MCT1 mRNA was 2.3-fold higher in WB than those in NB muscles (P < 0.02). However, this upregulation was not observed with MCT1 protein expression levels. The expression levels of MCT4 mRNA and protein were elevated 2.8-fold (P < 0.02) and 3.5-fold (P < 0.004) in WB compared to NB tissues, respectively. Our current findings suggest the potential roles of LDHB and MCT4 on lactate metabolism and provide a unique molecular elucidation for altered lactate homeostasis in WB muscles of broilers.

20.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124841, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545182

RESUMO

Hydrochars derived from municipal sewage sludge was analyzed for its feasibility for value-added recycling. Results of carbon content and elemental composition suggested that the hydrochars might not be comparable with pyrochars regarding to the carbon sequestration, long-term stability and fuel quality. Application as soil amendment would be a better approach for hydrochar utilization. To examine the potential benefits and risks of that, the total and available content of nutrients (i.e. N, P, and K) were measured, and the potentially toxic elements (PTEs, i.e. Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cd) were analyzed for the total content, speciation, and leaching potential. Compared with pyrochars derived from the same feedstock, hydrochars had lower pH and higher cation exchange capacity. The available content of N (1.58-6.87 g/kg), P (0.270-0.901 g/kg), and K (0-0.873 g/kg) in the chars was less than the feedstock sludge (3.33 g/kg N, 3.02 g/kg P, 2.07 g/kg K), but still far higher than that of the agricultural soil (i.e. 0.014-0.488 g/kg N, 0.02 g/kg P, <0.1-0.272 g/kg). Remarkably, hydrochars showed better nutritional balance than pyrochars for its higher available K content. Risk of potentially toxic elements contamination by the sludge was efficiently reduced in either hydrochars or pyrochars, except the high leaching potential of Zn in pyrochars. Overall, in addition to the advantages of the hydrothermal carbonization process as energy saving and value-added liquid by-products, the hydrochars derived from sludge, with sufficient and balanced nutrients and limited PTEs pollution risk, can be a feasible and value-added material as soil amendment.

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