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1.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 1): 86-97, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404528

RESUMO

Debio0932 is a promising lead compound in phase I clinical trials targeting the N-terminal ATP-binding pocket of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90N). The absence of a crystal structure of the Hsp90N-Debio0932 complex, however, has impeded further structural optimization of Debio0932 and understanding of the molecular-interaction mechanism. Here, a high-resolution crystal structure of the Hsp90N-Debio0932 complex was successfully determined (resolution limit 2.20 Å; PDB entry 6lr9) by X-ray diffraction and the molecular-interaction mechanism was analysed in detail, which suggested that Debio0932 suppresses cancer cells by accommodating itself in the ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90N, disabling its molecular-chaperone capability. The results of a thermal shift assay (ΔTm = 8.83 ± 0.90°C) and isothermal titration calorimetry (Kd = 15.50 ± 1.30 nM) indicated strong binding and favourable thermodynamic changes in the binding of Hsp90N and Debio0932. Based on the crystal structure of the complex and on molecular-interaction analysis, 30 new Debio0932 derivatives were designed and nine new derivatives exhibited increased binding to Hsp90N, as determined by molecular-docking evaluation. Additionally, Debio0932 suppressed cell proliferation (IC50 values of 3.26 ± 2.82 µM for A549, 20.33 ± 5.39 µM for H1299 and 3.16 ± 1.04 µM for H1975), induced cell-cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in three non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. These results provide novel perspectives and guidance for the development of new anti-NSCLC drugs based on the lead compound Debio0932.

2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(2): 26, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427975

RESUMO

The role of the yeast community in Chinese strong-flavor baijiu fermentation was investigated by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods based on 26S rDNA sequence analysis. 92 yeast species belonging to 54 genera were found by Illumina sequencing during the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu "Wuliangye" and 306 strains belonging to 28 species, which covered all species with more than 1% of relative abundance, were isolated and identified. Kazachstania exigua, Geotrichum silvicola, Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zyosaccharomyces bailii, and K. humilis were found to be the first six dominant species, and their proportion varied with different fermentation stages. K. exigua was the most important yeast species responsible for the production of ethanol with the assistance of P. kudriavzevii and Z. bailii in the vigorous stage and P. kudriavzevii and G. silvicola in the continuous fermentation stage. Higher alcohols were mainly produced by K. exigua, P. kudriavzevii, S. cerevisiae, and Z. bailii in the vigorous fermentation stage, which was stimulated by more oxygen in the grains of the upper strata. K. exigua, P. kudrizevii, S. cerevisiae, Z. bailii, G. silvicola, and Trichosporon ovoides promoted the formation of ethyl alcohol. The results revealed the key roles of K. exigua, G. silvicola, and P. kudriavzevii in the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu. The functions of these species should be confirmed by a further study based on the fermentation characteristics of isolated yeast strains gathered in this study. Distribution and function of dominant yeast species in the fermentation of strong flavor baijiu.

3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(1): 259-270, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216160

RESUMO

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii plays important roles in the brewing process of fermented foods such as soy sauce, where salt stress is a frequently encountered condition. In this study, effect of heat preadaptation on salt tolerance of Z. rouxii and the protective mechanisms underlying heat preadaptation were investigated based on physiological and transcriptomic analyses. Results showed that cells subjected to heat preadaptation (37 °C, 90 min) prior to salt stress aroused many physiological responses, including maintaining cell surface smooth and intracellular pH level, increasing Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Cells subjected to heat preadaptation increased the amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic C16:1, oleic C18:1, linoleic C18:2) and decreased the amounts of saturated fatty acids (palmitic C16:0, stearic C18:0) which caused the unsaturation degree (unsaturated/saturated = U/S ratio) increased by 2.4 times when compared with cells without preadaptation under salt stress. Besides, salt stress led to increase in contents of 5 amino acids (valine, proline, threonine, glycine, and tyrosine) and decrease of 2 amino acids (serine and lysine). When comparing the cells pre-exposed to heat preadaptation followed by challenged with salt stress and the cells without preadaptation under salt stress, the serine, threonine, and lysine contents increased significantly. RNA sequencing revealed that the metabolic level of glycolysis by Z. rouxii was weakened, while the metabolic levels of the pentose phosphate pathway and the riboflavin were enhanced in cells during heat preadaptation. Results presented in this study may contribute to understand the bases of adaptive responses in Z. rouxii and rationalize its exploitation in industrial processes.Key points• Heat preadaptation can improve high salinity tolerance of Z. rouxii.• Combined physiological and transcriptomic analyses of heat preadaptation mechanisms.• Provide theoretical support for the application of Z. rouxii.

4.
Cancer Lett ; 499: 49-59, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217445

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a feature of the solid tumor microenvironment that is associated with poor clinical outcomes in multiple tumor types. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a master regulator of hypoxic adaption, has been demonstrated to modulate hypoxic gene expression profiling and signaling transduction networks, and is thus a potential therapeutic target. Despite hypoxic response signaling having being extensively studied, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the hypoxic response has become a new focus of attention. Emerging evidence has documented complex interactions between HIF-1α and lncRNAs, which contribute to the acquisition of multiple hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the study of hypoxia and HIF-1α-regulated lncRNAs, and summarize the molecular mechanisms and functional outcomes of the interplay between lncRNAs and HIF-1α, which may provide important insights into cancer diagnosis and prognosis, enabling better control of cancer.

5.
J Diabetes ; 13(2): 111-123, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence demonstrates an association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its microvascular complications with increased fracture risk. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationships between serum concentrations of bone turnover markers and the presence and/or severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among patients with T2DM. METHODS: A total of 285 patients with T2DM comprising 168 patients without DR and 117 patients with DR were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. In the latter group, patients were further divided into patients of mild and severe DR stages. The biochemical parameters and bone turnover markers were determined in all participants. RESULTS: This study found that serum levels of procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), a bone formation marker, and the bone resorption marker serum ß-cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (ß-CTX) were more decreased in diabetic patients with DR than in those without DR, with differences remaining significant (P < .05) in multivariate linear regression models after adjustments for multiple confounding factors. Osteocalcin and ß-CTX levels were further reduced along with the severity of DR among participants with DR. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lower serum levels of P1NP and ß-CTX were associated with higher odds for the presence of DR, while ß-CTX was associated with the severity of DR. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the development of DR might be involved in the progression of T2DM-induced deficits in bone formation and resorption or vice versa. Follow-up studies and further research are necessary to validate the associations and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

6.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(2): 1042-1047, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183441

RESUMO

Single walled carbon nanotubes have special chemical and physical properties, at the same time, they have the advantage of macro maneuverability in maneuverability, so they have the potential of multi-functional applications. At present, composite materials, super capacitors and corresponding personal care products based on carbon nanotubes are widely used in all aspects of people's lives, and these products have obvious functional advantages. In this paper, based on the application of single-walled carbon nanotubes technology in personal care products, the separation and purification of ginsenoside pods, the raw material of high-end washing and care products, was studied. In order to enhance the conductivity and tensile strength of SWNTs, this paper innovatively introduces the purification method of current acid treatment to enhance the performance of SWNTs. Based on the improved single-walled carbon nanotubes technology, the extraction efficiency of the optimized single-walled carbon nanotubes was analyzed. In the end of this paper, the optimized extraction method of ginsenoside pods from SWNTs is compared with the traditional extraction method. The experimental results show that SWNTs has obvious time efficiency advantage.

7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(2): 1300-1306, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183476

RESUMO

Using good biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, this project synthesized nano-silver-multiempty carbon nanotube composite nano-carriers. The purpose is to improve the water dispersibility of drug particles and enhance their drug selectivity. This approach improves efficiency and resilience in dressing changes. Two different drugs, nano-silver antibacterial gel and nano-silver-multi-empty carbon nanotube composite anti-bacterial gel, were used to change the wounds by establishing a rat burn wound model. Explore the different effects of these two drugs on burn wound healing, infection, and tissue inflammation in rats, and provide a reference for clinical wound dressing change. The experimental results show that the nano-silver-multi-empty carbon nanotube composite antibacterial gel has a better anti-infective effect on burn wounds. And can effectively reduce the number of dressing changes.

8.
Maturitas ; 143: 171-177, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Observational studies suggest that the risk of cardiovascular disease increases during menopause; however, the menopause-related risk of subclinical atherosclerosis is unclear. The aim of the current study is to evaluate menopause and the risk of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis through a retrospective analysis of data from a population-based prospective cohort study. STUDY DESIGN: The study sample comprised 879 women in the Beijing community enrolled in the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study at baseline study in 1992 and followed up to at least one carotid ultrasound examination at three on-site follow-up surveys. Age at menopause was categorized as <40 years (premature menopause), 40-44 years (early menopause), 45-49 years (relatively early menopause), 50-51 years (reference), and >51 years (relatively late menopause). Menopause staging at baseline was categorized as: reproductive, menopausal transition/perimenopause, early postmenopause, and late postmenopause. Menopause as a time-varying covariate was calculated using waiting time to menopause and menopause status at the last follow-up (2012). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures included carotid plaque and intima-media thickening. Gray's test was performed to assess the equality of cumulative incidence functions between age groups at menopause and between menopause stages. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with menopause. RESULTS: Of the 879 women included (mean [SD] age at baseline, 48.6 [8.1] years), 573 (65.2%) developed carotid plaques and 430 (48.9%) developed intima-media thickening during follow-up. Menopause was significantly associated with risk of developing carotid plaques (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.05-3.54; P = 0.03) after adjustment for age at baseline, age at menopause, use of oral estrogen due to menopause, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. No significant association was found between age at menopause and risk of carotid atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Menopausal women, irrespective of age at menopause, had an increased risk of carotid plaque.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common degenerative disease that mainly occurs in elder patients, leading to different degrees of neurological dysfunction. Spinal cord involvement is mainly distributed at the C3-C7 segments, but it may also involve up to the C2 level. This study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of open-door laminoplasty using a new extensor attachment-point reconstruction technique for treating CSM involving the C2 segment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with CSM involving the C2 segment and undergoing open-door laminoplasty were included in this retrospective study. Based on the titanium plate used in the operation, patients were divided into two groups, a reconstructed titanium plate fixation (RPF) group (n = 28) and a conventional titanium plate fixation (CPF) group (n = 31). Improvements in neurological function, cervical range of motion (ROM), cervical curvature index (CCI), preservation of posterior cervical muscle mass, and axial symptoms were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in operative time and intraoperative blood loss between the groups (p > 0.05). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score significantly increased in both groups postsurgery (p < 0.05); the neurological recovery rate was similar between the two groups (64.1 ± 13.3% vs. 65.9 ± 14.7%, p > 0.05). There was no significant loss of cervical ROM in either group (p > 0.05). The anteroposterior dural sac diameter at the C2 level was significantly enlarged in both groups (p < 0.05). Alternatively, CCI was significantly reduced in the CRP group (p < 0.05) but unchanged in the RPF group (p > 0.05). The cross-sectional area of the posterior cervical muscles was also significantly reduced in the CPF group (p < 0.05) but maintained in the RPF group (p > 0.05). Finally, axial symptoms were more severe in the CPF group than in the RPF group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Laminoplasty is an effective surgical procedure for CSM involving the C2 segment. The reconstructed titanium plate achieved superior maintenance of cervical curvature and reduced both muscle atrophy and severity of axial symptoms compared with titanium conventional plates.

10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(45): 7173-7190, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut tryptophan (Trp) metabolites are produced by microbiota and/or host metabolism. Some of them have been proven to promote or inhibit colorectal cancer (CRC) in vitro and animal models. We hypothesized that there is an alteration of gut Trp metabolism mediated by microbiota and that it might be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer in patients with CRC. AIM: To investigate the features of Trp metabolism in CRC and the correlation between fecal Trp metabolites and gut microbiota. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients with colorectal neoplastic lesions (33 with colon adenoma and 46 with sporadic CRC) and 38 healthy controls (HCs) meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Their demographic and clinical features were collected. Fecal Trp, kynurenine (KYN), and indoles (metabolites of Trp metabolized by gut microbiota) were examined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Gut barrier marker and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) mRNA were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The gut microbiota was detected by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Correlations between fecal metabolites and other parameters were examined in all patients. RESULTS: The absolute concentration of KYN [1.51 (0.70, 3.46) nmol/g vs 0.81 (0.64, 1.57) nmol/g, P = 0.036] and the ratio of KYN to Trp [7.39 (4.12, 11.72) × 10-3 vs 5.23 (1.86, 7.99) × 10-3, P = 0.032] were increased in the feces of patients with CRC compared to HCs, while the indoles to Trp ratio was decreased [1.34 (0.70, 2.63) vs 2.46 (1.25, 4.10), P = 0.029]. The relative ZO-1 mRNA levels in patients with CRC (0.27 ± 0.24) were significantly lower than those in HCs (1.00 ± 0.31) (P < 0.001), and the relative IDO1 mRNA levels in patients with CRC [1.65 (0.47-2.46)] were increased (P = 0.035). IDO1 mRNA levels were positively associated with the KYN/Trp ratio (r = 0.327, P = 0.003). ZO-1 mRNA and protein levels were positively correlated with the indoles/Trp ratio (P = 0.035 and P = 0.009, respectively). In addition, the genera Asaccharobacter (Actinobacteria) and Parabacteroides (Bacteroidetes), and members of the phylum Firmicutes (Clostridium XlVb, Fusicatenibacter, Anaerofilum, and Anaerostipes) decreased in CRC and exhibited a positive correlation with indoles in all subjects. CONCLUSION: Alteration of fecal Trp metabolism mediated by microbiota is associated with intestinal barrier function and tissue Trp metabolism, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of CRC.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382241

RESUMO

Nature has been inspiring scientists to fabricate impact protective materials for applications in various aspects. However, it is still challenging to integrate flexible, stiffness-changeable, and protective properties into a single polymer, although these merits are of great interest in many burgeoning areas. Herein, we report an impact-protective supramolecular polymeric material (SPM) with unique impact-hardening and reversible stiffness-switching characteristics by mimicking sea cucumber dermis. The emergence of softness-stiffness switchability and subsequent protective properties relies on the dynamic aggregation of the nanoscale hard segments in soft transient polymeric networks modulated by quadruple H-bonding. As such, we demonstrate that our SPM could efficiently reduce the impact force and increase the buffer time of the impact. Importantly, we elucidate the underlying mechanism behind the impact hardening and energy dissipation in our SPM. Based on these findings, we fabricate impact- and puncture-resistant demos to show the potential of our SPM for protective applications.

12.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 169: 109445, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340788

RESUMO

In the research, the Nuclide Identification and Quantitative Analysis System (NIQAS) for the identification of hazardous goods was designed and optimized by MCNP simulations. With the D-T neutron generator and HPGe detector set as the core of device, the modules, including reflector, moderator and shielding, etc., were optimized by a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) evaluation method. Moreover, the NIQAS device was set up for measuring the hazardous goods, and the type identification was discussed based on the established logical decision. Finally, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) was designed and the minimum detection time was further investigated.

13.
J Immunol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298617

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Tocilizumab, an inhibitor of IL-6, has been widely repurposed as a treatment of severely ill patients without robust evidence supporting its use. In this study, we aimed to systematically describe the effectiveness of treatment and prevention of the cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. In this multicentered retrospective and observational cohort study, 65 patients with COVID-19 receiving tocilizumab and 130 not receiving tocilizumab were propensity score matched at a ratio of 2:1 based on age, sex, and comorbidities from January 20, 2020 to March 18, 2020 in Wuhan, China. After adjusting for confounding, the detected risk for in-hospital death was lower in the tocilizumab group versus nontocilizumab group (hazard ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval = 0.25-0.90; p = 0.023). Moreover, use of tocilizumab was associated with a lower risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio = 0.23; 95% confidence interval = 0.11-0.45; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, patients had heightened inflammation and more dysregulated immune cells before treatment, which might aggravate disease progression. After tocilizumab administration, abnormally elevated IL-6, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and activated partial thromboplastin time decreased. Tocilizumab may be of value in prolonging survival in patients with severe COVID-19, which provided a novel strategy for COVID-19-induced cytokine release syndrome. Our findings could inform bedside decisions until data from randomized, controlled clinical trials become available.

14.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 178, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2) protein levels are known to be significantly increased in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases and are associated with the diagnosis and/or prognosis of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and various types of cancers. However, no data regarding the relationship between ANGPTL2 and diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are available. Here, we explored the potential link between ANGPTL2 and DFUs. METHODS: A total of 68 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited, including 28 patients with DFU and 40 diabetic patients without DFUs. The clinical characteristics of T2DM patients with and without DFUs were compared. Serum concentrations of ANGPTL2 and VEGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The correlations between ANGPTL2 and clinical variables were analyzed. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were constructed to test the associations between ANGPTL2 and the severity and presence of DFUs. RESULTS: Serum levels of ANGPTL2 were higher in patients with DFUs than those in diabetic controls. Serum ANGPTL2 levels were higher in the advanced stages of DFUs. Spearman correlation analysis revealed strong positive associations of ANGPTL2 with CRP, VEGF and ESR in all subjects. In addition, serum ANGPTL2 was still positively correlated with DFUs stage after adjusting the risk factors. After adjusting for age, sex, HbA1C and duration of diabetes, ANGPTL2 was found to be independently associated with the presence of DFUs. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating ANGPTL2 levels are an independent risk factor for DFUs. This suggests that ANGPTL2 may play important roles in the development of DFUs, a possibility that needs to investigated in prospective studies.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323553

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate changes of plasma cytokines and to develop machine learning classifiers for predicting non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. RESULTS: There were 12 plasma cytokines significantly higher in the non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy group in the pilot cohort. The validation cohort showed that angiopoietin 1, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 were significantly higher in the NPDR group. Machine learning algorithms using the random forest yielded the best performance, with sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 75%, PPV of 82.8%, NPV of 88.2% and area under the curve of 0.84. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma angiopoietin 1, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 were associated with presence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and may be good biomarkers that play important roles in pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In pilot cohort, 60 plasma cytokines were simultaneously measured. In validation cohort, angiopoietin 1, CXC-chemokine ligand 16, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 were validated using ELISA kits. Machine learning algorithms were developed to build a prediction model for non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 14071-14080, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196171

RESUMO

Amino acids are very important for oolong tea brisk-smooth mouthfeel which is mainly associated with bruising and withering treatment (BWT). In this study, metabolome and transcriptome analyses were performed to comprehensively investigate the changes in abundance of amino acids and the expression pattern of relevant genes during BWT of oolong tea manufacturing. Levels of most amino acids increased during BWT in the leaves harvested from 4 cultivars, while expression of the relevant function genes responsible for synthesis and transformation of amino acids up-regulated accordingly. Upstream hub genes including receptor-like protein kinase IKU2, serine/threonine-protein kinase PBL11, MYB transcription factor MYB2, ethylene-responsive transcription factor ERF114, WRKY transcription factor WRKY71, aspartate aminotransferase AATC, UDP-glycosyltransferase U91D1, and 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate aldolase 2 RRAA2, were predicted to be involved in regulation of the function genes expression and the amino acids metabolism through weighted gene coexpression network analysis. A modulation mechanism for accumulation of amino acids during BWT was also proposed. These findings give a deep insight into the metabolic reprogramming mechanism of amino acids during BWT of oolong tea.

17.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 72, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150137

RESUMO

Highlights: Over half of male acute coronary syndrome patients were smokers in China.Smoking was associated with higher risk of critical cardiac symptoms at admission.Only 35.3% of smoking patients received smoking cessation interventions in China. Background: Smoking cessation is recognized as an effective and cost-effective strategy for improving the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease. Despite this, few studies have evaluated the smoking prevalence and provision of smoking cessation interventions among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in China. Objectives: To evaluate the smoking prevalence, clinical conditions and in-hospital outcomes associated with smoking, and the provision of smoking cessation interventions among ACS patients in China. Methods: This registry study was conducted using data from the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China project, a collaborative nationwide registry of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. Our study sample comprised 92,509 ACS inpatients admitted between November 2014 and December 2018. A web-based data collection platform was used to report required data. Results: Smoking prevalence among male and female ACS patients was 52.4% and 8.0%, respectively. Patients younger than 45 years had the highest smoking rate (men: 68.0%; women: 14.9%). Compared with non-smokers, smokers had an earlier onset age of ACS and a greater proportion of severe clinical manifestations at admission, including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (67.8% versus 54.8%; p < 0.001) and substantially elevated myocardial injury markers (86.1% versus 83.0%; p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, smoking was associated with higher risk of critical cardiac symptoms at admission (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20; p < 0.001) and had no direct association with in-hospital outcomes (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02; p = 0.107) of ACS patients. Of 37,336 smokers with ACS, only 35.3% received smoking cessation interventions before discharge. There was wide variation in provision of smoking cessation interventions across hospitals (0%-100%). Conclusions: Smoking is highly prevalent among ACS patients in China. However, smoking cessation interventions are not widely adopted in clinical practice in China as part of formal treatment strategies for ACS patients, indicating an important target for quality improvement. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02306616.

18.
Environ Res ; : 110510, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245888

RESUMO

Lead is a known reproductive, developmental, and neurological toxicant. Workers with a high likelihood of being exposed to lead at work may inadvertently transport lead home from work, known as "take-home exposure." This is concerning for many workers for whom a workplace intervention is not feasible because their worksites and employers often change, rendering centralized strategies insufficient. This study aimed to better understand the connection between lead in the home of workers living with children and work in construction (n=23), while other occupations were used as a comparison group (janitorial n=5, autobody n=2). Thirty workers living in disadvantaged communities in the Greater Boston area were recruited in 2018-2019 through collaboration with non-profits and worker unions with expertise working with low-income or immigrant workers. Construction workers that performed renovations, bridge constructions, welding, metal work, and demolitions were prioritized during recruitment. During a visit to their residences, a worker questionnaire was administered, and observations and a dust vacuumed sample of the home were collected. Factors predicting lead in home dust were explored by a bivariate analysis and a multivariable regression model. We found lead in homes' dust in the range of 20-8,310ppm. Homes of construction workers generally had higher and more variable lead dust concentrations (mean 775, max 8,300ppm) than autobody and janitor worker homes combined (mean 296, max 579ppm). Five of the construction workers' home lead dust concentrations exceeded US guidelines for yard soil in children's play areas of 400ppm, and were similar to other studies of homes near lead smelters, superfund sites, or in the Boston area in the early 1990s, pointing to disparities relating to work. Results from the multivariable regression model suggest that lead dust in homes of workers was associated with sociodemographic-, home-, and work-related factors, and pointed to overlapping vulnerabilities; however, a larger sample size is needed to verify findings. Results provide evidence that work-related factors are important to consider when assessing home exposures, and that take-home exposures for workers in lead high-risk jobs such as construction may be an important source of exposure in the home prime for public health intervention at work, home, and community levels.

19.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(12): 7618-7631, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231445

RESUMO

A major field of current research in chemistry and biology is the development of the tools that enable in situ analysis of complex systems. However, the long-time dynamics simulation for an extremely large system in solution is almost impossible by an all-atom force field combined with an explicit solvent model. The results show that the larger the periodic box is, the closer the properties of the system are to the experimental values. Therefore, how can we carry out simulations for systems that are fast, accurate, and large enough? A method of dividing the periodic box into subdivisions with their surroundings (DBSS) is presented here, and it clearly increases the computation speed without losing accuracy and enables the simulation of extremely large systems by strongly decreasing the dimension of the charge matrix. The DBSS method divides a single periodic box or unit in an extremely large system into several subdivisions with a suitable choice according to atomic coordinates. This method ensures that these subdivisions are always changing and allows the atoms to communicate with each other. Intermolecular communication is important for molecular properties and functions but is not possible with other fragment methods. The partial charges are calculated in each subdivision with an overlapping surrounding used to take hydrogen bond interaction between the subdivisions into account. This is an iterative process because the charge population will be recalculated at intervals during the dynamics simulations. Taking a water system as an example, each subdivision is extended by 4 Å as the surrounding. The computation time scales almost linearly with the size of the system, and the slope is small. MD simulations for several properties have been performed by the ABEEM-DBSS method. The results indicate that the ABEEM-DBSS method can accurately simulate the properties of water system, and the accuracy can reach or approach that of the experimental data or of other water potentials. Interestingly, the properties become closer to the experimental data as the sizes of the periodic box increase, further validating the need for the simulation of a large system and demonstrating the value of the DBSS method.

20.
Herz ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood glucose levels are associated with the prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reflects the average blood glucose level. The purpose of the study was to evaluate HbA1c as a prognostic indicator for ACS. METHODS: In total, 27,337 ACS patients from the CCC-ACS (Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China - Acute Coronary Syndrome) project were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups according to HbA1c level: Group I, HbA1c level <5.7%; Group II, HbA1c level 5.7-6.4%; Group III, HbA1c level ≥6.5%. The primary outcome was an in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), such as all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction, acute or subacute stent thrombosis, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest. Baseline data and effectiveness outcome were compared among patients in the three groups. RESULTS: Group III had the highest MACE incidence (13.4% [Group III] vs. 8.7% [Group I] and 10.5% [Group II], p < 0.001). In the logistic regression, there was a statistically significant difference in HbA1c level between the groups (odds ratio [OR]: 1.110, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.008-1.133, p < 0.001). In the receiver operating characteristic curve, the area under the curve for MACE was 0.560 (95% CI: 0.550-0.571, p < 0.001); the cut-off value for the HbA1c level was 6.38%. CONCLUSION: The HbA1c level was associated with the risk of MACEs in ACS patients with or without diabetes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02306616. Registered 3 December 2014-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02306616 .

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