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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557311

RESUMO

Aleurites moluccanus (candlenut) and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut) are marketed as dietary supplements for weight loss. These dietary supplements have been found to sometimes be adulterated with toxic nuts/seeds from Cascabela thevetia, commonly known as yellow oleander or lucky nut. This study emphasizes the key identification parameters to differentiate the genuine and adulterated nuts. Samples were obtained from authenticated sources of the nuts and from commercial sources of dietary supplements. This study examined 38 samples, including voucher and commercial samples. All eight commercial candlenut dietary supplement samples were adulterated. Additionally, two samples sold as Brazil nuts were also found to be adulterated. Other nuts were screened for the presence of Cardiac Glycosides, but none were found to be positive. The presence of yellow oleander was confirmed in all commercial dietary supplement samples marketed as candlenut as well as in commercial samples of Brazil nut. This study provides simple key identification characters using micro-morphology and histochemical localization of cardiac glycosides in the commercial nuts, HPTLC fingerprints, and LC-DAD-Q-ToF analytical parameters to detect and identify adulteration in commercial products.

3.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 35(1): 22, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526601

RESUMO

Biodegradable porous Mg scaffolds are a promising approach to bone repair. In this work, 3D-spherical porous Mg-1.5Zn-0.2Ca (wt.%) scaffolds were prepared by vacuum infiltration casting technology, and MgF2 and fluorapatite coatings were designed to control the degradation behavior of Mg-based scaffolds. The results showed that the pores in Mg-based scaffolds were composed of the main spherical pores (450-600 µm) and interconnected pores (150-200 µm), and the porosity was up to 74.97%. Mg-based porous scaffolds exhibited sufficient mechanical properties with a compressive yield strength of about 4.04 MPa and elastic modulus of appropriately 0.23 GPa. Besides, both MgF2 coating and fluorapatite coating could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of porous Mg-based scaffolds. In conclusion, this research would provide data support and theoretical guidance for the application of biodegradable porous Mg-based scaffolds in bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Porosidade , Apatitas , Zinco
4.
iScience ; 27(4): 109407, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532885

RESUMO

Converging studies showed interstitial fluid (ISF) adjacent to blood vessels flows in adventitia along vasculature into heart and lungs. We aim to reveal circulatory pathways and regulatory mechanism of such adventitial ISF flow in rat model. By MRI, real-time fluorescent imaging, micro-CT, and histological analysis, ISF was found to flow in adventitial matrix surrounded by fascia and along systemic vessels into heart, then flow into lungs via pulmonary arteries and back to heart via pulmonary veins, which was neither perivascular tissues nor blood or lymphatic vessels. Under physiological conditions, speckle-like adventitial ISF flow rate was positively correlated with heart rate, increased when holding breath, became pulsative during heavy breathing. During cardiac or respiratory cycle, each dilation or contraction of heart or lungs can generate to-and-fro adventitial ISF flow along femoral veins. Discovered regulatory mechanisms of adventitial ISF flow along vasculature by heart and lungs will revolutionize understanding of cardiovascular system.

5.
Exp Ther Med ; 27(5): 198, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544557

RESUMO

Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is steadily becoming the standard of care for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with an increasing number of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). However, only a small number of reports on the occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with HCC treated with ICIs have been published. In the present study, the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and prognosis of three patients with advanced HCC were reported, who suffered immune-related DM when receiving treatment with ICIs. Furthermore, the relevant literature was reviewed in order to summarize clinical manifestations, possible mechanisms, diagnosis, prognosis of rechallenge and recommended management options, as well as clinical treatment suggestions. ICI-induced diabetes is rare but irAEs are potentially fatal, as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is often the first manifestation. The incidence of immune-related DM is 0.86% and among those cases, the incidence of DKA is 59%. The combination of two ICIs markedly increases the risk. The human leukocyte antigen genotype, islet autoantibodies and autoreactive T cell-mediated ß-cell destruction may be linked to the occurrence of immune-related DM. Patient education and clinicians' awareness of ICI-related DM are good management options. Adequate clinical judgment, close monitoring and early detection are also needed to decide whether to continue immunotherapy or to rechallenge it, so as to achieve the maximum benefit of clinical treatment.

6.
Updates Surg ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526694

RESUMO

Therapeutic options for large or locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have limited efficacy. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting beads trans-arterial chemo-embolization (dTACE), portal vein embolization (PVE), tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) compared to Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) for large or locally advanced HCC.Data regarding clinicopathological details, safety, and oncological outcomes were reviewed for the quadruple therapy (dTACE-PVE-TKI-ICI) and compared with ALPPS.From 2019 to 2020, 10 patients with large or locally advanced HCC underwent future remnant liver (FRL) modulation (dTACE-PVE-TKI-ICI: 5; ALPPS: 5). All five dTACE-PVE-TKI-ICI cases responded well, with patients #4 and #5 achieving complete tumor necrosis. The overall response rate (ORR) was 5/5. Patients #1-4 underwent hepatectomy, while #5 declined surgery due to complete tumor necrosis. Mean FRL volume increased by 75.3% (range 60.0%-89.4%) in 2-4 months, compared to 104.6% (range 51.3%-160.8%) in 21-37 days for ALPPS (P = 0.032). Major postoperative complications occurred in 1/5 ALPPS patients. Resection rates were 4/4 for quadruple therapy and 5/5 for ALPPS. 2-year progression free survival for dTACE-PVE-TKI-ICI and ALPPS were 5/5 and 3/5, respectively.Quadruple therapy is a feasible, effective strategy for enhancing resectability by downsizing tumors and inducing FRL hypertrophy, with manageable complications and improved long-term prognosis. In addition, it provokes the re-examination of the application of ALPPS in an era of molecular and immune treatments.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(4)2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399097

RESUMO

There is limited research on the fracture toughness of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials under accelerated UV aging conditions. In this study, the primary focus was on investigating the influence of varying durations of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at different temperatures on the Mode I, Mode II, and mixed-mode fracture toughness of CFRP laminates. The results indicate that with increasing UV aging duration, the material's Mode I fracture toughness increases, while Mode II fracture toughness significantly decreases. The mixed-mode fracture toughness exhibits an initial increase followed by a subsequent decrease. Furthermore, as the aging temperature increases, the change in the fracture toughness of the material is more obvious and the rate of change is faster. In addition, the crack expansion of the composite layer of crack-containing Type IV hydrogen storage cylinders was analyzed based on the extended finite element method in conjunction with the performance data after UV aging. The results reveal that cracks in the aged composite material winding layers become more sensitive, with lower initiation loads and longer crack propagation lengths under the same load. UV aging diminishes the overall load-bearing capacity and crack resistance of the hydrogen storage cylinder, posing increased safety risks during its operational service.

8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366876

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is among the most common musculoskeletal illnesses, yet its underlying biochemical mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the causal relationship between the genetically determined blood metabolites and sarcopenia, with the overall objective of identifying likely molecular pathways for sarcopenia. We used 2-sample MR to investigate the effects of blood metabolites on sarcopenia-related traits. 452 metabolites were exposure, and 3 sarcopenia-related traits as the outcomes: handgrip strength, appendicular lean mass, and walking pace. The inverse-variance weighted (IVW) causal estimates were determined. For sensitivity analysis, methods such as MR-Egger regression, the weighted median, the weighted mode, and the heterogeneity test were used. Additionally, for complementation, we performed replication, meta-analysis, and metabolic pathway analyses. Candidate biomarkers were defined by meeting one of the following criteria: (1) significant metabolites are defined as pIVW < pBonferroni [1.11 × 10-4 (.05/452)]; (2) strong metabolites are defined as 4 MR methods p < .05; and (3) suggestive metabolites are defined as passing sensitivity analysis. Three metabolites (creatine, 1-arachidonoylglycerophosphocholine, and pentadecanoate [15:0]) with significant causality, 3 metabolites (glycine, 1-arachidonoylglycerophosphocholine, and epiandrosterone sulfate) with strong causality, and 25 metabolites (including leucylleucin, pyruvic acid, etc.) with suggestive causality were associated with sarcopenia-related traits. After further replication analyses and meta-analysis, these metabolites maintained substantial effects on sarcopenia-related traits. We additionally identified 14 important sarcopenia-related trait metabolic pathways. By combining metabolomics with genomics, these candidate metabolites and metabolic pathways identified in our study may provide new clues regarding the mechanisms underlying sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Sarcopenia/genética , Metaboloma , Fenótipo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
10.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 45: 101021, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352242

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence, epidemiological and clinical heterogeneities, and impact profiles of individuals with preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm), pre-COPD, young COPD, and mild COPD in general Chinese population were not known yet. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Pulmonary Health study (2012-2015), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that recruited 50,991 adults aged 20 years or older. Definitions of the four early disease status were consistent with the latest publications and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Findings: The age-standardised prevalences of PRISm, pre-COPD, young COPD, and mild COPD were 5.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.3-6.9), 7.2% (5.9-8.8), 1.1% (0.7-1.8), and 3.1% (2.5-3.8), respectively. In summary, mild COPD was under more direct or established impact factor exposures, such as older age, male gender, lower education level, lower family income, biomass use, air pollution, and more accumulative cigarette exposures; young COPD and pre-COPD experienced more personal and parents' events in earlier lives, such as history of bronchitis or pneumonia in childhood, frequent chronic cough in childhood, parental history of respiratory diseases, passive smoke exposure in childhood, and mother exposed to passive smoke while pregnant; pre-COPD coexisted with heavier symptoms and comorbidities burdens; young COPD exhibited worse airway obstruction; and most of the four early disease status harbored small airway dysfunction. Overall, older age, male gender, lower education level, living in the urban area, occupational exposure, frequent chronic cough in childhood, more accumulated cigarette exposure, comorbid with cardiovascular disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease were all associated with increased presence of the four early COPD status; different impact profiles were additionally observed with distinct entities. Over the four categories, less than 10% had ever taken pulmonary function test; less than 1% reported a previously diagnosed COPD; and no more than 13% had received pharmaceutical treatment. Interpretation: Significant heterogeneities in prevalence, epidemiological and clinical features, and impact profiles were noted under varied defining criteria of early COPD; a unified and validated definition for an early disease stage is warranted. Closer attention, better management, and further research need to be administrated to these population. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Institute of Respiratory Medicine Grant for Young Scholars (No. 2023-ZF-9); China International Medical Foundation (No. Z-2017-24-2301); Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (No. 2021-I2M-1-049); National High Level Hospital Clinical Research Funding (No. 2022-NHLHCRF-LX-01); Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 82090011).

11.
Carbohydr Res ; 536: 109053, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310807

RESUMO

The purity, content, and structure of the polysaccharides prepared from a specific medicinal plant are the fundamental basis to interpret the observed biological activities. An ultrafiltration-based method has been developed for rapid preparation of total and fractional polysaccharides from Radix Astragali in high yield and purity. This method involves extraction of plant material by hot water, treatment with Sevag reagent, and ultrafiltration using molecular weight cutoff concentrators. The prepared polysaccharides were assessed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, providing general purity, fingerprinting, and structural information. This method may be used to efficiently screen polysaccharides in plants.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Prótons , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Polissacarídeos
12.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 189-204, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-576

RESUMO

Delayed wound healing is an urgent clinical issue. Cellular communication involving exosome-borne cargo such as miRNA is a critical mechanism involved in wound healing. This study isolated and identified human adipose tissue-derived exosomes (Exo-ATs). The specific effects of Exo-ATs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts were examined. Enriched miRNAs in Exo-ATs were analyzed, and miR-92a-3p was selected. The transfer of Exo-ATs-derived miR-92a-3p to keratinocytes and fibroblasts was verified. miR-92a-3p binding to LATS2 was examined and the dynamic effects of the miR-92a-3p/LATS2 axis were investigated. In a dorsal skin wound model, the in vivo effects of Exo-ATs on wound healing were examined. Exo-AT incubation increased keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. miR-92a-3p, enriched in Exo-ATs, could be transferred to keratinocytes and fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation. Large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) was a direct target of miR-92a-3p. miR-92a-3p inhibitor effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be partially reversed by LATS2 knockdown. In a dorsal skin wound model, Exo-ATs accelerated wound healing through enhanced cell proliferation, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and YAP/TAZ activation. In conclusion, Exo-ATs improve skin wound healing by promoting keratinocyte and fibroblast migration and proliferation and collagen production by fibroblast, which could be partially eliminated by miR-92a inhibition through its downstream target LATS2 and the YAP/TAZ signaling. (AU)


Assuntos
Exossomos , Cicatrização , Proliferação de Células
13.
J. physiol. biochem ; 80(1): 189-204, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229950

RESUMO

Delayed wound healing is an urgent clinical issue. Cellular communication involving exosome-borne cargo such as miRNA is a critical mechanism involved in wound healing. This study isolated and identified human adipose tissue-derived exosomes (Exo-ATs). The specific effects of Exo-ATs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts were examined. Enriched miRNAs in Exo-ATs were analyzed, and miR-92a-3p was selected. The transfer of Exo-ATs-derived miR-92a-3p to keratinocytes and fibroblasts was verified. miR-92a-3p binding to LATS2 was examined and the dynamic effects of the miR-92a-3p/LATS2 axis were investigated. In a dorsal skin wound model, the in vivo effects of Exo-ATs on wound healing were examined. Exo-AT incubation increased keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. miR-92a-3p, enriched in Exo-ATs, could be transferred to keratinocytes and fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation. Large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) was a direct target of miR-92a-3p. miR-92a-3p inhibitor effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be partially reversed by LATS2 knockdown. In a dorsal skin wound model, Exo-ATs accelerated wound healing through enhanced cell proliferation, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and YAP/TAZ activation. In conclusion, Exo-ATs improve skin wound healing by promoting keratinocyte and fibroblast migration and proliferation and collagen production by fibroblast, which could be partially eliminated by miR-92a inhibition through its downstream target LATS2 and the YAP/TAZ signaling. (AU)


Assuntos
Exossomos , Cicatrização , Proliferação de Células
14.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr ; 13(1): 3-15, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322199

RESUMO

Background: We aim to investigate the prevalence, patterns, risk factors, and outcomes of peritoneal metastases (PM) after curative laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A multicenter cohort of 2,138 HCC patients who underwent curative LH from August 2010 to December 2016 from seven hospitals in China was retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of PM following LH was evaluated and compared with that in open hepatectomy (OH) after 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). Results: PM prevalence was 5.1% (15/295) in the early period [2010-2013], 2.6% (47/1,843) in the later period [2014-2016], and 2.9% (62/2,138) in all LH patients, which was similar to 4.0% (59/1,490) in the OH patients. The recurrence patterns, timing, and treatment did not significantly vary between the LH and OH patients (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that tumor diameter >5 cm, non-anatomical resection, presence of microvascular invasion, and lesions <2 cm from major blood vessels were independent risk factors of PM after LH. Of the 62 cases with PM, 26 (41.9%) had PM only, 34 (54.9%) had intrahepatic recurrence (IHR) and PM, and 2 (3.2%) had synchronous extraperitoneal metastases (EPM). Patients with resectable PM had a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 65.0% compared to 9.0% for unresectable PM (P=0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence, patterns and independent risk factors of PM were identified for HCC patients after LH. LH was not associated with increased incidence of PM in HCC patients for experienced surgeons. Surgical re-excision of PM was associated with prolonged survival.

15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e53170, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is a known risk factor for offspring developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether the increased COPD risk associated with MSDP could be attributed to tobacco dependence (TD). METHODS: This case-control study used data from the nationwide cross-sectional China Pulmonary Health study, with controls matched for age, sex, and smoking status. TD was defined as smoking within 30 minutes of waking, and the severity of TD was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. COPD was diagnosed when the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was <0.7 in a postbronchodilator pulmonary function test according to the 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlation between MSDP and COPD, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, educational attainment, place of residence, ethnic background, occupation, childhood passive smoking, residential fine particulate matter, history of childhood pneumonia or bronchitis, average annual household income, and medical history (coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes). Mediation analysis examined TD as a potential mediator in the link between MSDP and COPD risk. The significance of the indirect effect was assessed through 1000 iterations of the "bootstrap" method. RESULTS: The study included 5943 participants (2991 with COPD and 2952 controls). Mothers of the COPD group had higher pregnancy smoking rates (COPD: n=305, 10.20%; controls: n=211, 7.10%; P<.001). TD was more prevalent in the COPD group (COPD: n=582, 40.40%; controls: n=478, 33.90%; P<.001). After adjusting for covariates, MSDP had a significant effect on COPD (ß=.097; P<.001). There was an association between MSDP and TD (ß=.074; P<.001) as well as between TD and COPD (ß=.048; P=.007). Mediation analysis of TD in the MSDP-COPD association showed significant direct and indirect effects (direct: ß=.094; P<.001 and indirect: ß=.004; P=.03). The indirect effect remains present in the smoking population (direct: ß=.120; P<.001 and indirect: ß=.002; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the potential association between MSDP and the risk of COPD in offspring, revealing the mediating role of TD in this association. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure on lung health, laying the groundwork for the development of relevant prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Tabagismo , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Fumar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 917: 170375, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280598

RESUMO

Dryland biodiversity is decreasing at an alarming rate. Advanced intelligent tools are urgently needed to rapidly, automatedly, and precisely detect dryland threatened species on a large scale for biological conservation. Here, we explored the performance of three deep convolutional neural networks (Deeplabv3+, Unet, and Pspnet models) on the intelligent recognition of rare species based on high-resolution (0.3 m) satellite images taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). We focused on a threatened species, Populus euphratica, in the Tarim River Basin (China), where there has been a severe population decline in the 1970s and restoration has been carried out since 2000. The testing results showed that Unet outperforms Deeplabv3+ and Pspnet when the training samples are lower, while Deeplabv3+ performs best as the dataset increases. Overall, when training samples are 80, Deeplabv3+ had the best overall performance for Populus euphratica identification, with mean pixel accuracy (MPA) between 87.31 % and 90.2 %, which, on average is 3.74 % and 11.29 % higher than Unet and Pspnet, respectively. Deeplabv3+ can accurately detect the boundaries of Populus euphratica even in areas of dense vegetation, with lower identification uncertainty for each pixel than other models. This study developed a UAV imagery-based identification framework using deep learning with high resolution in large-scale regions. This approach can accurately capture the variation in dryland threatened species, especially those in inaccessible areas, thereby fostering rapid and efficient conservation actions.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Biodiversidade , China
17.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(2)2024 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256784

RESUMO

Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) are the key enzymes accountable for the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to varied triterpenoids and phytosterols. Hoodia gordonii (from the family Apocynaceae), a native of the Kalahari deserts of South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana, is being sold as a prevalent herbal supplement for weight loss. The appetite suppressant properties are attributed to P57AS3, an oxypregnane steroidal glycoside. At the molecular level, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenes and phytosterols from H. gordonii have not been previously reported. In the current study, predicted transcripts potentially encoding oxidosqualene cyclases were recognized first by searching publicly available H. gordonii RNA-seq datasets. Two OSC-like sequences were selected for functional analysis. A monofunctional OSC, designated HgOSC1 which encodes lupeol synthase, and HgOSC2, a multifunctional cycloartenol synthase forming cycloartenol and other products, were observed through recombinant enzyme studies. These studies revealed that distinct OSCs exist for triterpene formation in H. gordonii and provided opportunities for the metabolic engineering of specific precursors in producing phytosterols in this plant species.

18.
J Physiol Biochem ; 80(1): 189-204, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041784

RESUMO

Delayed wound healing is an urgent clinical issue. Cellular communication involving exosome-borne cargo such as miRNA is a critical mechanism involved in wound healing. This study isolated and identified human adipose tissue-derived exosomes (Exo-ATs). The specific effects of Exo-ATs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts were examined. Enriched miRNAs in Exo-ATs were analyzed, and miR-92a-3p was selected. The transfer of Exo-ATs-derived miR-92a-3p to keratinocytes and fibroblasts was verified. miR-92a-3p binding to LATS2 was examined and the dynamic effects of the miR-92a-3p/LATS2 axis were investigated. In a dorsal skin wound model, the in vivo effects of Exo-ATs on wound healing were examined. Exo-AT incubation increased keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. miR-92a-3p, enriched in Exo-ATs, could be transferred to keratinocytes and fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation. Large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) was a direct target of miR-92a-3p. miR-92a-3p inhibitor effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be partially reversed by LATS2 knockdown. In a dorsal skin wound model, Exo-ATs accelerated wound healing through enhanced cell proliferation, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and YAP/TAZ activation. In conclusion, Exo-ATs improve skin wound healing by promoting keratinocyte and fibroblast migration and proliferation and collagen production by fibroblast, which could be partially eliminated by miR-92a inhibition through its downstream target LATS2 and the YAP/TAZ signaling.


Assuntos
Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
19.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 31(2): 80-87, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38009077

RESUMO

Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is an uncommon malignancy involving the renal pelvis and ureter. Careful pathologic analysis plays a critical role in the diagnosis and clinical management of UTUC. In combination with clinical and radiologic evaluation, pathologic features can be used to stratify patients into low-risk and high-risk groups. This risk stratification can help clinicians select the optimal treatment for patients with UTUC, such as kidney-sparing (conservative) treatment, radical nephroureterectomy or ureterectomy, and perioperative systemic therapy. However, due to the technical difficulty of obtaining sufficient tissue from the upper urinary tract, it is often challenging for pathologists to accurately grade the tumor and assess tumor invasion in small biopsy specimens. Although the majority of UTUCs are pure urothelial carcinoma, a considerable subset of UTUCs show histologic subtypes or divergent differentiation. Recent studies have identified genetically distinct molecular subtypes of UTUC by examining DNA, RNA, and protein expression profiles. The prognosis of pT3 UTUC, particularly renal pelvic UC, remains controversial, and several studies have proposed subclassification of pT3 UTUC. Lynch syndrome is a significant risk factor for UTUC, and screening tests may be considered in young patients and those with familial histories of the disease. Despite significant progress in recent years, several issues remain to be addressed in the pathologic diagnosis, molecular classification, and treatment of UTUC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias Renais , Ureter , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Sistema Urinário , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Ureter/patologia , Ureter/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia
20.
J Environ Manage ; 350: 119612, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035503

RESUMO

The effects of global climate change and human activities are anticipated to significantly impact ecosystem services (ESs), particularly in urban agglomerations of arid regions. This paper proposes a framework integrating the dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), system dynamics (SD) model, patch generation land use simulation (PLUS) model, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model for predicting land use change and optimizing ESs spatial patterns that is built upon the SSP-RCP scenarios from CMIP6. This framework is applied to the oasis urban agglomeration on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang (UANSTM), China. The findings indicate that both the SD model and PLUS model can accurately forecast the distribution of future land use. The SD model shows a relative error of less than 2.32%, while the PLUS model demonstrates a Kappa coefficient of 0.89. The land use pattern displays obvious spatial heterogeneity under different climate scenarios. The expansion of cultivated land and construction land is the main form of land use change in UANSTM in the future. The DBN model proficiently simulates the interactive relationships between ESs and diverse factors. The classification error rates for net primary productivity (NPP), habitat quality (HQ), water yield (WY), and soil retention (SR) are 20.04%, 3.47%, 4.45%, and 13.42%, respectively. The prediction and diagnosis of DBN determine the optimal ESs development scenario and the optimal ESs region in the study area. It is found that the majority of ESs in UANSTM are predominantly influenced by natural factors with the exception of HQ. The socio-economic development plays a minor role in such urban agglomerations. This study offers significant insights that can contribute to the fields of ecological protection and land use planning in arid urban agglomerations worldwide.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Solo , China
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