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1.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481754

RESUMO

Despite the diverse etiologies of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), innate immunity activation is a common feature involved in DILI progression. However, the involvement of innate immunity regulation in inflammation resolution and liver regeneration in DILI remains obscure. Herein, we identified the chemokine CCL5 as a central mediator of innate immunity regulation in the pathogenesis of DILI. First, we showed that serum and hepatic CCL5 levels are elevated in both DILI patients and an APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) mouse model. Interestingly, both nonparenchymal cells and stressed hepatocytes are cell sources of CCL5 induction in response to liver injury. Functional experiments showed that CCL5 deficiency has no effect on the early phase of AILI but promotes liver repair in the late phase mainly by promoting inflammation resolution and liver regeneration, which are associated with an increased number of hepatic M2 macrophages. Mechanistically, CCL5 can directly activate M1 polarization and impede M2 polarization through the CCR1- and CCR5-mediated activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. We then showed that CCL5 inhibition mediated by either a CCL5-neutralizing antibody or the antagonist Met-CCL5 can greatly alleviate liver injury and improve survival in an AILI mouse model. Our data demonstrate CCL5 induction during DILI, identify CCL5 as a novel innate immunity regulator in macrophage polarization, and suggest that CCL5 blockage is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DILI.

2.
Brain Behav ; : e01407, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that generally starts slowly and leads to deterioration over time. Finding biomarkers more effective to predict AD transition is important for clinical medicine. And current research indicated that the lesion regions occur in both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). METHODS: This paper extracted BOLD time series from WM and GM, combined WM and GM together for analysis, constructed functional connectivity (FC) of static (sWGFC) and dynamic (dWGFC) between WM and GM, as well as static (sGFC) and dynamic (dGFC) FC within GM in order to evaluate the methods and areas most useful as feature sets for distinguishing NC from AD. These features will be evaluated using support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. RESULTS: The FC constructed by WM BOLD time series based on fMRI showed widely differences between the AD group and NC group. In terms of the results of the classification, the performance of feature subsets selected from sWGFC was better than sGFC, and the performance of feature subsets selected from dWGFC was better than dGFC. Overall, the feature subsets selected from dWGFC was the best. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that there is a wide range of disconnection between WM and GM in AD, and association between WM and GM based on fMRI only is an effective strategy, and the FC between WM and GM could be a potential biomarker in the process of cognitive impairment and AD.

3.
Appl Opt ; 58(21): 5780-5787, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503881

RESUMO

This work focuses on the use, for the first time to our knowledge, of dual laser beams in photothermal-effect-based propulsion of small size objects at liquid interfaces. Compared with the single-laser mode, dual-laser-actuated operation turns out to be much more controllable with high quality, efficiency, and anti-interference capacity, which can be achieved through automated programming instead of through manual operation. A series of experiments were carried out to verify the principle, with the effects of laser power, laser-spot distance, and movement speed discussed in detail. The findings of this work might provide some insights into the development of intelligent macro/micro-operation systems for manipulating objects at different scales, such as drug particles and cells at liquid interfaces in the future.

4.
Neurosci Bull ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502213

RESUMO

Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Our previous studies have shown that SVHRP is neuroprotective in models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to explore the potential neuroprotective effects of SVHRP on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, using a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and a cellular model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). Our results showed that SVHRP treatment decreased the neurological deficit scores, edema formation, infarct volume and neuronal loss in the MCAO/R mice, and protected primary neurons against OGD/R insult. SVHRP pretreatment suppressed the alterations in protein levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and phosphorylated p38 MAPK as well as some proinflammatory factors in both the animal and cellular models. These results suggest that SVHRP has neuroprotective effects against cerebral I/R injury, which might be associated with inhibition of the NMDA-MAPK-mediated excitotoxicity.

5.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448676

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of no residual cancer tissue in the chemotherapy regression area (CRA) of hepatoblastoma after preoperative chemotherapy and to measure the distance between the tumor capsule and the residual cancer nests. Methods: All the tissues in the CRAs of the resected specimens were excised. HE staining and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the frequency of residual cancer tissue in the CRA, and the distances between the residual cancer nests and the tumor capsule were measured. Results: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. The tumor volume decreased after chemotherapy by an average of 619 ml. Of the 30 patients, the CRAs of 18 still had residual cancer nests. The longest distance between the residual cancer nest and tumor capsule was 11.2 mm. Conclusions: After chemotherapy, 60% of patients still had residual cancer nests in CRAs, the furthest distance was 11.2 mm.

6.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452237

RESUMO

Previous studies have implicated protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) as a key regulator in inflammation-associated diseases; however, its role in ulcerative colitis (UC) remains largely unknown. Thus, we aim to elucidate the potential role and underlying mechanism of PTPRO in UC. In this study, increased expression of PTPRO, toll-like receptor (TLR4) and inflammatory cytokines were observed in mucosal tissues (MTs) from inflamed areas and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) of patients with UC compared with those from healthy controls. Then, it was manifested that PTPRO promoted the expression of TLR4 and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS-induced) inflammatory macrophage model. Besides, PTPRO inhibited the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) but enhanced the apoptosis of IECs in macrophages. Moreover, levels of phosphorylated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/p65 and inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) were more significantly increased in PTPRO overexpressed macrophages. In addition, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.807 (95%CI = 0.686-0.958, P < .001) suggesting PTPRO as an ideal diagnostic marker for UC. Taken these, the present study shows strong evidence that PTPRO exaggerates inflammation in UC via TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

7.
BMC Urol ; 19(1): 78, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is the most common complication of diabetes. However, the underlying pathogenesis of cultured negative LUTS (cn-LUTS) in diabetic patients has not been well understood. Numerous evidence indicates that urinary dysbiosis is related to urologic disorders. We aim to study alterations of the urinary microbiota of cn-LUTS in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. METHODS: Female T2D patients and controls were recruited and requested to finish the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Mid-stream urine was collected for culturing and extracting DNA. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed by targeting to 16S rDNA. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was carried out to identify significantly different bacteria. RESULTS: 32 female T2D patients and 26 controls were enrolled. No significant differences in alpha diversity were observed between patients and controls. However, statistically decreased richness (ACE index and Chao 1 index, 85.52(13.75, 204.84) vs. 129.82(63.89, 280.30) and 83.86(11.00, 210.77) vs. 125.19(62.00, 251.77), P = 0.005; Observed Species, 76(10, 175) vs. 98(54, 234), P = 0.011) and decreased species diversity (Shannon index, 1.37(0.04, 3.48) vs. 2.09(0.98, 3.43), P = 0.033; Simpson index, 0.46 (0.06, 0.99) vs. 0.23(0.07, 0.64), P = 0.029) were shown in moderate-to-severe LUTS group and high Hemoglobin A1c group, respectively. A significant difference of beta diversity was found between T2D patients and controls and T2D patients with different severity of cn-LUTS as well as the different level of Hemoglobin A1c. LEfSe revealed that 10 genera (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella) were increased and 7 genera were decreasing in T2D patients, 3 genera (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella and Campylobacter) were increased and 16 genera (e.g., Prevotella) were reduced in moderate-to-severe LUTS group, 2 genera (Escherichia-Shigella and Lactobacillus) were over-represented and 10 genera (e.g., Prevotella) were under-represented in high Hemoglobin A1c group. Finally, Hemoglobin A1c was found positively correlated with the total score of the American Urological Association Symptom Index (r = 0.509, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary dysbiosis may be related to cn-LUTS in female T2D patients. A better understanding of urinary microbiota in the development and progression of cn-LUTS in female T2D patients was necessary. The severity of cn-LUTS was correlated to hyperglycemia and chronic hyperglycemia might induce or promote cn-LUTS by influencing urinary microbiota.

8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2165-2170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418218

RESUMO

Combined with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset, vegetation type data, and meteorological data, we revealed the variation of vegetation growth responses to air temperature in the growing-season during 1982-2015 in Xinjiang, using the moving-windows based partial correlation analysis, the unitary linear regression analysis and GIS spatial analysis. Results showed that, in the whole growing-seasons of study period, there was a significant downturn trend in the responses of vegetation growth to temperature. At the seasonal scale, the downturn trend was obvious especially in summer and autumn, while it was in adverse in spring. During the whole gro-wing season, the responses of different vegetation types to air temperature change showed a decreasing trend. Seasonally, the responses of grassland and forest to temperature change showed a significant increase, while that of shrubland and desert were exactly the opposite in spring. The responses of all natural vegetation (grassland, shrubland, desert and forest) to temperature change showed a significant decreasing trend in summer, whereas their responses in autumn had no significant statistical characteristics. Spatially, the decreasing influence of temperature on the vegetation growth during the growing season in Xinjiang was universal, which might be due to the change in precipitation and solar radiation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , China , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
J Exp Bot ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408172

RESUMO

Embryogenesis is an essential process during seed development in higher plant. Our previous work has showed that mutations of AtNSE1 or AtNSE3 would lead to early embryo abortion, and their proteins could interact with each other directly. However, the crucial regions of these proteins in this interaction, and how the proteins are cytologically involved in Arabidopsis embryo development are unknown. Here, we found that AtNSE1 can interact with the N-terminal of AtNSE3 by the C-terminal including the Ring-like motif, and only the Ring-like motif is essential for binding with three α motifs of AtNSE2/AtMMS21. Furthermore, by genetic assays and analyzing the molecular markers of cell fate decisions (STM, WOX5 and WOX8) in nse1 and nse3 embryos, we found that AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 worked non-redundantly in early embryo development, and the differentiation of apical meristem and the hypophysis was failed in the mutants which have disrupted auxin response and transportation. Besides that, the upper cells of suspensor in the mutants seem to have embryo proper cell identity. Cytological evidences showed that cell death occurred from early embryo stage, and the vacuolar programmed cell death and necrosis, occurred in nse1 and nse3 mutant embryos led to ovule aborted. As a result, AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 are essential for maintaining cell viability and growth during early embryogenesis. Our finding shed light on our understanding of the functions of SMC5/6 complex on early embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.

12.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454147

RESUMO

Alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5) is a member of medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family and takes part in cellular formaldehyde and S-nitrosoglutathione metabolic network. 2-tridecanone (2-TD) is a toxic compound in many Solanaceae crops to defend against a variety of herbivory insects. In the broader context of insect development and pest control strategies, this study investigates how a new ADH5 from Helicoverpa armigera (HaADH5) regulates the expression of CYP6B6, a gene involved in molting and metamorphosis, in response to 2-TD treatment. Cloning of the HaADH5 complementary DNA sequence revealed that its 1002 bp open reading frame encodes 334 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 36.5 kD. HaADH5 protein was purified in the Escherichia coli Transetta (pET32a-HaADH5) strain using a prokaryotic expression system. The ability of HaADH5 protein to interact with the 2-TD responsive region within the promoter of CYP6B6 was confirmed by an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transcription activity validation in yeast. Finally, the expression levels of both HaADH5 and CYP6B6 were found to be significantly decreased in the midgut of 6th instar larvae after 48 h of treatment with 10 mg/g 2-TD artificial diet. These results indicate that upon 2-TD treatment of cotton bollworm, HaADH5 regulates the expression of CYP6B6 by interacting with its promoter. As HaADH5 regulation of CYP6B6 expression may contribute to the larval xenobiotic detoxification, molting and metamorphosis, HaADH5 is a candidate target for controlling the growth and development of cotton bollworm.

13.
Pharmacol Res ; 148: 104403, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425750

RESUMO

The gut microbiota and its short chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites have been established to play an important protective role against neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that cerebral ischemic stroke triggers dysfunctional gut microbiota and increased intestinal permeability. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism by which gut microbiota and SCFAs can treat cerebral ischemic stroke in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion models and use the information to develop new therapies. Our results show that oral administration of non-absorbable antibiotics reduced neurological impairment and the cerebral infarct volume, relieved cerebral edemas, and decreased blood lipid levels by altering the gut microbiota. We also found that ischemic stroke decreased intestinal levels of SCFAs. And that transplanting fecal microbiota rich in these metabolites was an effective means of treating the condition. Compared with other SCFAs, butyric acid showed the highest negative correlation with ischemic stroke. Supplementation with butyric acid treated models of ischemic stroke effectively by remodeling the gut microbiota, enriching the beneficial Lactobacillus, and repairing the leaky gut. In conclusion, interfering with the gut microbiota by transplanting fecal bacteria rich in SCFAs and supplementing with butyric acid were found to be effective treatments for cerebral ischemic stroke.

14.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469486

RESUMO

Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) play critical roles in plant development and response to abiotic stresses. Here, we found that a rice lipid transfer protein, OsLTPL159, was associated with cold tolerance at the early seedling stage. Overexpression of an OsLTPL159IL 112 allele from the cold-tolerant introgression line IL112 in either the japonica variety Zhonghua17 (ZH17) or the indica variety Teqing background dramatically enhanced cold tolerance. In addition, down-regulation of the expression of OsLTPL159 in the japonica variety ZH17 by RNA interference (RNAi) significantly decreased cold tolerance. Further transcriptomic, physiological and histological analysis showed that the OsLTPL159IL 112 allele likely enhanced the cold tolerance of rice at the early seedling stage by decreasing the toxic effect of reactive oxygen species, enhancing cellulose deposition in the cell wall and promoting osmolyte accumulation, thereby maintaining the integrity of the chloroplasts. Notably, overexpression of another allele, OsLTPL159GC 2 , from the recipient parent Guichao 2 (GC2), an indica variety, did not improve cold tolerance, indicating that the variations in the OsLTPL159 coding region of GC2 might disrupt its function for cold tolerance. Further sequence comparison found that all 22 japonica varieties surveyed had an OsLTPL159 haplotype identical to IL112 and were more cold-tolerant than the surveyed indica varieties, implying that the variations in OsLTPL159 might be associated with differential cold tolerance of japonica and indica rice. Therefore, our findings suggest that the OsLTPL159 allele of japonica rice could be used to improve cold tolerance of indica rice through a molecular breeding strategy.

15.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(8): 644-654, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391594

RESUMO

Capabilities in real-time monitoring of internal physiological processes could inform pharmacological drug-delivery schedules, surgical intervention procedures and the management of recovery and rehabilitation. Current methods rely on external imaging techniques or implantable sensors, without the ability to provide continuous information over clinically relevant timescales, and/or with requirements in surgical procedures with associated costs and risks. Here, we describe injectable classes of photonic devices, made entirely of materials that naturally resorb and undergo clearance from the body after a controlled operational lifetime, for the spectroscopic characterization of targeted tissues and biofluids. As an example application, we show that the devices can be used for the continuous monitoring of cerebral temperature, oxygenation and neural activity in freely moving mice. These types of devices should prove useful in fundamental studies of disease pathology, in neuroscience research, in surgical procedures and in monitoring of recovery from injury or illness.

16.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395285

RESUMO

This paper presents a robot skill acquisition framework for learning and reproducing humanoid trajectories with complex forms. A new unsupervised segmentation method is proposed to detect motion units in the demonstrated kinematic data using the concept of key points. To find the consistent features of trajectories, a Hidden Semi-Markov Model (HSMM) is used to identify key points common to all the demonstrations. Generalizing the motion units is achieved via a Probability-based Movement Primitive (PbMP), which encapsulates multiple trajectories into one model. Such a framework can generate trajectories suitable for robot execution with arbitrary shape and complexity from a small number of demonstrations, which greatly expands the application scenarios of robot programming by demonstration. The automatic segmentation process does not rely on a priori knowledge or models for specific tasks, and the generalized trajectory retains more consistent features than those produced by other algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework through simulations and experiments.

17.
18.
Genome ; 62(9): 635-642, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283885

RESUMO

Low temperature is a vital effector of rice at different growth stages. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in responding to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we confirmed the cold tolerance of Dongxiang common wild rice and explored the miRNAs differentially expressed under cold stress using genome-wide small RNA sequencing. In total, 16 miRNAs, nine upregulated and seven downregulated by cold stress, were characterized in Dongxiang common wild rice, and their target genes were predicted. Additionally, an AgriGO analysis of the target genes revealed that they were enriched in several terms related to cold-stress tolerance, suggesting a complex response mechanism, involving miRNAs, to cold stress in Dongxiang common wild rice.

19.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2451-2459, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322491

RESUMO

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating wheat diseases in Ethiopia. To study virulence genetics of the pathogen, 117 progeny isolates were produced through sexual reproduction of an Ethiopian isolate of the stripe rust pathogen on Berberis holstii plants under controlled conditions. The parental and progeny isolates were characterized by phenotyping on wheat lines carrying single Yr genes for resistance and genotyped using 10 polymorphic simple sequence repeated (SSR) markers. The progeny isolates were classified into 37 virulence phenotypes and 75 multilocus genotypes. The parental isolate and progeny isolates were all avirulent to resistance genes Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr24, Yr32, YrTr1, YrSP, and Yr76 but virulent to Yr1 and Yr2, indicating that the parental isolate was homozygous avirulent or homozygous virulent at these loci. The progeny isolates segregated for virulence to 12 Yr genes. Virulence phenotypes to Yr6, Yr28, Yr43, and Yr44 were controlled by a single dominant gene; those to Yr7, Yr9, Yr17, Yr27, Yr25, Yr31, and YrExp2 were each controlled by two dominant genes; and the virulence phenotype to Yr8 was controlled by two complementary dominant genes. A linkage map was constructed with seven SSR markers, and 16 virulence loci corresponding to 11 Yr resistance genes were mapped with some loci linked to each other. These results are useful in understanding host-pathogen interactions and selecting resistance genes to develop wheat cultivars with highly effective resistance to stripe rust.

20.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 55(8): 604-613, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359348

RESUMO

Sertoli cells (SCs) are necessary for proper germ cell development and viability. Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase (ULK1) protein kinase is an important regulator of autophagy activation. This study aims to investigate the role of autophagy promoter ULK1 on cell viability of goat SCs. Our results showed that ULK1 knockdown in goat SCs decreased autophagy activation, which was confirmed by decreased expression of autophagy-related markers including LC3, Beclin1, Atg5, and Atg7 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, lower ULK1 levels resulted in decreased expressions of goat SC marker genes ABP, AMH, FASL, and GATA4. However, a reverse trend of these parameters occurred when the goat SCs were transfected with ULK1 overexpression construct; higher ULK1 levels in goat SCs also decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Moreover, ULK1 overexpression in goat SCs activated the autophagy levels when cells were exposed to an environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA). The above results indicated that ULK1 gene might play important roles in goat SC function by regulating cell viability.

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