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1.
Plant Cell ; 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299379

RESUMO

The flower-infecting fungus Ustilaginoidea virens causes rice false smut, which is a severe emerging disease threatening rice (Oryza sativa) production worldwide. False smut not only reduces yield, but more importantly produces toxins on grains, posing a great threat to food safety. U. virens invades spikelets via the gap between the two bracts (lemma and palea) enclosing the floret and specifically infects the stamen and pistil. Molecular mechanisms for the U. virens-rice interaction are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rice flowers predominantly employ chitin-triggered immunity against U. virens in the lemma and palea, rather than in the stamen and pistil. We identify a crucial U. virens virulence factor, named UvGH18.1, which carries glycoside hydrolase activity. Mechanistically, UvGH18.1 functions by binding to and hydrolyzing immune elicitor chitin and interacting with the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR BINDING PROTEIN (OsCEBiP) and co-receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (OsCERK1) to impair their chitin-induced dimerization, suppressing host immunity exerted at the lemma and palea for gaining access to the stamen and pistil. Conversely, pretreatment on spikelets with chitin induces a defense response in the lemma and palea, promoting resistance against U. virens. Collectively, our data uncover a mechanism for a U. virens virulence factor and the critical location of the host-pathogen interaction in flowers and provide a potential strategy to control rice false smut disease.

2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 22(1): 116-130, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752622

RESUMO

Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.1 (RPW8.1) is an important tool for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance against multiple pathogens. Ectopic expression of RPW8.1 leads to enhanced disease resistance with cell death at leaves and compromised plant growth, implying a regulatory mechanism balancing RPW8.1-mediated resistance and growth. Here, we show that RPW8.1 constitutively enhances the expression of transcription factor WRKY51 and activates salicylic acid and ethylene signalling pathways; WRKY51 in turn suppresses RPW8.1 expression, forming a feedback regulation loop. RPW8.1 and WRKY51 are both induced by pathogen infection and pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns. In ectopic expression of RPW8.1 background (R1Y4), overexpression of WRKY51 not only rescues the growth suppression and cell death caused by RPW8.1, but also suppresses RPW8.1-mediated broad-spectrum disease resistance and pattern-triggered immunity. Mechanistically, WRKY51 directly binds to and represses RPW8.1 promoter, thus limiting the expression amplitude of RPW8.1. Moreover, WRKY6, WRKY28 and WRKY41 play a role redundant to WRKY51 in the suppression of RPW8.1 expression and are constitutively upregulated in R1Y4 plants with WRKY51 being knocked out (wrky51 R1Y4) plants. Notably, WRKY51 has no significant effects on disease resistance or plant growth in wild type without RPW8.1, indicating a specific role in RPW8.1-mediated disease resistance. Altogether, our results reveal a regulatory circuit controlling the accumulation of RPW8.1 to an appropriate level to precisely balance growth and disease resistance during pathogen invasion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Retroalimentação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
3.
Molecules ; 28(4)2023 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36838918

RESUMO

Confusoside (CF), a major chemical compound in the leaves of Anneslea fragrans Wall., is a dihydrochalcone glycoside with excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the hepatoprotective effect of CF has not been described. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective effect of CF against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic injury in HepG2 cells. First, the potential hepatoprotective effect mechanisms of CF were predicted by network pharmacology and were thought to involve reducing inflammation and inhibiting apoptosis. Target proteins (phosphatidylinositol3-kinase (PI3K) and caspase-3 (CASP3)) were found via molecular docking analysis. To verify the predicted results, an analysis of biological indicators was performed using commercial kits and Western blotting. The results showed that CF significantly decreased the levels of liver injury biomarkers (ALT, AST, and LDH), strongly inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and the NO level via inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and markedly regulated the expression levels of Bcl2, Bax, and cleaved-CASP3/9 proteins by activating the PI3K-CASP3 apoptosis pathway. The results demonstrated that CF has a therapeutic effect on APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting intracellular inflammation and cell apoptosis, indicating that CF may be used as a potential reagent for the prevention and treatment of APAP-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Humanos , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células Hep G2 , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
4.
Nat Plants ; 9(2): 228-237, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646829

RESUMO

Crops with broad-spectrum resistance loci are highly desirable in agricultural production because these loci often confer resistance to most races of a pathogen or multiple pathogen species. Here we discover a natural allele of proteasome maturation factor in rice, UMP1R2115, that confers broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Ustilaginoidea virens and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Mechanistically, this allele increases proteasome abundance and activity to promote the degradation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes including peroxidase and catalase upon pathogen infection, leading to elevation of H2O2 accumulation for defence. In contrast, inhibition of proteasome function or overexpression of peroxidase/catalase-encoding genes compromises UMP1R2115-mediated resistance. More importantly, introduction of UMP1R2115 into a disease-susceptible rice variety does not penalize grain yield while promoting disease resistance. Our work thus uncovers a broad-spectrum resistance pathway integrating de-repression of plant immunity and provides a valuable genetic resource for breeding high-yield rice with multi-disease resistance.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Alelos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
5.
New Phytol ; 238(1): 367-382, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522832

RESUMO

Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.2 (RPW8.2) is specifically induced by the powdery mildew (PM) fungus (Golovinomyces cichoracearum) in the infected epidermal cells to activate immunity. However, the mechanism of RPW8.2-induction is not well understood. Here, we identify a G. cichoracearum effector that interacts with RPW8.2, named Gc-RPW8.2 interacting protein 1 (GcR8IP1), by a yeast two-hybrid screen of an Arabidopsis cDNA library. GcR8IP1 is physically associated with RPW8.2 with its REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE finger domain that is essential and sufficient for the association. GcR8IP1 was secreted and translocated into the nucleus of host cell infected with PM. Association of GcR8IP1 with RPW8.2 led to an increase in RPW8.2 in the nucleus. In turn, the nucleus-localized RPW8.2 promoted the activity of the RPW8.2 promoter, resulting in transcriptional self-amplification of RPW8.2 to boost immunity at infection sites. Additionally, ectopic expression or host-induced gene silencing of GcR8IP1 supported its role as a virulence factor in PM. Altogether, our results reveal a mechanism of RPW8.2-dependent defense strengthening via altered partitioning of RPW8.2 and transcriptional self-amplification triggered by a PM fungal effector, which exemplifies an atypical form of effector-triggered immunity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ascomicetos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
6.
Mol Plant ; 15(11): 1790-1806, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245122

RESUMO

Grain formation is fundamental for crop yield but is vulnerable to abiotic and biotic stresses. Rice grain production is threatened by the false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens, which specifically infects rice floral organs, disrupting fertilization and seed formation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the U. virens-rice interaction and the genetic basis of floral resistance. Here, we report that U. virens secretes a cytoplasmic effector, UvCBP1, to facilitate infection of rice flowers. Mechanistically, UvCBP1 interacts with the rice scaffold protein OsRACK1A and competes its interaction with the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase OsRBOHB, leading to inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although the analysis of natural variation revealed no OsRACK1A variants that could avoid being targeted by UvCBP1, expression levels of OsRACK1A are correlated with field resistance against U. virens in rice germplasm. Overproduction of OsRACK1A restores the OsRACK1A-OsRBOHB association and promotes OsRBOHB phosphorylation to enhance ROS production, conferring rice floral resistance to U. virens without yield penalty. Taken together, our findings reveal a new pathogenic mechanism mediated by an essential effector from a flower-specific pathogen and provide a valuable genetic resource for balancing disease resistance and crop yield.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/microbiologia , Sementes
7.
New Phytol ; 236(6): 2216-2232, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101507

RESUMO

Rice production is threatened by multiple pathogens. Breeding cultivars with broad-spectrum disease resistance is necessary to maintain and improve crop production. Previously we found that overexpression of miR160a enhanced rice blast disease resistance. However, it is unclear whether miR160a also regulates resistance against other pathogens, and what the downstream signaling pathways are. Here, we demonstrate that miR160a positively regulates broad-spectrum resistance against the causative agents of blast, leaf blight and sheath blight in rice. Mutations of miR160a-targeted Auxin Response Factors result in different alteration of resistance conferred by miR160a. miR160a enhances disease resistance partially by suppressing ARF8, as mutation of ARF8 in MIM160 background partially restores the compromised resistance resulting from MIM160. ARF8 protein binds directly to the promoter and suppresses the expression of WRKY45, which acts as a positive regulator of rice immunity. Mutation of WRKY45 compromises the enhanced blast resistance and bacterial leaf blight resistance conferred by arf8 mutant. Overall, our results reveal that a microRNA coordinates rice broad-spectrum disease resistance by suppressing multiple target genes that play different roles in disease resistance, and uncover a new regulatory pathway mediated by the miR160a-ARF8 module. These findings provide new resources to potentially improve disease resistance for breeding in rice.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal
8.
Rice (N Y) ; 15(1): 40, 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876915

RESUMO

Flower opening and stigma exertion are two critical traits for cross-pollination during seed production of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we demonstrate that the miR167d-ARFs module regulates stigma size and flower opening that is associated with the elongation of stamen filaments and the cell arrangement of lodicules. The overexpression of miR167d (OX167d) resulted in failed elongation of stamen filaments, increased stigma size, and morphological alteration of lodicule, resulting in cleistogamy. Blocking miR167d by target mimicry also led to a morphological alteration of the individual floral organs, including a reduction in stigma size and alteration of lodicule cell morphology, but did not show the cleistogamous phenotype. In addition, the four target genes of miR167d, namely ARF6, ARF12, ARF17, and ARF25, have overlapping functions in flower opening and stigma size. The loss-of-function of a single ARF gene did not influence the flower opening and stigma size, but arf12 single mutant showed a reduced plant height and aborted apical spikelets. However, mutation in ARF12 together with mutation in either ARF6, ARF17, or ARF25 led to the same defective phenotypes that were observed in OX167d, including the failed elongation of stamen filaments, increased stigma size, and morphological alteration of lodicule. These findings indicate that the appropriate expression of miR167d is crucial and the miR167d-ARFs module plays important roles in the regulation of flower opening and stigma size in rice.

9.
Org Biomol Chem ; 20(20): 4101-4104, 2022 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537202

RESUMO

A selective arylation of donor-acceptor diazo compounds with aniline derivatives catalyzed by Lewis acidic boranes is developed. This simple reaction protocol provides an efficient method for the synthesis of diarylacetates under metal-free conditions.


Assuntos
Boranos , Compostos Azo , Catálise
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 788876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498644

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causative agent of rice blast, a devastating disease in rice worldwide. Based on the gene-for-gene paradigm, resistance (R) proteins can recognize their cognate avirulence (AVR) effectors to activate effector-triggered immunity. AVR genes have been demonstrated to evolve rapidly, leading to breakdown of the cognate resistance genes. Therefore, understanding the variation of AVR genes is essential to the deployment of resistant cultivars harboring the cognate R genes. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of eight known AVR genes, namely, AVR-Pita1, AVR-Pii, AVR-Pia, AVR-Pik, AVR-Pizt, AVR-Pi9, AVR-Pib, and AVR-Pi54 in a total of 383 isolates from 13 prefectures in the Sichuan Basin. We detected the presence of AVR-Pik, AVR-Pi54, AVR-Pizt, AVR-Pi9, and AVR-Pib in the isolates of all the prefectures, but not AVR-Pita1, AVR-Pii, and AVR-Pia in at least seven prefectures, indicating loss of the three AVRs. We also detected insertions of Pot3, Mg-SINE, and indels in AVR-Pib, solo-LTR of Inago2 in AVR-Pizt, and gene duplications in AVR-Pik. Consistently, the isolates that did not harboring AVR-Pia were virulent to IRBLa-A, the monogenic line containing Pia, and the isolates with variants of AVR-Pib and AVR-Pizt were virulent to IRBLb-B and IRBLzt-t, the monogenic lines harboring Pib and Piz-t, respectively, indicating breakdown of resistance by the loss and variations of the avirulence genes. Therefore, the use of blast resistance genes should be alarmed by the loss and nature variations of avirulence genes in the blast fungal population in the Sichuan Basin.

11.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 20(4): 646-659, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726307

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in plant development and defence responses against various stresses. Here, we show that blocking miR1871 improves rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae and enhances grain yield simultaneously. The transgenic lines overexpressing miR1871 (OX1871) exhibit compromised resistance, suppressed defence responses and reduced panicle number resulting in slightly decreased yield. In contrast, the transgenic lines blocking miR1871 (MIM1871) show improved resistance, enhanced defence responses and significantly increased panicle number leading to enhanced yield per plant. The RNA-seq assay and defence response assays reveal that blocking miR1871 resulted in the enhancement of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Intriguingly, miR1871 suppresses the expression of LOC_Os06g22850, which encodes a microfibrillar-associated protein (MFAP1) locating nearby the cell wall and positively regulating PTI responses. The mutants of MFAP1 resemble the phenotype of OX1871. Conversely, the transgenic lines overexpressing MFAP1 (OXMFAP1) or overexpressing both MFAP1 and miR1871 (OXMFAP1/OX1871) resemble the resistance of MIM1871. The time-course experiment data reveal that the expression of miR1871 and MFAP1 in rice leaves, panicles and basal internode is dynamic during the whole growth period to manipulate the resistance and yield traits. Our results suggest that miR1871 regulates rice yield and immunity via MFAP1, and the miR8171-MFAP1 module could be used in rice breeding to improve both immunity and yield.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Magnaporthe/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Rice (N Y) ; 14(1): 87, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674053

RESUMO

microRNAs act as fine-tuners in the regulation of plant growth and resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Here we demonstrate that rice miR1432 fine-tunes yield and blast disease resistance via different modules. Overexpression of miR1432 leads to compromised resistance and decreased yield, whereas blocking miR1432 using a target mimic of miR1432 results in enhanced resistance and yield. miR1432 suppresses the expression of LOC_Os03g59790, which encodes an EF-hand family protein 1 (OsEFH1). Overexpression of OsEFH1 leads to enhanced rice resistance but decreased grain yield. Further study revealed that miR1432 and OsEFH1 are differentially responsive to chitin, a fungus-derived pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP/MAMP). Consistently, blocking miR1432 or overexpression of OsEFH1 improves chitin-triggered immunity responses. In contrast, overexpression of ACOT, another target gene regulating rice yield traits, has no significant effects on rice blast disease resistance. Altogether, these results indicate that miR1432 balances yield and resistance via different target genes, and blocking miR1432 can simultaneously improve yield and resistance.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 729560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527014

RESUMO

MicroRNAs fine-tune plant growth and resistance against multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. The trade-off between biomass and resistance can penalize crop yield. In this study, we have shown that rice miR530 regulates blast disease resistance, yield, and growth period. While the overexpression of miR530 results in compromised blast disease resistance, reduced grain yield, and late maturity, blocking miR530 using a target mimic (MIM530) leads to enhanced resistance, increased grain yield, and early maturity. Further study revealed that the accumulation of miR530 was decreased in both leaves and panicles along with the increase of age. Such expression patterns were accordant with the enhanced resistance from seedlings to adult plants, and the grain development from panicle formation to fully-filled seeds. Divergence analysis of miR530 precursor with upstream 1,000-bp promoter sequence in 11 rice species revealed that miR530 was diverse in Oryza sativa japonica and O. sativa indica group, which was consistent with the different accumulation of miR530 in japonica accessions and indica accessions. Altogether, our results indicate that miR530 coordinates rice resistance, yield, and maturity, thus providing a potential regulatory module for breeding programs aiming to improve yield and disease resistance.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 733245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421978

RESUMO

Ustilaginoidea virens is a biotrophic fungal pathogen specifically colonizing rice floral organ and causes false smut disease of rice. This disease has emerged as a serious problem that hinders the application of high-yield rice cultivars, by reducing grain yield and quality as well as introducing mycotoxins. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of U. virens are still enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that U. virens employs a secreted protein UvCBP1 to manipulate plant immunity. In planta expression of UvCBP1 led to compromised chitin-induced defense responses in Arabidopsis and rice, including burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose deposition, and expression of defense-related genes. In vitro-purified UvCBP1 protein competes with rice chitin receptor OsCEBiP to bind to free chitin, thus impairing chitin-triggered rice immunity. Moreover, UvCBP1 could significantly promote infection of U. virens in rice flowers. Our results uncover a mechanism of a floral fungus suppressing plant immunity and pinpoint a universal role of chitin-battlefield during plant-fungi interactions.

15.
New Phytol ; 229(1): 516-531, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767839

RESUMO

The Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.1 (RPW8.1) activates confined cell death and defense against different pathogens. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms still remain elusive. Here, we show that RPW8.1 activates ethylene signaling that, in turn, negatively regulates RPW8.1 expression. RPW8.1 binds and stabilizes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 4 (ACO4), which may in part explain increased ethylene production and signaling in RPW8.1-expressing plants. In return, ACO4 and other key components of ethylene signaling negatively regulate RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance via suppressing RPW8.1 expression. Loss of function in ACO4, EIN2, EIN3 EIL1, ERF6, ERF016 or ORA59 increases RPW8.1-mediated cell death and defense response. By contrast, overexpression of EIN3 abolishes or significantly compromises RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance. Furthermore, ERF6, ERF016 and ORA59 appear to act as trans-repressors of RPW8.1, with OAR59 being able to directly bind to the RPW8.1 promoter. Taken together, our results have revealed a feedback regulatory circuit connecting RPW8.1 and the ethylene-signaling pathway, in which RPW8.1 enhances ethylene signaling, and the latter, in return, negatively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and defense response via suppressing RPW8.1 expression to attenuate its defense activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ascomicetos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Resistência à Doença , Etilenos , Retroalimentação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
New Phytol ; 222(3): 1507-1522, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632163

RESUMO

miRNAs contribute to plant resistance against pathogens. Previously, we found that the function of miR398b in immunity in rice differs from that in Arabidopsis. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we characterized the mutants of miR398b target genes and demonstrated that multiple superoxide dismutase genes contribute to miR398b-regulated rice immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Out of the four target genes of miR398b, mutations in Cu/Zn-Superoxidase Dismutase1 (CSD1), CSD2 and Os11g09780 (Superoxide DismutaseX, SODX) led to enhanced resistance to M. oryzae and increased hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation. By contrast, mutations in Copper Chaperone for Superoxide Dismutase (CCSD) resulted in enhanced susceptibility. Biochemical studies revealed that csd1, csd2 and sodx displayed altered expression of CSDs and other superoxide dismutase (SOD) family members, leading to increased total SOD enzyme activity that positively contributed to higher H2 O2 production. By contrast, the ccsd mutant showed CSD protein deletion, resulting in decreased CSD and total SOD enzyme activity. Our results demonstrate the roles of different SODs in miR398b-regulated resistance to rice blast disease, and uncover an integrative regulatory network in which miR398b boosts total SOD activity to upregulate H2 O2 concentration and thereby improve disease resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnaporthe , MicroRNAs/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Plant J ; 98(1): 55-70, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552775

RESUMO

The extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) is a host-derived interfacial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew fungi. Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.2 (RPW8.2) is specifically targeted to the EHM via two EHM-targeting signals. Here, we demonstrate that proper coordination between the trafficking forces engaged via the EHM-targeting signals and the nuclear localization signals (NLSs), as well as the nuclear export signals (NESs), in RPW8.2 is critical for the activation of cell death and defense. We show that in the absence of pathogens, RPW8.2 is partitioned between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and turned over via both the 26S proteasome- and the vacuole-dependent pathways. Enhanced cytoplasmic localization of RPW8.2 by tagging it with a NES led to lethal cell death. By contrast, enhanced nuclear localization of RPW8.2 by adding an NLS to it resulted in resistance to powdery mildew. Whereas expression of the NES-containing C-terminal domain of RPW8.2 in the cytoplasm is sufficient to trigger cell death, no such cell death-inducing activity is found with RPW8.2 variants that contain the two EHM-targeting signals along with the NES-containing C-terminal domain. In addition, we present evidence for the involvement of a leaf senescence pathway in RPW8.2-mediated cell death and defense. Taken together, our data suggest that RPW8.2 is subject to adjustment by distinct and perhaps coordinated mechanisms for its localization and function via interaction with the multiple intramolecular trafficking signals, which should provide further insights into RPW8.2-activated, EHM-focused resistance against powdery mildew.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Morte Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Sinais de Exportação Nuclear , Sinais de Localização Nuclear , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transporte Proteico
18.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1999, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693011

RESUMO

Fitness cost is a common phenomenon in rice blast disease-resistance breeding. MiR396 is a highly conserved microRNA (miRNA) family targeting Growth Regulating Factor (OsGRF) genes. Mutation at the target site of miR396 in certain OsGRF gene or blocking miR396 expression leads to increased grain yield. Here we demonstrated that fitness cost can be trade-off in miR396-OsGRFs module via balancing growth and immunity against the blast fungus. The accumulation of miR396 isoforms was significantly increased in a susceptible accession, but fluctuated in a resistant accession upon infection of Magnaporthe oryzae. The transgenic lines over-expressing different miR396 isoforms were highly susceptible to M. oryzae. In contrast, overexpressing target mimicry of miR396 to block its function led to enhanced resistance to M. oryzae in addition to improved yield traits. Moreover, transgenic plants overexpressing OsGRF6, OsGRF7, OsGRF8, and OsGRF9 exhibited enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, but showed different alteration of growth. While overexpression of OsGRF7 led to defects in growth, overexpression of OsGRF6, OsGRF8, and OsGRF9 resulted in better or no significant change of yield traits. Collectively, our results indicate that miR396 negatively regulates rice blast disease- resistance via suppressing multiple OsGRFs, which in turn differentially control growth and yield. Therefore, miR396-OsGRFs could be a potential module to demolish fitness cost in rice blast disease-resistance breeding.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 2044, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250093

RESUMO

Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) boosts pattern-triggered immunity leading to enhanced resistance to different pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we report that XAP5 CIRCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT, At2g21150) positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance. Forward genetic screen identified the b3-17 mutant that exhibited less cell death and susceptibility to powdery mildew and bacterial pathogens. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation at the 3' splice site of the 8th intron, which resulted in splice shift to 8-bp down-stream of the original splice site of XCT in b3-17, and introduced into a stop codon after two codons leading to a truncated XCT. XCT has previously been identified as a circadian clock gene required for small RNA biogenesis and acting down-stream of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Here we further showed that mutation or down-regulation of XCT by artificial microRNA reduced RPW8.1-mediated immunity in R1Y4, a transgenic line expressing RPW8.1-YFP from the RPW8.1 native promoter. On the contrary, overexpression of XCT in R1Y4 background enhanced RPW8.1-mediated cell death, H2O2 production and resistance against powdery mildew. Consistently, the expression of RPW8.1 was down- and up-regulated in xct mutant and XCT overexpression lines, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that XCT positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance, and provide new insight into the regulatory mechanism of RPW8.1-mediated immunity.

20.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-329472

RESUMO

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the frequency distribution of flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) mutant alleles in 28 populations originating from 24 ethnic minorities in Yunnan of China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>FMO3 genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average frequencies of FMO3/Stop(148), FMO3/Lys(158) and FMO3/Gly(308) were 0.395(0.174-0.803), 0.208 (0.056-0.414), 0.046(0-0.217), respectively. The frequencies of FMO3/Gly(308) in Blang, Huayaodai, Shuidai, Zhuang, De'ang, Jingpo, Nu and Hui populations were null.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It was found that the frequencies of FMO3 mutant alleles varied not only in different ethnic groups, but also in different populations that stemmed from the same ethnic group.</p>


Assuntos
Humanos , Alelos , China , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Mutação , Oxigenases , Genética
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