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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672998

RESUMO

Post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis (PNBM) is one of the severe complications in patients receiving neurosurgical procedures. Recent studies have found microbe-related glycans play important roles in adhesion, invasion, and toxicity toward innate immunological reactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glycomic profile and its potential diagnostic efficacy in post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis (PNBM) patients with hemorrhagic stroke. A total of 136 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were recruited and divided into a PNBM group and a non-PNBM group based on the clinical diagnostic criteria. A lectin biochip-based method was established for the detection of glycans in CSF. The clinicopathological data and biochemical parameters in CSF from all patients were analyzed. Two models for multivariate analysis investigating glycan changes in the CSF were conducted, aiming at determining the specific expression and diagnostic efficacy of lectin-probing glycans (LPGs) for PNBM. In univariate analysis, we found that 8 out of 11 LPGs were significantly correlated with PNBM. Model 1 multivariate analysis revealed that PNA (p = 0.034), Jacalin (p = 0.034) and LTL (p = 0.001) were differentially expressed in the CSF of PNBM patients compared with those of non-PNBM patients. Model 2 multivariate analysis further disclosed that LTL (p = 0.021) and CSF glucose (p < 0.001) had independent diagnostic efficacies in PNBM, with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.703 and 0.922, respectively. In summary, this study provided a new insight into the subject of CSF glycomics concerning bacterial infection in patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

2.
Med Image Anal ; 85: 102750, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682153

RESUMO

Accurate and automatic segmentation of individual tooth and root canal from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images is an essential but challenging step for dental surgical planning. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, which consists of two neural networks, DentalNet and PulpNet, for efficient, precise, and fully automatic tooth instance segmentation and root canal segmentation from CBCT images. We first use the proposed DentalNet to achieve tooth instance segmentation and identification. Then, the region of interest (ROI) of the affected tooth is extracted and fed into the PulpNet to obtain precise segmentation of the pulp chamber and the root canal space. These two networks are trained by multi-task feature learning and evaluated on two clinical datasets respectively and achieve superior performances to several comparing methods. In addition, we incorporate our method into an efficient clinical workflow to improve the surgical planning process. In two clinical case studies, our workflow took only 2 min instead of 6 h to obtain the 3D model of tooth and root canal effectively for the surgical planning, resulting in satisfying outcomes in difficult root canal treatments.

3.
Int Heart J ; 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682766

RESUMO

Epicardial right-sided accessory pathway (AP) ablation is challenging. In rare cases, the atrial insertion of the AP is related to unconventional sites and associated with repeated and complex ablation procedures. In this study, we report a case of right free wall diverticulum-related AP with a distinct surface electrocardiogram (ECG).A 45-year-old male patient with repetitive palpitation for 2 years was referred for an electrophysiological (EP) study. His resting surface ECG showed manifest ventricular preexcitation with a negative delta wave and a "QS" wave in precordial lead V1, which is most consistent with right mid-septal AP.In the EP study, orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia could be easily induced with the earliest atrial activation at the right atrium (RA) free wall, but the AP failed to be blocked by ablating the earliest activation on the tricuspid annulus edge. An epicardial free wall AP was then suspected.Inadvertent catheter manipulation into a narrow and long chamber was noted on the RA geometry. Angiography via contrast injection from the ablation tip revealed a diverticulum extending from the RA to the right ventricle side. The epicardial AP was suspected to be related to this diverticulum. The earliest atrial activation, as shown through a detailed activation mapping, was located at the entrance of the diverticulum. Subsequent ablation at the atrial insertion site successfully abolished the antegrade and retrograde AP conduction without any complication. A postprocedural computed tomography scan proved the presence of a free wall diverticulum associated with the right atrial appendage.A diverticulum-related AP at RA free wall might exhibit surface ECGs mimicking that of an AP at the RA septum. The approach targeting the atrial insertion of the epicardial AP is effective and might be facilitated by clarification of structural malformations prior to the ablation procedure.

4.
New Phytol ; 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683448

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms pose a serious threat to public health due to the presence of cyanotoxins. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) produced by Microcystis aeruginosa is the most common cyanotoxins. Due to the limitation of isolation, purification, and genetic manipulation techniques, it is difficult to study and verify in situ the biosynthetic pathways and molecular mechanisms of MC-LR. We reassembled the biosynthetic gene cluster (mcy cluster) of MC-LR in vitro by synthetic biology, designed and constructed the strong bidirectional promoter biPpsbA2 , transformed it into Synechococcus 7942, and successfully expressed MC-LR at a level of 0.006-0.018 fg cell-1 day-1 . We found the expression of MC-LR led to abnormal cell division and the cellular filamentation, further using various methods proved that by irreversibly competing its GTP binding site, MC-LR inhibits assembly of the cell division protein FtsZ. The study represents the first reconstitution and expression of the mcy cluster and the autotrophic production of MC-LR in model cyanobacterium, which lays the foundation for resolving the microcystins (MCs) biosynthesis pathway. The discovered role of MC-LR in cell division reveals a mechanism of how blooming cyanobacteria gain a competitive edge over their non-blooming counterparts.

5.
Plants (Basel) ; 12(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679025

RESUMO

Drought stress is a key limiting factor for cotton (Gossypium spp.) growth, production, development, and production worldwide. Some wild diploid cotton species are remarkably tolerant of water deficit and constitute an important reservoir for understanding the molecular mechanisms of Gossypium spp. drought tolerance and improving cultivated upland cotton. Here, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to characterize the leaf transcriptomes of a wild African diploid cotton species, Gossypium anomalum, under drought stress. A total of 12,322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified after mapping valid clean reads to the reference genome of G. anomalum, of which 1243 were commonly differentially expressed at all stages of drought stress. These genes were significantly enriched for molecular functions Gene Ontology terms related to cytoskeleton, hydrolase activity, cellular redox, and binding. Additionally, a substantial proportion of enriched biological process terms concerned cell or subcellular processes, while most in the cellular components category concerned membrane function and photosynthesis. An enrichment analysis against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes showed the top significantly enriched pathways to be photosynthesis-antenna proteins, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, MAPK signaling pathway, glutathione metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction. The DEGs also exhibited interestingly significant enrichments for drought stress-induced tandemly repeated genes involved in iron ion binding, oxidoreductase activity, heme binding, and other biological processes. A large number of genes encoding transcription factors, such as MYB, bHLH, ERF, NAC, WRKY, and bZIP, were identified as playing key roles in acclimatizing to drought stress. These results will provide deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Gossypium spp.

6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 121, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624102

RESUMO

Vegetation change can alter surface energy balance and subsequently affect the local climate. This biophysical impact has been well studied for forestation cases, but the sign and magnitude for persistent earth greening remain controversial. Based on long-term remote sensing observations, we quantify the unidirectional impact of vegetation greening on radiometric surface temperature over 2001-2018. Here, we show a global negative temperature response with large spatial and seasonal variability. Snow cover, vegetation greenness, and shortwave radiation are the major driving factors of the temperature sensitivity by regulating the relative dominance of radiative and non-radiative processes. Combined with the observed greening trend, we find a global cooling of -0.018 K/decade, which slows down 4.6 ± 3.2% of the global warming. Regionally, this cooling effect can offset 39.4 ± 13.9% and 19.0 ± 8.2% of the corresponding warming in India and China. These results highlight the necessity of considering this vegetation-related biophysical climate effect when informing local climate adaptation strategies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Temperatura , China , Índia , Ecossistema
7.
Cell Rep ; 42(1): 111987, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640309

RESUMO

T cell activation, proliferation, function, and differentiation are tightly linked to proper metabolic reprogramming and regulation. By using [U-13C]glucose tracing, we reveal a critical role for GOT1 in promoting CD8+ T cell effector differentiation and function. Mechanistically, GOT1 enhances proliferation by maintaining intracellular redox balance and serine-mediated purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Further, GOT1 promotes the glycolytic programming and cytotoxic function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes via posttranslational regulation of HIF protein, potentially by regulating the levels of α-ketoglutarate. Conversely, genetic deletion of GOT1 promotes the generation of memory CD8+ T cells.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154588, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ebracteolatain A (EA) is an acetyl-phloroglucinol compound extracted from Euphorbiae Ebracteolatae Radix, which has been shown to have antitumor activity. PURPOSE: Current research addressed the antitumor activity of EA in breast cancer and further clarified its mechanism. STUDY DESIGN: Based on the pharmacodynamic evaluation in breast cancer cells and animal models, the antitumor effects of EA will be validated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Breast cancer cells were processed with increasing concentrations of EA. CCK-8 and colony formation assays were employed to examine the effects of EA on proliferation and survival. Flow cytometry detected the blocking function of EA on the cell cycle. The specific mechanism of EA in breast cancer was studied by transfection experiments and Western Blot analysis. Finally, a nude mice xenograft tumor model was constructed to assess the therapeutic and potential mechanism of EA. RESULTS: We proved that EA caused a dose-dependent inhibition on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-415 cells with IC50 of 6.164 and 6.623 µmol/l, respectively. While EA reduced cell proliferation and clone formation, and markedly arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase. In vivo, EA remarkably suppressed the tumor weight and volume in xenograft nude mice. Besides, PKD1 reversed the inhibition of EA on breast cancer cell proliferation, clone formation, and cycle arrest, and restored tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Western Blot confirmed that EA regulates breast cancer by suppressing PKD1 in MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: Herein, we first confirmed EA exerts anti-proliferation by inhibiting PKD1 in MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, indicating that EA is a prodigious breast cancer drug candidate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Feminino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Apoptose
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631942

RESUMO

On September 30 and October 1, 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Research on Complex Generics co-sponsored a live virtual workshop titled "Regulatory Utility of Mechanistic Modeling to Support Alternative Bioequivalence Approaches." The overall aims of the workshop included: (i) engaging the generic drug industry and other involved stakeholders regarding how mechanistic modeling and simulation can support their product development and regulatory submissions; (ii) sharing the current state of mechanistic modeling for bioequivalence assessment through case studies; (iii) establishing a consensus on best practices for using mechanistic modeling approaches, such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and computational fluid dynamics modeling, for bioequivalence assessment and (iv) introducing the concept of a Model Master File to improve model-sharing between model developers, industry, and FDA. More than 1500 people registered for the workshop. Based on a post-workshop survey, the majority of participants reported that their fundamental scientific understanding of mechanistic models was enhanced, there was greater consensus on model validation and verification, and regulatory expectations for mechanistic modeling submitted in abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) were clarified by the workshop.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674324

RESUMO

With the rapid development of the economy, we are facing more and more problems, and the construction of ecological civilization has become the focus of our national concern. With the rapid development of network technology, the immediacy of the new media and the huge audience have brought new development trends to the dissemination of environmental information. The number of new environmental media is increasing, but there are still some problems, such as formality, rigid content and lack of innovation, which make it difficult to achieve better communication effects. However, the research on new environmental media is still in its infancy, and there is not yet a set of targeted and specialized new media evaluation systems. Based on the social function of new environmental news media and the social responsibility of media as the entry point, the article establishes a set of index systems to measure the efficiency of environmental news dissemination and proposes corresponding improvement measures accordingly. The results of the study show that the best use of environmental education publicity is at 81.3%. In terms of cognitive efficiency and attitudinal efficacy, the scores of environmental education weibo public numbers were not high, at 60.7% and 71.5%, respectively. From the perspective of ideological and political education, the environmental protection class of WeChat plays a good role in attracting the attention of college students, and can provide ideological and political education to them and improve their ideological awareness. In terms of cognition, new media is responsible for conveying environmental knowledge and concepts to college students, so the development of new media centers on environmental information, and the content directly affects the cognitive level of college students, fully reflecting the importance of cognitive efficacy in new media of environmental education. On attitude efficacy, only one indicator is set for identity shaping, which has the highest score, but the lowest is 4.0, showing that the public number is still not obvious enough in terms of identifying with college student groups, influencing college students' emotions and attitudes. Based on this, this paper points out the problems of the current communication efficiency of environmental education new media through the analysis of the evaluation results and puts forward suggestions to improve its communication efficiency in this regard.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Humanos , Atitude , Estudantes/psicologia , Cognição , Universidades
11.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 14(1): 2, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597116

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, genetic selection and refined nutritional management have extensively been used to increase the growth rate and lean meat production of livestock. However, the rapid growth rates of modern breeds are often accompanied by a reduction in intramuscular fat deposition and increased occurrences of muscle abnormalities, impairing meat quality and processing functionality. Early stages of animal development set the long-term growth trajectory of offspring. However, due to the seasonal reproductive cycles of ruminant livestock, gestational nutrient deficiencies caused by seasonal variations, frequent droughts, and unfavorable geological locations negatively affect fetal development and their subsequent production efficiency and meat quality. Therefore, enrolling livestock in nutritional intervention strategies during gestation is effective for improving the body composition and meat quality of the offspring at harvest. These crucial early developmental stages include embryonic, fetal, and postnatal stages, which have stage-specific effects on subsequent offspring development, body composition, and meat quality. This review summarizes contemporary research in the embryonic, fetal, and neonatal development, and the impacts of maternal nutrition on the early development and programming effects on the long-term growth performance of livestock. Understanding the developmental and metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle, adipose, and fibrotic tissues will facilitate the development of stage-specific nutritional management strategies to optimize production efficiency and meat quality.

12.
Food Chem ; 410: 135473, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641910

RESUMO

The potential binding of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) to bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and ovotransferrin (OTF) at pH 3, 5, and 7 was investigated for the first time. Multiple spectroscopic techniques demonstrated pH-dependent alterations in the conformational characteristics of BLF and OTF upon complexation with C3G. Fluorescence quenching assays showed that their highest binding affinity was at pH 7. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were found to be crucial in molecular dynamics simulations but with significantly lower probabilities of formation at pH 3 (p < 0.05). At pH 7, electrostatic attraction can occur for the negatively charged forms of C3G, and the well-maintained native structures of BLF and OTF may be favorable for stabilizing the C3G binding sites. This study sheds light on the stronger interaction of C3G with BLF/OTF at pH 7, which may have implications for future applications such as anthocyanin stabilization or the development of functional food ingredients.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597353

RESUMO

This workshop report summarizes the presentations and panel discussion related to the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches for food effect assessment, collected from Session 2 of Day 2 of the workshop titled "Regulatory Utility of Mechanistic Modeling to Support Alternative Bioequivalence Approaches." The US Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the Center for Research on Complex Generics organized this workshop where this particular session titled "Oral PBPK for Evaluating the Impact of Food on BE" presented successful cases of PBPK modeling approaches for food effect assessment. Recently, PBPK modeling has started to gain popularity among academia, industries, and regulatory agencies for its potential utility during bioavailability (BA) and/or bioequivalence (BE) studies of new and generic drug products to assess the impact of food on BA/BE. Considering the promises of PBPK modeling in generic drug development, the aim of this workshop session was to facilitate knowledge sharing among academia, industries, and regulatory agencies to understand the knowledge gap and guide the path forward. This report collects and summarizes the information presented and discussed during this session to disseminate the information into a broader audience for further advancement in this area.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638060

RESUMO

Synergistic effect extensively exists in multimetal-involved catalytic or mediated processes of group 11 metals due to their remarkable metallophilic interactions. Herein, we present a multiple synergism model for alkynyl substrates and conduct theoretical investigations on various multimetallic bonding modes and the corresponding synergistic activations. We computationally screen nine alkynyl multisilver coordination modes and sequence their reactivity shown in an intramolecular nucleophilic addition reaction by the trend of active µ4-η1η1η2η2 and µ3-η1η1η2 to the relatively inert µ2-η1η2. The transition-state (TS) stabilization of the high-nuclearity mode mainly comes from the significant negative interaction energies between Agn and the substrate based on the distortion/interaction analysis. Energy decomposition analysis-natural orbitals for chemical valence (EDA-NOCV) analysis further reveals the charge-accepting reservoir effect of the polysilver moiety and the orbital match between the alkynyl group and specific spatial arrangement of silver atoms to account for this efficient activation. In addition, tests on different ligands coordinated to silver atoms show a correlation of the ligand conformation adjustability with the reactivity of the alkynyl unit, and the accommodable η2 activation unit embodies a lower deformation energy than the other homonuclear synergistic modes. Privileged multiple synergistic models have been further evidenced based on on-bench experiments by isolating trisilver and tetrasilver alkynyl complexes. This study not only systematically evaluates the multimetallic synergism of different coordination modes in alkyne activation but also provides a guidance for the future design of multimetallic catalysts.

15.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 61(2): 511-523, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534372

RESUMO

During flexible gastroscopy, physicians have extreme difficulties to self-localize. Camera tracking method such as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has become a research hotspot in recent years, allowing tracking of the endoscope. However, most of the existing solutions have focused on tasks in which sufficient texture information is available, such as laparoscope tracking, and cannot be applied to gastroscope tracking since gastroscopic images have fewer textures than laparoscopic images. This paper proposes a new monocular SLAM framework based on scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and narrow-band imaging (NBI), which extracts SIFT features instead of oriented features from accelerated segment test (FAST) and rotated binary robust independent elementary features (BRIEF) features from gastroscopic NBI images, and performs feature retention based on the response sorting strategy for achieving more matches. Experimental results show that the root mean squared error of the proposed algorithm can reach a minimum of 2.074 mm, and the pose accuracy can be improved by up to 25.73% compared with oriented FAST and rotated BRIEF (ORB)-SLAM. SIFT features and response sorting strategy can achieve more accurate matching in gastroscopic NBI images than other features and homogenization strategy, and the proposed algorithm can also run successfully on real clinical gastroscopic data. The proposed algorithm has the potential clinical value to assist physicians in locating the gastroscope during gastroscopy.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Gastroscópios
16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 634: 675-683, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563424

RESUMO

Rational design of high-performance bifunctional electrocatalysts to accelerate the sluggish oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER) in rechargeable Zn-air batteries remain an enduring challenge. The construction of multicomponent catalysts is a promising solution to achieve this goal. Herein, B and N co-doped interconnecting graphite carbon and carbon nanotube with the decoration of Co and vanadium nitride (VN) nanoparticles (Co/BN-CNT/VN) are synthesized using Co-modified polyoxovanadoborates as precursors. The optimized composite achieves superior bifunctional oxygen electrocatalytic activity and stability, which is comparable to noble metal catalysts and reported bifunctional electrocatalysts. Specifically, the half-potential of ORR reaches 0.85 V, and the overpotential of OER is low to 296 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2. Strikingly, zinc-air batteries assembled based on Co/BN-CNT/VN demonstrate a small charge-discharge voltage gap of 0.873 V, a remarkable peak-power density of 156.3 mW cm-2, and outstanding cycling durability (∼1000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2). This work affords a new alternative strategy to create cost-effective and high-potency bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts for advanced air batteries.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 62(2): 648-652, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583537

RESUMO

Functionalized internal modifications of metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) can endow properties and functions different from the original ones. Until now, there have been only a few examples of endohedral modifications of polyoxovanadate-based MOPs. Herein, an efficient coordination-driven strategy was chosen for the inner modification of two metal-organic cubes (MOCs) with different sizes, VMOC-1 and VMOC-4, constructed from polyoxovanadate clusters [V6O6(OCH3)9(SO4)(CO2)3]2- SBU and tetradentate ligands. Pyridinophosphonic acid with potential coordination capability was introduced to replace the sulfate of the hexavanadate cluster and graft the pyridine functional group inside the cage. The introduction of pyridylphosphate in the VMOC-4 system gave a cubic cage with a pyridyl endo-modified isomer. Interestingly, the smaller cubic cage VMOC-1 was induced to undergo structural transformation to obtain VMOC-py-1. The organic dyes adsorption of VMOC-py-1 and VMOC-1 showed that the endomodified structure could adsorb larger and more dyes, compared to the original cube.

18.
Food Control ; 145: 109401, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186659

RESUMO

During the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, the fact that frozen foods can carry the relevant virus raises concerns about the microbial safety of cold-chain foods. As a non-thermal processing technology, high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is a potential method to reduce microbial load on cold-chain foods. In this study, we explored the microbial inactivation of low temperature (5-10 °C) HPCD (LT-HPCD) and evaluated its effect on the quality of prawn during freeze-chilled and frozen storage. LT-HPCD treatment at 6.5 MPa and 10 °C for 15 min could effectively inactivate E. coli (99.45%) and S. aureus (94.6%) suspended in 0.85% NaCl, SARS-CoV-2 Spike pseudovirus (>99%) and human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E) (>1-log virus tilter reduction) suspended in DMEM medium. The inactivation effect of LT-HPCD was weakened but still significant when the microorganisms were inoculated on the surface of food or package. LT-HPCD treatment at 6.5 MPa and 10 °C for 15 min achieved about 60% inactivation of total aerobic count while could maintain frozen state and quality of prawn. Moreover, LT-HPCD treated prawn exhibited significant slower microbial proliferation and no occurrence of melanosis compared with the untreated samples during chilled storage. A comprehensive quality investigation indicated that LT-HPCD treatment could maintain the color, texture and sensory of prawn during chilled or frozen storage. Consequently, LT-HPCD could improve the microbial safety of frozen prawn while maintaining its original quality, and could be a potential method for food industry to improve the microbial safety of cold-chain foods.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 161152, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572285

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has drawn great attention since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, not only due to its capability to circumvent the limitations of traditional clinical surveillance, but also due to its potential to forewarn fluctuations of disease incidences in communities. One critical application of WBE is to provide "early warnings" for upcoming fluctuations of disease incidences in communities which traditional clinical testing is incapable to achieve. While intricate models have been developed to determine early warnings based on wastewater surveillance data, there is an exigent need for straightforward, rapid, broadly applicable methods for health departments and partner agencies to implement. Our purpose in this study is to develop and evaluate such early-warning methods and clinical-case peak-detection methods based on WBE data to mount an informed public health response. Throughout an extended wastewater surveillance period across Detroit, MI metropolitan area (the entire study period is from September 2020 to May 2022) we designed eight early-warning methods (three real-time and five post-factum). Additionally, we designed three peak-detection methods based on clinical epidemiological data. We demonstrated the utility of these methods for providing early warnings for COVID-19 incidences, with their counterpart accuracies evaluated by hit rates. "Hit rates" were defined as the number of early warning dates (using wastewater surveillance data) that captured defined peaks (using clinical epidemiological data) divided by the total number of early warning dates. Hit rates demonstrated that the accuracy of both real-time and post-factum methods could reach 100 %. Furthermore, the results indicate that the accuracy was influenced by approaches to defining peaks of disease incidence. The proposed methods herein can assist health departments capitalizing on WBE data to assess trends and implement quick public health responses to future epidemics. Besides, this study elucidated critical factors affecting early warnings based on WBE amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Coleta de Dados
20.
J Nucl Med ; 63(6): 862-868, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556528

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are crucial components of the tumor microenvironment. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is overexpressed in CAFs. FAP-targeted molecular imaging agents, including the FAP inhibitors (FAPIs) 04 and 46, have shown promising results in tumor diagnosis. However, these molecules have a relatively short tumor-retention time for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy applications. We aimed to design a 68Ga-labeled FAPI dimer, 68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2, to optimize the pharmacokinetics and evaluate whether this form is more effective than its monomeric analogs. Methods:68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 was synthesized on the basis of the quinoline-based FAPI variant (FAPI-46), and its binding properties were assayed in CAFs. Preclinical pharmacokinetics were determined in FAP-positive patient-derived xenografts using small-animal PET and biodistribution experiments. The effective dosimetry of 68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 was evaluated in 3 healthy volunteers, and PET/CT imaging of 68Ga-FAPI-46 and 68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 was performed on 3 cancer patients. Results:68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and fetal bovine serum for 4 h. The FAPI dimer showed high affinity and specificity for FAP in vitro and in vivo. The tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 was approximately 2-fold stronger than that of 68Ga-FAPI-46 in patient-derived xenografts, whereas healthy organs showed low tracer uptake and fast body clearance. The effective dose of 68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 was 1.19E-02 mSv/MBq, calculated using OLINDA. Finally, the PET/CT scans of the 3 cancer patients revealed higher intratumoral uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 than of 68Ga-FAPI-46 in all tumor lesions (SUVmax, 8.1-39.0 vs. 1.7-24.0, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion:68Ga-DOTA-2P(FAPI)2 has increased tumor uptake and retention properties compared with 68Ga-FAPI-46, and it could be a promising tracer for both diagnostic imaging and targeted therapy of malignant tumors with positive expression of FAP.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Animais , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Radiometria , Distribuição Tecidual , Microambiente Tumoral
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