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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599676

RESUMO

Using a virus as a template to synthesize nanomaterial is a simple, green, and controllable method to acquire unique structure nanoparticles. In this study, CdS nanowires were synthesized using the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a template and for deposition in the inner center channel of TMV. TMV/CdS was successfully characterized, with the results showing a diameter of 4.0 nm, a cubic-phase composition, and strong fluorescence emission peaks, with an absorption edge of 566 nm and bandgap energy of 2.28 eV. The bandgap energy is narrower than that of template-free CdS. Furthermore, TMV/CdS exhibited an increased transient photocurrent, which was attributed to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs. The photoactivities of TMV/CdS and template-free CdS were tested; the results showed that the TMV/CdS had a better performance in methylene blue (MB) photodegradation, indicating that the photoactivity of TMV/CdS was higher than that of the template-free CdS. Further research on TMV/CdS regarding the photocatalytic mechanism showed that O2•- and •OH were the major species involved in photocatalysis, rather than holes (h+). Therefore, TMV/CdS might have applications as a novel visible-light-responsive photocatalyst. KEY POINTS: • CdS nanowires were firstly synthesized in the inner center channel of TMV • TMV/CdS presented higher photocatalytic efficiency compared with template-free CdS • The O2•- and •OH were responsible for the photocatalytic reaction of TMV/CdS.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal antigen-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents is crucial for long-term protection upon individual re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and even more pivotal for ultimately achieving population-level immunity. To better understand the features of immune memory in individuals with different disease severities at one year post-disease onset we conducted this cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents, who had asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe disease, through two visits at months 6 and 12 post-disease onset. The SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, comprising NAb, IgG, and IgM, were assessed by mutually corroborated assays, i.e. neutralization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay (MCLIA). Meanwhile, the T-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins was tested through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and tetramer staining-based flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset. At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset. Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively. Furthermore, both antibody and T-cell memory levels of the convalescents were positively associated with their disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunities are durable at least until one year after disease onset.

3.
J Acad Mark Sci ; : 1-22, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608343

RESUMO

As companies increasingly conduct marketing research online (e.g., through social networking sites or their brand community platforms), the knowledge that others are also filling out the same surveys becomes increasingly salient to respondents. This research examines how the salience of this knowledge influences consumer judgments. Two important characteristics of our research paradigm are especially relevant to digital contexts: (1) judgements made by the consumers are neither observable nor subject to others' disapproval; and (2) consensus is not observable or verifiable. Nevertheless, in six main studies and one auxiliary study (Web Appendix), we found that high knowledge salience of others also evaluating reduced judgment extremity. Judgment extremity is quantified by the degree or strength of an evaluation or numeric estimate about a judgment target. This effect was driven by consumers' tendency to predict a moderate consensus and to conform to this perception. Implications for marketing research and crowdsourcing are discussed. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11747-021-00807-w.

4.
J Nat Prod ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623817

RESUMO

Myxobacteria are a prolific source of structurally diverse natural products, and one of the best-studied myxobacterial products is the siderophore myxochelin. Herein, we report two new compounds, myxochelins N (1) and O (2), that are nicotinic paralogs of myxochelin A, from the terrestrial myxobacterium Archangium sp. SDU34; 2 is functionalized with a rare 2-oxazolidinone. A precursor-feeding experiment implied that the biosynthesis of 1 or 2 was due to altered substrate specificity of the loading module of MxcE, which likely accepts nicotinic acid and benzoic acid instead of more conventional 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. We also employed a phylogenomic approach to map the evolutionary relationships of the myxochelin biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in all the available myxobacterial genomes, to pave the way for the future discovery of potentially hidden myxochelin derivatives. Although the biological function of 1 and 2 is unclear yet, this work underpins that even extensively studied BGCs in myxobacteria can still produce new chemistry.

5.
Int J Pharm ; : 121157, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626795

RESUMO

Microwave-induced in situ amorphization is an emerging technology to tackle the persistent stability issue of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) during manufacture and storage. The aim of this study was to introduce new effective polymeric carriers with diverse properties to microwave-induced in situ amorphization and to better understand their functions in relation to the final dissolution performance of microwaved tablets. Tablets composed of indomethacin (IND) and different polymers were compacted, stored at 75% relative humidity for at least 1 week and microwaved at 1000 W to induce amorphization. A series of polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymers (PVP/VA) of different monomer weight ratios displaying varyingproperties in functional groupratio, hygroscopicity, molecular weight (Mw), and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer were used as model carriers. The results suggested that more than 90% of IND was amorphized after 20 mins microwaving in all 20% (w/w) drug loaded tablets except for IND:PVAc tablets presenting approx. 36% residual crystallinity. Among them, tablets composed of PVP/VA I-335 and PVP K30 achieved complete in situ amorphization upon microwaving. Further analysis indicated that the influencing factors, polymer Mw and Tg of moisture-plasticized polymer, played a major role in microwave-induced in situ amorphization. In in vitro dissolution study, ASDs containing PVP/VA I-535 with moderate hydrophilicity and 0.96±1.92% IND residual crystallinity showed the most rapid and complete drug release among all formulations, presenting the most promising dissolution performance. Further study on the chemical stability of such formulation showed a statistically insignificant decrease of drug content after pre-conditioning and microwaving (P= 0.288>0.05).

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127444, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655880

RESUMO

Metal-free carbonaceous catalysts are receiving increasing attention in wastewater treatment. Here, nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon sphere catalysts (N,S-CSs900-OH) were synthesized using glucose and L-cysteine via a hydrothermal method and high temperature alkali activation. The N,S-CSs900-10%-OH exhibited excellent catalytic performance for the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC). The degradation rate was 95.9% in 60 min, and the reaction equilibrium rate constant was 0.0735 min-1 (k0-15 min). The synergistic effect of adsorption-promoting degradation was demonstrated in the removal process of OTC. The excellent adsorption capacity of N,S-CSs900-10%-OH ensured the efficient oxidation of OTC. N,S-CSs900-10%-OH reduced the activation energy of the OTC degradation reaction (Ea=18.23 kJ/mol). Moreover, the pyrrolic N, thiophene S and carbon skeleton played an important role in the degradation of OTC based on density function theory, and the catalytic mechanism was expounded through radical and nonradical pathways. The active species involved in the reaction were O2•-, 1O2, SO4•- and •OH, of which O2•- was the primary reactive species. This study provides a new insight into the reaction mechanism for efficient treatment of organic pollutants using metal-free doped porous carbon materials.

7.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 26(1): 40, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell (EC) injury accelerates the progression of diabetic macrovascular complications. Hypoxia is an important cause of EC injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is an important hypoxia regulatory protein. Our previous studies showed that high-glucose and hypoxic conditions could upregulate HIF-1α expression and enhance EC inflammatory injury, independently of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway. However, it is not clear whether HIF-1α plays a role in vascular disease through epigenetic-related mechanisms. METHODS: We conducted gene expression analysis and molecular mechanistic studies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by hyperglycemia and hypoxia using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and small interfering HIF-1α (si-HIF-1α). We determined HIF-1α and Jumonji domain-containing protein 1 A (JMJD1A) expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, analyzed inflammatory protein secretion in the cell supernatant by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and assessed protein interaction between HIF-1α and JMJD1A by chromatin immunoprecipitation (Ch-IP). We used the Cell Counting Kit8 (CCK-8) assay to analyze cell viability, and assessed oxidative stress indicators by using a detection kit and flow cytometry. RESULTS: High glucose and hypoxia up-regulated HIF-1α expression, and down-regulated HIF-1α decreased the level of inflammation and oxidative stress in HUVECs. To determine the downstream pathways, we observed histone demethylases genes and related pathway by RNA-sEq. Among these, JMJD1A was the most upregulated gene in histone demethylases. Moreover, we observed that HIF-1α bound to the promoter of JMJD1A, and the ameliorative effects of si-HIF-1α on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in high-glucose and hypoxia-induced HUVECs were reversed by JMJD1A overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of JMJD1A decreased inflammatory and oxidative stress injury. To determine the JMJD1A-related factors, we conducted gene expression analysis on JMJD1A-knockdown HUVECs. We observed that downregulation of inflammation and the oxidative stress pathway were enriched and FOS and FOSB might be important protective transcription factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel evidence that the HIF-1α/JMJD1A signaling pathway is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in HUVECs induced by high glucose and hypoxia. Also, this pathway might act as a novel regulator of oxidative stress and inflammatory-related events in response to diabetic vascular injury and thus contribute to the pathological progression of diabetes and vascular disease.

8.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(3): 247-252, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476439

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of different hypoxic concentrations on biological characteristics of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro. METHODS: Impacted mandibular third molars were extracted from healthy individuals, and the dental pulp stem cells were cultured by tissue block enzyme digestion. Cells cultured under the conditions of 3%, 5% and 21% oxygen concentration for 7 days were set as 3% hypoxia group, 5% hypoxia group, and 21% nomoxia group, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell surface markers, cell cycle and apoptosis. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 method. Transwell chamber assay was used to detect migration ability. Statistical analysis was completed by SPSS 20.0 software package. RESULTS: The expression rates of CD44, CD29 and D73 of the subculture cells were 97.25%, 99.36% and 99.60%, respectively. The proliferation ability of dental pulp stem cells was the strongest in 5% hypoxia group, and weakest in 3% hypoxia group, with significant difference(P<0.05). The apoptosis rate had no significant difference among various concentrations of oxygen(P>0.05). Compared with 21% nomoxia group, the proportion of dental pulp stem cells in G1 phase was significantly lower than that in 3% hypoxia group and 5% hypoxia group(P<0.05), and cell in S phase was significantly higher than that in 3% hypoxia group and 5% hypoxia group(P<0.05). The migration ability was the strongest in 3% hypoxia group, and weakest in 21% nomoxia group, with significant difference(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Different concentrations of hypoxia have great influence on the morphology, proliferation, migration and cell cycle of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro with little impact on cell apoptosis.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária , Células-Tronco , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Hipóxia
9.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480101

RESUMO

The regulatory mechanisms of hypertension in youth are incompletely understood. We aimed to identify potential serum metabolic alterations associated with hypertension in adolescents. A 1:1 age- and sex-matched case-control study including 30 hypertensive adolescents aged 12-17 years and 30 normotensive adolescents for the training set and 14 hypertensive adolescents and 14 normotensive adolescents for the test set was performed, which came from one cross-sectional study in Ningxia, China. Hypertension was defined based on blood pressure (BP) values measured on three different occasions according to the BP reference of Chinese children and adolescents. Untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid tandem chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify differential metabolites between hypertensive and normotensive adolescents. A total of 77 metabolites in positive mode and 101 in negative mode were identified (VIP > 1.0 and P < 0.05). After adjustment for the false discovery rate, 4 differential metabolites in positive mode and 10 in negative mode were found (Q value < 0.05). The logistic regression model adjusted for body mass index and lipid profile selected four significant metabolites (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, L-serine, acetone, and pterostilbene). The main metabolic pathways of amino acid metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism, and linoleic acid metabolism may contribute to the development of hypertension in Chinese adolescents. Based on the receiver operating characteristic plot, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, L-serine, acetone, and pterostilbene may preliminarily help distinguish hypertension from normal BP in adolescents, with AUC values of 0.857 in the training set and 0.934 in the test set. The identified metabolites and pathways may foster a better understanding of hypertension pathogenesis in Chinese adolescents.

10.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets are important parameters for monitoring immune status; however, lymphocyte subset detection is time-consuming and error-prone. This study aimed to explore a highly efficient and clinically useful autoverification system for lymphocyte subset assays performed on the flow cytometry platform. METHODS: A total of 94,402 lymphocyte subset test results were collected. To establish the limited-range rules, 80,427 results were first used (69,135 T lymphocyte subset tests and 11,292 NK, B, T lymphocyte tests), of which 15,000 T lymphocyte subset tests from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients were used to set customized limited-range rules for HIV infected patients. Subsequently, 13,975 results were used for historical data validation and online test validation. RESULTS: Three key autoverification rules were established, including limited-range, delta-check, and logical rules. Guidelines for addressing the issues that trigger these rules were summarized. The historical data during the validation phase showed that the total autoverification passing rate of lymphocyte subset assays was 69.65% (6,941/9,966), with a 67.93% (5,268/7,755) passing rate for T lymphocyte subset tests and 75.67% (1,673/2,211) for NK, B, T lymphocyte tests. For online test validation, the total autoverification passing rate was 75.26% (3,017/4,009), with 73.23% (2,191/2,992) for the T lymphocyte subset test and 81.22% (826/1,017) for the NK, B, T lymphocyte test. The turnaround time (TAT) was reduced from 228 to 167 min using the autoverification system. CONCLUSIONS: The autoverification system based on the laboratory information system for lymphocyte subset assays reduced TAT and the number of error reports and helped in the identification of abnormal cell populations that may offer clues for clinical interventions.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502527

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are amongst the most used drugs to treat retinal diseases of various origins. Yet, the transcriptional regulations induced by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE) that form the outer blood-retina barrier are unknown. Levels of endogenous corticoids, ligands for MR and GR, were measured in human ocular media. Human RPE cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iRPE) were used to analyze the pan-transcriptional regulations induced by aldosterone-an MR-specific agonist, or cortisol or cortisol + RU486-a GR antagonist. The retinal phenotype of transgenic mice that overexpress the human MR (P1.hMR) was analyzed. In the human eye, the main ligand for GR and MR is cortisol. The iRPE cells express functional GR and MR. The subset of genes regulated by aldosterone and by cortisol + RU-486, and not by cortisol alone, mimics an imbalance toward MR activation. They are involved in extracellular matrix remodeling (CNN1, MGP, AMTN), epithelial-mesenchymal transition, RPE cell proliferation and migration (ITGB3, PLAUR and FOSL1) and immune balance (TNFSF18 and PTX3). The P1.hMR mice showed choroidal vasodilation, focal alteration of the RPE/choroid interface and migration of RPE cells together with RPE barrier function alteration, similar to human retinal diseases within the pachychoroid spectrum. RPE is a corticosteroid-sensitive epithelium. MR pathway activation in the RPE regulates genes involved in barrier function, extracellular matrix, neural regulation and epithelial differentiation, which could contribute to retinal pathology.

12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009901, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506605

RESUMO

Neddylation, an important type of post-translational modification, has been implicated in innate and adapted immunity. But the role of neddylation in innate immune response against RNA viruses remains elusive. Here we report that neddylation promotes RNA virus-induced type I IFN production, especially IFN-α. More importantly, myeloid deficiency of UBA3 or NEDD8 renders mice less resistant to RNA virus infection. Neddylation is essential for RNA virus-triggered activation of Ifna gene promoters. Further exploration has revealed that mammalian IRF7undergoes neddylation, which is enhanced after RNA virus infection. Even though neddylation blockade does not hinder RNA virus-triggered IRF7 expression, IRF7 mutant defective in neddylation exhibits reduced ability to activate Ifna gene promoters. Neddylation blockade impedes RNA virus-induced IRF7 nuclear translocation without hindering its phosphorylation and dimerization with IRF3. By contrast, IRF7 mutant defective in neddylation shows enhanced dimerization with IRF5, an Ifna repressor when interacting with IRF7. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that myeloid neddylation contributes to host anti-viral innate immunity through targeting IRF7 and promoting its transcriptional activity.

13.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494323

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of whole soy and purified daidzein on markers of thyroid function in Chinese postmenopausal women who were equol-producers. Total 270 eligible women were randomized to either one of the three isocaloric supplements: 40 g soy flour (whole soy group), 40 g low-fat milk powder +63 mg daidzein (daidzein group) or 40 g low-fat milk powder (placebo) daily for 6 months. Serum thyroid markers were tested at baseline and 6 months for thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine and free thyroxine (FT4). There was no significant difference in the 6-month changes of thyroid markers among the three groups. Subgroup analysis among women with lowered thyroid function suggested a modest decrease of FT4. This randomized controlled trial among Chinese equol-producing postmenopausal women indicates the consumption of whole soy and purified daidzein at the provided dosages are safe and have no detrimental effect on thyroid function.

14.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494867

RESUMO

The yields of edible rhizome from the cultivation of the perennial hydrophyte lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) can be severely reduced by rhizome rot disease caused by Fusarium species. There is a lack of rapid field-applicable methods for detection of these pathogens on lotus plants displaying symptoms of rhizome-rot. Fusarium commune (91%) and Fusarium oxysporum (9%) were identified at different frequencies from lotus samples showing symptoms of rhizome-rot. As these two species can cause different severity of disease and their morphology is very similar, molecular-diagnostic based methods to detect these two species were developed. Based on the comparison of the mitochondrial genome of the two species, three specific DNA loci targets were found. The designed primer sets for conventional PCR, qPCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) precisely distinguished the above two species when isolated from lotus and other plants. The LAMP detection limits were 10 pg/µl and 1 pg/µl of total DNA for F. commune and F. oxysporum, respectively. We also carried out field-mimicked experiments on lotus seedlings and rhizomes (including inoculated samples and field diseased samples), and the results indicated that the LAMP primer sets and the supporting portable methods are suitable for the rapid diagnosis of the lotus disease in the field. The LAMP-based detection method will aid in the rapid identification of whether F. oxysporum or F. commune are infecting lotus plants with symptoms of rhizome-rot, and can facilitate efficient pesticide use and prevent the disease spread through vegetative propagation of Fusarium-infected lotus rhizomes.

15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 462, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To avoid false-positive findings and detect cell-type specific associations in methylation and transcription investigations with bulk samples, it is critical to know the proportions of the major cell-types. RESULTS: We present a novel approach that allows for precise estimation of cell-type proportions using only a few highly informative methylation markers. The most reliable estimates were obtained with 17 amplicons (34 CpGs) using the MuSiC estimator, for which the average correlations between the estimated and the true cell-type proportions were 0.889. Furthermore, the estimates were not significantly different from the true values (P = 0.95) indicating that the estimator is unbiased and the standard deviation of the estimates further indicate high precision. Moreover, the overall variability of the estimates as measured by the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), which is a function of both bias and precision, was low (mean RMSE = 0.038). Taken together, these results indicate that the approach produced reliable estimates that are both unbiased and highly precise. CONCLUSION: This cost-effective approach for estimating cell-type proportions in bulk samples allows for enhanced targeted analysis, which in turn will minimize the risk of reporting false-positive findings and allowing for detection of cell-type specific associations. The approach is applicable across platforms and can be extended to assess cell-type proportions for various tissues.

16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke exposure can cause morbidity and premature mortality. However, the global prevalence of, and trends in, secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents are poorly documented. We aimed to assess the prevalence of, and trends in, secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents from 1999 to 2018. METHODS: We did an analysis of the most recent data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a nationally representative, self-administered, school-based cross-sectional survey of tobacco use and related factors among adolescents aged 12-16 years worldwide. Data from 142 countries and territories that had done a GYTS between 2010 and 2018, comprising 711 366 participants, were used to assess the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure. Data from 131 countries and territories that had done two or more surveys between 1999 and 2018, comprising 1 405 458 participants, were used to assess trends in secondhand smoke exposure. The frequency of secondhand smoke exposure at home, in public places, or in any place was defined as follows, based on students' responses: 1 or more days, 3 or more days, 5 or more days, or daily during the past 7 days. FINDINGS: Based on the most recent surveys done in 142 countries between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2018, the global prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in any place was 62·9% (95% CI 61·7-64·1) on 1 or more days, 51·0% (49·8-52·1) on 3 or more days, 40·1% (38·9-41·2) on 5 or more days, and 32·5% (31·5-33·6) daily during the past 7 days. The prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure at home was 33·1% (95% CI 32·1-34·1) on 1 or more days, 20·1% (19·3-20·9) on 3 or more days, 14·9% (14·2-15·7) on 5 or more days, and 12·3% (11·7-13·0) daily during the past 7 days; and in public places the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure was 57·6% (56·4-58·8) on 1 or more days, 43·4% (42·2-44·6) on 3 or more days, 30·3% (29·2-31·5) on 5 or more days, and 23·5% (22·5-24·5) daily during the past 7 days. Between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2018, the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure (on ≥1 day during the past 7 days) in any place decreased in 57 (43·5%) of 131 countries, increased in 27 (20·6%), and remained unchanged in 47 (35·9%). Although the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure at home decreased in 86 (65·6%) countries, the prevalence in public places did not change in 46 (35·1%) countries and increased in 40 (30·5%). INTERPRETATION: Secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents remains a serious public health challenge worldwide. Although the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure at home decreased in most countries, the prevalence in public places increased or remained unchanged in most countries between 1999 and 2018. These findings emphasise the need to strengthen smoke-free policies, especially in public places. FUNDING: Youth Team of Humanistic and Social Science of Shandong University, Jinan, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

17.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) from esophageal carcinoma (EC) is clinically rare and has not yet been reported in elderly patients. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors of BM in elderly patients with EC, in order to provide guidance for clinical practice. METHODS: A total of 20 EC patients older than 65 years who were diagnosed with BM were identified from the fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2018. Survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The median time from diagnosis of EC to BM was 11.8 months (0-249.2 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 4.8 months (1.13-23.3 months), with 20% of patients achieving the 1-year survival rate. Patients with KPS score of ≥70 had a significantly better OS than those with KPS score<70 (8.4 vs. 3.9 months, p = 0.033). Compared to patients without brain radiotherapy, patients with brain radiotherapy showed better outcomes in both median OS (8.4 vs. 2.9 months) and 1-year survival rate (23.1% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.043). The median OS of patients with radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy and radiotherapy alone was 9.7 months (3.4-23.3 months) and 7.2 months (1.7-18.4 months), respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.215). CONCLUSIONS: Brain radiotherapy provided clinically meaningful survival benefit for elderly patients with BM from EC. Thus, active treatments for those patients might be required.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18265, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521949

RESUMO

Yaks are typical plateau-adapted animals, however the microvascular changes and characteristics in their lungs after birth are still unclear. Pulmonary microvasculature characteristics and changes across age groups were analysed using morphological observation and molecular biology detection in yaks aged 1, 30 and 180 days old in addition to adults. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that yaks have fully developed pulmonary alveolar at birth but that interalveolar thickness increased with age. Immunofluorescence observations showed that microvessel density within the interalveolar septum in the yak gradually increased with age. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that the blood-air barrier of 1-day old and 30-days old yaks was significantly thicker than that observed at 180-days old and in adults (P < 0.05), which was caused by the thinning of the membrane of alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, Vegfa and Epas1 expression levels in 30-day old yaks were the highest in comparison to the other age groups (P < 0.05), whilst levels in adult yaks were the lowest (P < 0.05). The gradual increase in lung microvessel density can effectively satisfy the oxygen requirements of ageing yaks. In addition, these results suggest that the key period of yak lung development is from 30 to 180 days.

19.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 666-670, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490759

RESUMO

In a precautionary response to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, China's Ministries permanently banned eating and trading in terrestrial wild (non-livestock) animals on 24 February 2020, and extensively updated the list of Fauna under Special State Protection (LFSSP) in 2020 and 2021, in which pangolins (Manidae spp.) were upgraded to the highest protection level. Examining 509 pangolin prosecution records from China Judgements online prior to these changes (01/01/14-31/12/19), we identified that Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces were hotspots for trade in whole pangolins and their scales. Interrupting trade in these three principal southern provinces would substantially fragment the pangolin trade network and reduce supply of imports from other south-east Asian countries. In the context of the revised legislation and strategies intended to prevent wildlife trade, we conclude that targeting interventions at key trade nodes could significantly reduce illegal trade in pangolins, and that this approach could also be effective with other taxa.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Crime , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Pangolins , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , China , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Cell Rep ; 36(12): 109734, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551288

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR) is a critical regulatory molecule in modulation of T cell immune responses. Here we report the mouse GITR (mGITR) and mGITR ligand (mGITRL) complex structure and find that the binding interface of mGITR and mGITRL is distinct from the typical tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF)/TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) members. mGITR binds to its ligand with a single domain, whereas the binding interface on mGITRL is located on the side, which is distal from conserved binding sites of TNFSF molecules. Mutational analysis reveals that the binding interface of GITR/GITRL in humans is conserved with that in the mouse. Substitution of key interacting D93-I94-V95 (DIV) in mGITR with the corresponding K93-F94-S95 (KFS) in human GITR enables cross-recognition with human GITRL and cross-activation of receptor signaling. The findings of this study substantially expand our understanding of the interaction of TNFSF/TNFRSF superfamily molecules and can benefit the future design of biologics by targeting GITR/GITRL.

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