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1.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914834

RESUMO

A randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial was performed to examine the effects of whole soy and isoflavone daidzein on serum androgenic hormones in Chinese equol-producing post-menopausal women. A total of 270 eligible women aged 45-70 years were randomised to either one of the three iso-caloric supplements: 40 g soy flour (whole soy group), 40 g low-fat milk powder +63 mg daidzein (daidzein group) or 40 g low-fat milk powder (placebo group) daily for 6 months. Fasting venous samples were tested for serum androstenedione (AD), testosterone (T), prolactin, sex hormone binding globulin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated that serum T (p = .022) and AD (p = .05) levels modestly but significantly decreased after 6-month daidzein treatment in comparison with placebo, with a mean difference of -0.057 nmol/L (95%CI: -0.185 to 0.070, p = .018) and -0.118 ng/mL (95%CI: -0.240-0.004, p = .045), respectively. This 6-month trial suggested that purified daidzein may exhibit less androgenic effect.Trial registration: The trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier of NCT01270737. (URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01270737.).

2.
Nat Protoc ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925402

RESUMO

Reactive molecular oxygen (O2) plays important roles in bioenergetics and metabolism and is implicated in biochemical pathways underlying angiogenesis, fertilization, wound healing and regeneration. Here we describe how to use the scanning micro-optrode technique (SMOT) to measure extracellular fluxes of dissolved O2. The self-referencing O2-specific micro-optrode (also termed micro-optode and optical fiber microsensor) is a tapered optical fiber with an O2-sensitive fluorophore coated onto the tip. The O2 concentration is quantified by fluorescence quenching of the fluorophore emission upon excitation with blue-green light. The micro-optrode presents high spatial and temporal resolutions with improved signal-to-noise ratio (in the picomole range). In this protocol, we provide step-by-step instructions for micro-optrode calibration, validation, example applications and data analysis. We describe how to use the technique for cells (Xenopus oocyte), tissues (Xenopus epithelium and rat cornea), organs (Xenopus gills and mouse skin) and appendages (Xenopus tail), and provide recommendations on how to adapt the approach to different model systems. The basic, user-friendly system presented here can be readily installed to reliably and accurately measure physiological O2 fluxes in a wide spectrum of biological models and physiological responses. The full protocol can be performed in ~4 h.

3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 150: 111954, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929087

RESUMO

A novel electrochemical biosensor was constructed for specific and ultrasensitive detection of PIK3CAH1047R gene mutation based on NsbI restriction enzyme-mediated strand displacement amplification (NsbI-SDA) and four-way DNA junction for the first time. In this biosensor, the NsbI restriction enzyme combined with strand displacement amplification (SDA) was able to specifically distinguish PIK3CAH1047R gene mutation and increase the number of DNA copies to improve electrochemical response. In the presence of target mutation gene, DNA fragments produced by the cleavage event of NsbI restriction enzyme could trigger the SDA reaction to generate massive linker chains. When the linker chains were captured on the electrode, the four-way DNA junction was then attached at the end of linker chain. By integrating electroactive molecules of methylene blue (MB) into four-way DNA junction, this sandwich-like electrochemical biosensor was able to determine the specific distinction of target mutation gene with a low detection limit of 0.001%. Finally, this strategy could be used to analyze mutation gene spiked into human serum samples, indicating the potential application in genetic analysis and clinical disease diagnosis.

4.
J Med Microbiol ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935181

RESUMO

Introduction . Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) has emerged as a major bacterial pathogen of kiwifruit cultivation throughout the world.Aim . We aim to introduce a CRISPR-Cas9 system, a commonly used genome editing tool, into Psa. The protocols may also be useful in other Pseudomonas species.Methodology . Using standard molecular biology techniques, we modified plasmid pCas9, which carries the CRISPR-Cas9 sequences from Streptococcus pyogenes, for use in Psa. The final plasmid, pJH1, was produced in a series of steps and is maintained with selection in both Escherichia coli and Psa.Results . We have constructed plasmids carrying a CRISPR-Cas9 system based on that of S. pyogenes, which can be maintained, under selection, in Psa. We have shown that the gene targeting capacity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system is active and that the Cas9 protein is able to cleave the targeted sites. The Cas9 was directed to several different sites in the P. syringae genome. Using Cas9 we have generated Psa transformants that no longer carry the native plasmid present in Psa, and other transformants that lack the integrative, conjugative element, Pac_ICE1. Targeting of a specific gene, a chromosomal non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, led to gene knockouts with the transformants having deletions encompassing the target site.Conclusion . We have constructed shuttle plasmids carrying a CRISPR-Cas9 system that are maintained in both E. coli and P. syringae pv. actinidiae. We have used this gene editing system to eliminate features of the accessory genome (plasmids or ICEs) from Psa and to target a single chromosomal gene.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902567

RESUMO

Methamphetamine is the most commonly used illicit drug in China. We previously demonstrated that 10 Hz rTMS over the DLPFC reduces craving in methamphetamine users. Here, we applied intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a new form of rTMS, in a large sample at four clinical centers. 126 participants (age 31.64 ± 6.33; 106 men) with severe methamphetamine use disorder according to DSM-5 were randomized to receive either iTBS or sham over the DLPFC for four weeks (20 daily sessions, 900 pulses per day). Cue-induced craving and cognitive function were assessed before and after rTMS intervention. Relapse was followed up by urine test after discharge from the rehabilitation center. iTBS significantly reduced craving and improved cognition and sleep quality. This study suggests that rTMS may be a useful and safe treatment option for methamphetamine use disorder, warranting future large scale trials.

6.
Neurosci Lett ; 717: 134725, 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive psychostimulant substance that mainly leads to schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. The expression of miRNAs in brain plays an important role in neurological disorders and may affect by genetic variant(s) in the target site (MiRSNPs). In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms in miRNAs are associated with MA disorder with psychosis. METHODS: We carried out a case-control association study in 400 MA users with psychotic characters and 448 controls. Six MiRSNPs with predicted functional relevance miRNAs (miR-181b, miR-181a, miR-15b, miR-let-7e and miRlet-7d) were selected for genotyping. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between MA users and healthy individuals. The expression of five miRNAs were measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in 55 cases and 57 controls. We also explored an expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) analysis based on the miRNAs expression and SNP genotype. RESULTS: The SNP rs10760371 within miR-181a was nominally associated with MA disorder (P = 0.046). For rs1099308, rs10760371 and rs10993081 in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), no significant association had been detected from haplotype analysis. Discrepancy had been found between MA users and healthy individuals (P < 0.01) in terms of the expression of miR-181a, miR-15b, miR-let-7e and miR-let-7d. and no noticeable difference had been found from the eQTL analysis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that rs10760371 within miR-181a may relate to the development of MA dependence with psychosis. The miRNAs expression is unlikely to be regulated by the SNPs within it.

7.
Ann Clin Biochem ; : 4563219899119, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842583
8.
Neural Netw ; 123: 1-11, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812925

RESUMO

This paper proposes a unified theoretical framework to study the problem of finite/fixed-time drive-response anti-synchronization for a class of Markovian stochastic neural networks. State feedback switching controllers without the sign function are designed to achieve the finite/fixed-time anti-synchronization of the addressed systems. Compared with the existing synchronization criteria, our results indicate that the controllers via the switching control without the sign function are given with less conservativeness, and the controllers without any sign function can deal with the chattering problem. By employing Lyapunov functional method and properties of the Weiner process, several finite/fixed-time synchronization criteria are presented and the corresponding settling times are calculated as well. Finally, three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815467

RESUMO

Phytopathogenic fungi have been acknowledged as being an enormous threat in the agricultural system. In our search of new antifungal natural products, nine new halogenated cyclopentenones, bicolorins A-I (1-3, and 5-10), along with three known cyclopentenones (4, 11 and 12), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Saccharicola bicolor of Bergenia purpurascens by one strain-many compounds strategy. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and TD-DFT-ECD calculations. Compounds 1-12 showed antifungal activities against five phytopathogenic fungi (Uromyces viciae-fabae, Pythium dissimile, Gibberella zeae, Aspergillus niger and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Especially, bicolorins B and D (2 and 5) exhibited strong antifungal activities against P. dissimile with the MIC values of 6.2 and 8.5 µg/mL, respectively, compared with the positive control cycloheximide (MIC of 8.6 µg/mL). Additionally, bicolorin D was proved to be potently antifungal against S. sclerotiorum in vitro and in vivo. This work provides an effective strategy for searching antifungal candidate agents.

10.
Viruses ; 11(12)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817575

RESUMO

The pathogenicity of the shrew-borne Imjin virus (MJNV) is unknown. The objective of our study was to find serological evidence of MJNV infection in humans. Partial MJNV nucleocapsid protein (NP) was cloned and expressed as an antigen for double-antigen sandwich ELISA, IgM capture ELISA, and dot blot to detect MJNV specific antibodies in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients' and healthy persons' sera from endemic areas in China. The purified recombinant NP reacted with neither the 90 healthy individuals' sera from non-endemic areas of MJNV nor the 100 antisera to HFRS-causing virus, indicating that the MJNV NP had no cross-reaction with normal human sera and HFRS-causing viral antibodies. As determined by screening ELISA and dot blot analysis, IgG antibodies against MJNV NP were detected in sera from two of 385 healthy individuals from MJNV-endemic areas, suggesting infection with MJNV or MJNV-like thottimvirus. Based on the suggestive evidence, healthcare workers should be alert to febrile diseases occurring among individuals with exposure to shrew-infested habitats.

11.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical utility of screening for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents is still controversial. We examined the performance of pediatric MetS vs. clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (which are the components of MetS) for predicting high carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Participants included 2427 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from population-based studies in three countries (Brazil, China and Italy). Pediatric MetS was defined using either the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria or the modified International Diabetes Federation criteria. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was calculated as the sum of five components of MetS (i.e. central obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting blood glucose). High cIMT was defined as cIMT at least 95th percentile values for sex and age developed from European children. RESULTS: Presence of one, two or at least three cardiovascular risk factors (using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria), as compared with none, was associated with gradually increasing odds of high cIMT [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.60 (1.29-1.99), 2.89 (2.21-3.78) and 4.24 (2.81-6.39), respectively]. High cIMT was also associated with presence (vs. absence) of MetS (odds ratio = 2.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.95-4.26). However, clustering of cardiovascular risk factors predicted high cIMT markedly better than MetS (area under the curve of 0.66 vs. 0.54, respectively). Findings were similar using the International Diabetes Federation criteria for pediatric MetS. CONCLUSION: In children and adolescents, a graded score based on five cardiovascular risk factors (used to define MetS) predicted high cIMT markedly better than MetS. These findings do not support the clinical utility of MetS for screening youth at increased cardiovascular risk, as expressed in this study by high cIMT.

12.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed ; : 1-14, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791208

RESUMO

A novel redox-responsive hollow mesoporous silica (HMS) was constructed by host-guest interaction between ß-cyclodextrin modified hollow mesoporus silica nanoparticles (HMS@ß-CD) and the ferrocene-containing amphiphilic block copolymer PEG-b-PMAFc (PPFc), the prepared HMS@ß-CD@PPFc system was used to control drug delivery in targeted cancer therapy through redox stimulus. The self-assembled morphology was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Intracellular localization of DOX-loaded HMS@ß-CD@PPFC in A549 cells was further investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the results indicated that DOX-loaded HMS@ß-CD@PPFc was ingested by A549 cells effectively. Furthermore, the redox agent H2O2 was used to trigger the release of DOX. The cytotoxicity evaluated by MTT method indicated that HMS@ß-CD@PPFc had good biocompatibility and was promising as the drug carrier.

13.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 562: 170-181, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838353

RESUMO

Ce-Mn-Ox catalysts were synthesized by impregnation (CM-IM), co-precipitation (CM-CP), citrate sol-gel (CM-SG) and hydrothermal (CM-HT) methods. The synthesis methods exhibited a great impact on the physicochemical properties of catalysts, resulting in different catalytic activity. The catalytic oxidation activity of toluene followed the sequence: CM-HT (T50: 234 °C; T90: 246 °C) > CM-SG (T50: 242 °C; T90: 249 °C) > CM-CP (T50: 243 °C; T90: 259 °C) > CM-IM (T50: 251 °C; T90: 261 °C), which was consistent with the sequence of surface relative percentage of Cov, Ce3+, Mn3+, Oα and r values. Among them, CM-HT showed the best catalytic oxidation performance of toluene due to more structural defects, oxygen vacancies, surface adsorption oxygen, normalized conversion rate and other active species. In addition, CM-HT catalysts showed reliable water resistance and good durability, implying the potential industrial application.

14.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(11): 1035-1041, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879001

RESUMO

Objective To prepare the monoclonal antibodies specifically against P protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and identify it. Methods HRSV P protein prepared by prokaryotic expression in the form of overlapping peptides was used as the immunogen, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were screened by hybridoma technology. Western blot analysis was used to verify the binding activity of the screened mAbs and P protein, and immunofluorescence cytochemical staining was used to determine whether the obtained mAbs could be used to detect the expression of P protein in HEp-2 cells infected with HRSV. Results P181-15A3 and P211-16D8 with great reactivity and specific recognition of HRSV P protein were screened. Both mAbs could bind to P protein by Western blot analysis and could be used for immunocytochemical detection of P protein in HEp-2 cells after HRSV infection. Conclusion We have successfully prepared the mAbs against HRSV P protein.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Humanos , Hibridomas , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos
16.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850464

RESUMO

Aluminum-ion batteries (AIBs) are supposed to be one of the energy storage systems with great potentialities on account of their high safety, low cost and high theoretical volumetric capacity. Herein, we report a novel rod-shaped Cu1.81Te cathode material for AIBs. At 40 mA g-1, the initial discharge capacity can reach 144 mA h g-1. The diffusion coefficient of Al3+ calculated by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests at different scan rates is larger than that in sulfides, indicating that telluride has faster kinetics. The results of ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) prove that the mechanism of the charging and discharging processes is the reversible intercalation and deintercalation of Al3+, which is very important for the subsequent researchers to understand and investigate the mechanism of the Al/Cu1.81Te battery. This work also proves that telluride can also be used as a cathode material for aluminum storage.

17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859180

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggested the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is implicated in the pathogenesis of methamphetamine use disorder. Metabolites changes of DLPFC may mediate the progression of addiction. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to examine the changes of metabolites in the left DLPFC in individuals with methamphetamine dependence compared to healthy controls. Fifty patients and twenty age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. The 1H MRS data were automatically fit with linear combination model for quantification of metabolite levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and other metabolites across groups. The GABA and Glx levels were calculated with the unsuppressed water signal as reference. Methamphetamine users showed reduced GABA and GABA/Glx in left DLPFC than healthy controls. Furthermore, the concentration of GSH, GPC, Ins, NAA, GPC + PCh, NAA + NAAG, Cr + PCr were lower in individuals with methamphetamine dependence compared with controls. The patients group's relative GABA and Glx metabolite concentrations were significantly correlated with age and duration of withdrawal. Our preliminary findings provide the first report of abnormal levels of GABA in left DLPFC of patients with methamphetamine use disorder, indicating that dysregulation of the GABAergic neurotransmitter system may be an important neurobiological mechanism in the pathogenesis of methamphetamine dependence.

18.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(12): 898-905, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on inflammatory reaction and insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant obese (OIR) rats. METHODS: Thirteen male Wistar rats were randomly selected as the control group and fed with common diet. The other 39 rats were fed with high-fat diet for 8 weeks to establish OIR model and then randomized into model, EA and sham EA groups. EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to unilateral "Zusanli" (ST36), "Fenglong" (ST40), "Zhongwan" (CV12) and "Guanyuan" (CV4) for 15 min, once every other day for 8 weeks, and sham EA was applied to unilateral 4 control spots about 5 mm lateral to the aforementioned 4 acupoints after shallowly inserting acupuncture needles, but without electric current output. After 8 weeks' intervention, the body weight was recorded and the glucose infusion rate (GIR) measured using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. At the 6th week of intervention, glucose contents of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tole-rance test (IPITT) were measured. The levels of serum insulin (INS) and inflammatory factors as C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by using ELISA at the end of the treatment. The expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), IL-10 and IL-1ß proteins and mRNAs in the abdominal adipose tissues were detected by Western blot and quantitative real time-PCR, separately. The CD68 expression (displaying infiltration of macrophages) of adipose tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: After modeling, the contents of glucose of IPGTT at 30, 60 and 120 min and those of IPITT at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min, serum INS, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as the expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß and MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs and CD68 protein were significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), while the levels of GIR and IL-10 protein and mRNA were obviously decreased in the model group in comparison with those of the control group (P<0.01), suggesting an increase of inflammation and a decline of INS sensitivity. Following the interventions, the increased contents of glucose of IPGTT and IPITT, serum INS, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α, expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß and MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs and CD68 protein, and the decreased levels of GIR and IL-10 protein and mRNA were evidently reversed in the EA group compared with the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05) rather than those in the sham EA group (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: EA can reduce the level of inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity in OIR rats.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Resistência à Insulina , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Inflamação , Insulina , Masculino , Obesidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; : 111865, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740260

RESUMO

We develop a low-background electrochemical biosensor for one-step detection of uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) based on the host-guest interaction and iron-embedded nitrogen-rich carbon nanotube (Fe-N-C) that mimics enzyme-mediated electrocatalysis to achieve signal amplification. In this work, Fe-N-C is initially immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode, followed by the immobilization of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD). We construct the signal probes by assembling the methylene blue (MB)-labeled hairpin DNAs onto the surface of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form the MB-hairpin/AuNP probes. Due to the steric effect of AuNPs and the stem-loop structure of hairpin DNA, MB is prevented from entering the cavity of ß-CD on the electrode. In contrast, UDG enables the removal of uracil from the U•A pairs in the stem of hairpin DNA probe to generate apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, leading to the assembly of MB-hairpin/AuNP probes on the electrode based on host-guest reaction between ß-CD and MB. Meanwhile, L-cysteine (RSH) is oxidized by O2 to disulfide L-cystine (RSSR) and H2O2. In the presence of H2O2, Fe-N-C catalyzes the oxidation of MB to generate an amplified electrochemical signal. Notably, the Fe-N-C-catalyzed oxidation of MB is mediated by the oxidation of RSH by O2 instead of external H2O2, greatly simplifying the experimental procedures and improving the electrochemical signal. Due to the introduction of host-guest recognition, this electrochemical biosensor displays a low-background signal and high signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the one-step sensitive measurement of UDG with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10-5 U mL-1. Moreover, this biosensor can measure UDG in crude cell extracts and screen the inhibitors, providing a new platform for biomedical research.

20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110677, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669981

RESUMO

A simple, sensitive and effective method was developed and validated for selective adsorption and quantitation of norfloxacin (NFX) from marine sediments and seawater samples using the novel molecularly imprinted silica polymers as sorbents followed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The imprinted particles were characterized by different techniques and the molecular recognition for NFX was also investigated. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) process were optimized. Three sediment and seawater samples from Weihai bay in China were analyzed and the results show that satisfactory recoveries (77.2-98.7%) were achieved in seawater samples with low relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 6.89% (n = 3), and the recoveries in sediments were in the range of 75.5-91.7%. The limits of detection are respectivley 2 µg L-1 in seawater samples and 5 µg kg-1 in sediments.

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