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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150140, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509841

RESUMO

With the rapid development of society, the soil and water environments in many countries are suffering from severe pollution. Pollutants in different phases will eventually gather into the soil and water environments, and a series of migrations and transformations will take place at ecohydrological interfaces with water flow. However, it is still not clear how ecohydrological interfaces affect the migration and the transformation of pollutants. Therefore, this paper summarizes the physical, ecological, and biogeochemical characteristics of ecohydrological interfaces on the basis of introducing the development history of ecohydrology and the concept of ecohydrological interfaces. The effects of ecohydrological interfaces on the migration and transformation of heavy metals, organic pollutants, and carbon­nitrogen­phosphorus (C-N-P) pollutants are emphasized. Lastly, the prospects of applying ecohydrological interfaces for the removal of pollutants from the soil and water environment are put forward, including strengthening the ability to monitor and simulate ecohydrological systems at micro and macro scales, enhancing interdisciplinary research, and identifying main influencing factors that can provide theoretical basis and technical support.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Nitrogênio , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800270

RESUMO

A coupled g-C3N4/PDS system, named gCN-P, has been put forward to degrade refractory organic pollutants under simulated sunlight which integrates photocatalysis and PS-AOPs (advanced oxidation of persulfate based on sulfate radicals). The coupled g-C3N4 and PDS showed superior synergistic effect for MO degradation under simulated sunlight. Results showed that almost all MO was removed in the gCN-P system after irradiation for 80 min under simulated sunlight. The degradation rate of gCN-P system was improved by 12.6 and 4.9 times compared to single PDS and g-C3N4 systems, respectively. And only by adding 0.01 g of persulfate into the gCN-P system. The results of quenching experiments and EPR showed that O2-, 1O2 and h+ were main active species for the degradation of MO in the gCN-P system under simulated sunlight. Application of the gCN-P system in tap water samples demonstrated its excellent performance in real-world water environment, and the gCN-P system was employed for removing other new contaminants such as bisphenol A, ciprofloxacin, and paracetamol. The results demonstrated the gCN-P system can effectively remove organic pollutants under sunlight in practices.

3.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1572, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790778

RESUMO

Background: Associated with abnormal angiogenesis and disc dysfunction, lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) appears to be an important disease suffered by elderly people. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of insufficient insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and excessive vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the development and progression of LDD, though a practical therapeutic strategy is lacking. Methods: The expression of IGF1 and VEGF was assessed in LDD specimens compared to normal disc tissue as a control. A gene therapy approach was performed, in which an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying both IGF1 and shVEGF (AAV-IGF1/shVEGF) was orthotopically injected to the rats that had undergone LDD. The alterations in IGF1 and VEGF levels in the treated disc tissue were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The outcome of this therapy was assessed by disc cell death using an annexin V-FITC assay and by assessing lumbar proteoglycan and collagen II levels using ELISA. Results: IGF1 expression was significantly downregulated in LDD, while VEGF expression was significantly upregulated in LDD, compared to normal controls. Combined AAV-IGF1/shVEGF treatment simultaneously corrected the insufficient IGF1 and the excessive VEGF in LDD rats. Moreover, AAV-IGF1/shVEGF significantly reduced disc cell death in the vertebral pulp and annulus fibrosus and significantly enhanced the lumbar proteoglycan and collagen II levels. Conclusions: The simultaneous increase in IGF1 and depletion of VEGF effectively prevented the development of LDD, suggesting its potential as a novel therapeutic approach for LDD which is clinically translatable.

4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(5): 799-804, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A method of headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was established for the determination of the content of each single component vegetable oil in blend oil based on soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil. METHODS: The data of volatile components of each single component vegetable oil was collected effectively by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data was compared, filtered step by step and evaluated by method ology using chemometrics method and group analysis software. RESULTS: Finally, 2, 4-heptanedialdehyde, 2-decendialdehyde and 5-methyl-2-furfural were identified as the quantitative detection marker compounds of soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil, respectively. Dihydro-3-methylene-5-methyl-2-furanone and trans-2-nonenoldehyde, 4-ethyl-5-methyl-nonane and trans-2-dodecenol, 2-(1-pentenyl)-furan and 2-methylpyrazine were the qualitative compounds of soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil, respectively. The regression equations and linear correlation coefficient(r~2) of soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil were obtained by testing nine level simulated blend oil. The linear range were 0.57%-100%, 0.98%-100%, 0.34%-100%. The precision range were 1.4%-3.8%, 9.0%-16.0%, 5.0%-10.4%(n=6). The recovery range were 100.1%-100.5%, 75.0%-115.3%, 87.0%-100.6%. These data met the requirements of method ology. CONCLUSION: The method is applicable to testing research of the content of each single component vegetable oil in blend oil based on soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 704360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604254

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the correlates of sexual dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in male patients with urinary bladder stones and to determine the effect of stone extraction on recovery of sexual function. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 male patients with primary bladder stones were studied from January 2015 to May 2016. All patients underwent pneumatic lithotripsy for bladder stones. Sexual dysfunction was assessed based on sexual function assessment scales. The relationship of bladder stones with sexual dysfunction or LUTS was assessed using a two-sample t-test. Postoperative improvement of sexual function was assessed by repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results: Forty-one patients had primary bladder stones and 46 had secondary stones from the kidneys. Eighty-three of 87 patients (95%) had sexual dysfunction; 79 patients (91%) had both sexual dysfunction and LUTS. There was a significant association between bladder stones and sexual dysfunction, between sexual dysfunction and LUTS, and between bladder stone and LUTS (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between the course of illness, size and number of bladder stones, or urinary tract infection with sexual function (p > 0.05). In addition, among 83 patients with both bladder stone and sexual dysfunction, 61 patients (73%) had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 22 patients (27%) had no BPH. On postoperative evaluation at 3 months, sexual dysfunction scores were significantly improved in 77 patients (88.5%) Conclusion: Patients with bladder stones have a high incidence of sexual dysfunction, particularly those with co-existing LUTS and BPH. About 1/3 patients without BPH had sexual dysfunction and surgical removal of bladder stones significantly improved sexual function and LUTS.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 711004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630086

RESUMO

Background: Shen-sui-tong-zhi formula (SSTZF) has been used to treat osteoporosis for decades and shows excellent clinical efficacy. This article aims to explore the optimal anti-osteoporotic ingredient and its precise mechanisms in mice models. Methods: In this study, we first screened the optimal anti-osteoporosis fraction of SSTZF extract in vivo, and then further explored the mechanism of its effects both in vivo and in vitro. Ten-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were administrated with each fraction of SSTZF. At 10 weeks after ovariectomy (OVX), femurs were collected for tissue analyses, including histology, micro-CT, biomechanical tests, and immunohistochemistry for ALP, FABP4, and ß-catenin. Additionally, we also evaluated the mRNA expression level of ALP and FABP4 and the protein expression level of ß-catenin after being treated with SSTZF extract in C3H10T1/2 cells. Moreover, we investigated the anti-osteoporosis effect of SSTZF extract on mice with ß-catenin conditional knockout in growth plate chondrocytes (ß-catenin Gli1ER mice) through µCT, histology, and immunohistochemistry analyzes. Results: At 10 weeks after treatment, osteoporosis-like phenotype were significantly ameliorated in SSTZF n-butanol extract (SSTZF-NB) group mice, as indicated by increased trabecular bone area and ALP content, and decreased lipid droplet area and FABP4 content. No such improvements were observed after being treated with other extracts, demonstrating that SSTZF-NB is the optimal anti-osteoporosis fraction. Additionally, the elevated ß-catenin was revealed in both OVX mice and C3H10T1/2 cells with SSTZF-NB administered. Furthermore, a significant osteoporosis-like phenotype was observed in ß-catenin Gli1ER mice as expected. However, SSTZF-NB failed to rescue the deterioration in ß-catenin Gli1ER mice, no significant re-upregulated ALP and downregulated FABP4 were observed after being treated with SSTZF-NB, demonstrating that SSTZF-NB prevents bone loss mainly via ß-catenin signaling. Conclusion: SSTZF-NB enhances osteogenesis mainly via activation of ß-catenin signaling in growth plate chondrocytes. SSTZF-NB is the optimal anti-osteoporosis fraction of SSTZF and it can be considered a salutary alternative therapeutic option for osteoporosis.

7.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(10): 1509-1515, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669759

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants are suspected to be significant point sources of microplastic and nanoplastic particles (NPs) in the environment. As one of the main wastewater treatment processes, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may change the physicochemical properties of NPs and further affect their migration. However, limited information is known about the environmental fate of NPs after AOP treatment. In this study, polystyrene nanoparticles were treated using two representative AOPs, Fenton and persulfate treatments, and the migration of the NPs in quartz sand was investigated via column transport experiments. FTIR and XPS analysis indicated that a large number of oxygen-containing groups were generated on the NP surface after AOP treatment leading to lower hydrophobicity and a higher negative charge. Besides, the C/O ratio after Fenton and persulfate treatments was increased from 10.98 to 7.25 and 8.68. Moreover, the NPs after AOP treatment exhibited higher mobility in quartz sand in both ultrapure water and 10 mM NaCl solution. It was more obvious in 10 mM NaCl solution with breakthrough percentages of 79.73% for P-PS, 90.97% for F-PS and 95.67% for N-PS, respectively. These results could be explained by the roles of generated oxygen-containing functional groups; first, the higher negative charge enhanced the electrostatic repulsion between treated NPs and sand; second, lower hydrophobicity improved the binding with water molecules in background solution. This work is helpful in understanding the changes of nanoplastics in AOP treatment and their migration in the natural environment, which has far-reaching influence on the environmental fate and behavior of nanoplastics.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poliestirenos , Plásticos , Quartzo , Areia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to develop DL models capable of comprehensively quantifying left and right ventricular dysfunction from ECG data in a large, diverse population. BACKGROUND: Rapid evaluation of left and right ventricular function using deep learning (DL) on electrocardiograms (ECGs) can assist diagnostic workflow. However, DL tools to estimate right- ventricular (RV) function do not exist, whereas those to estimate left ventricular (LV) function are restricted to quantification of very low LV function only. METHODS: A multicenter study was conducted with data from 5 New York City hospitals: 4 for internal testing and 1 serving as external validation. We created novel DL models to classify left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) into categories derived from the latest universal definition of heart failure, estimate LVEF through regression, and predict a composite outcome of either RV systolic dysfunction or RV dilation. RESULTS: We obtained echocardiogram LVEF estimates for 147,636 patients paired to 715,890 ECGs. We used natural language processing (NLP) to extract RV size and systolic function information from 404,502 echocardiogram reports paired to 761,510 ECGs for 148,227 patients. For LVEF classification in internal testing, area under curve (AUC) at detection of LVEF ≤40%, 40% < LVEF ≤50%, and LVEF >50% was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.94-0.94), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.81-0.83), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.89-0.89), respectively. For external validation, these results were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.94-0.95), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.72-0.74), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.87-0.88). For regression, the mean absolute error was 5.84% (95% CI: 5.82%-5.85%) for internal testing and 6.14% (95% CI: 6.13%-6.16%) in external validation. For prediction of the composite RV outcome, AUC was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.84-0.84) in both internal testing and external validation. CONCLUSIONS: DL on ECG data can be used to create inexpensive screening, diagnostic, and predictive tools for both LV and RV dysfunction. Such tools may bridge the applicability of ECGs and echocardiography and enable prioritization of patients for further interventions for either sided failure progressing to biventricular disease.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609945

RESUMO

Word-character lattice models have been proved to be effective for some Chinese natural language processing (NLP) tasks, in which word boundary information is fused into character sequences. However, due to the inherently unidirectional sequential nature, prior approaches have only learned sequential interactions of character-word instances but fail to capture fine-grained correlations in word-character spaces. In this article, we propose a lattice-aligned attention network (LAN) that aims to model dense interactions over word-character lattice structure for enhancing character representations. By carefully combining cross-lattice module, gated word-character semantic fusion unit, and self-lattice attention module, the network can explicitly capture fine-grained correlations across different spaces (e.g., word-to-character and character-to-character), thus significantly improving model performance. Experimental results on three Chinese NLP benchmark tasks demonstrate that LAN obtains state-of-the-art results compared to several competitive approaches.

10.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 8212-8221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546922

RESUMO

In this paper we present a new data-driven method for pixel-level scene text segmentation from a single natural image. Although scene text detection, i.e. producing a text region mask, has been well studied in the past decade, pixel-level text segmentation is still an open problem due to the lack of massive pixel-level labeled data for supervised training. To tackle this issue, we incorporate text region mask as an auxiliary data into this task, considering acquiring large-scale of labeled text region mask is commonly less expensive and time-consuming. To be specific, we propose a mutually guided network which produces a polygon-level mask in one branch and a pixel-level text mask in the other. The two branches' outputs serve as guidance for each other and the whole network is trained via a semi-supervised learning strategy. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our mutually guided network, and experimental results show our network outperforms the state-of-the-art in pixel-level scene text segmentation. We also demonstrate the mask produced by our network could improve the text recognition performance besides the trivial image editing application.

11.
Drug Resist Updat ; 58: 100777, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481195

RESUMO

Chemotherapy remains a powerful tool to eliminate malignant cells. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy is compromised by the frequent emergence of intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR). These chemoresistance modalities are based on a multiplicity of molecular mechanisms of drug resistance, including : 1) Impaired drug uptake into cancer cells; 2) Increased expression of ATP-binding cassette efflux transporters; 3) Loss of function of pro-apoptotic factors; 4) Enhanced DNA repair capacity; 5) Qualitative or quantitative alterations of specific cellular targets; 6) Alterations that allow cancer cells to tolerate adverse or stressful conditions; 7) Increased biotransformation or metabolism of anticancer drugs to less active or completely inactive metabolites; and 8) Intracellular and intercellular drug sequestration in well-defined organelles away from the cellular target. Hence, one of the major aims of cancer research is to develop novel strategies to overcome cancer drug resistance. Over the last decades, nanomedicine, which focuses on targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs into tumor tissues using nano-sized formulations, has emerged as a promising tool for cancer treatment. Therefore, nanomedicine has been introduced as a reliable approach to improve treatment efficacy and minimize detrimental adverse effects as well as overcome cancer drug resistance. With rationally designed strategies including passively targeted delivery, actively targeted delivery, delivery of multidrug combinations, as well as multimodal combination therapy, nanomedicine paves the way towards efficacious cancer treatment and hold great promise in overcoming cancer drug resistance. Herein, we review the recent progress of nanomaterials used in medicine, including liposomal nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles and hybrid nanoparticles, to surmount cancer multidrug resistance. Finally, the future perspectives of the application of nanomedicine to reverse cancer drug resistance will be addressed.

12.
J Dig Dis ; 22(9): 536-544, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The accelerated shedding of extracellular domains of syndecan-4 (SDC4) is associated with central obesity and insulin resistance, while the association between serum SDC4 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between SDC4 and NAFLD. METHODS: Adults undergoing a health examination from 1 June 2019 to 31 December 2019 were enrolled. A diagnosis of NAFLD was made with an abdominal ultrasound. Logistic regression models and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the role of SDC4 in predicting NAFLD. RESULTS: In total, 533 eligible participants were finally enrolled, among them 157 (29.46%) had NAFLD. The proportion of patients with NAFLD increased with the increasing quartiles of serum SDC4. With the increase of serum SDC4 levels, metabolic features including waist circumference, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly increased. SDC4 was an independent factor for NAFLD (odds ratio 1.963, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.628-2.367, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve of SDC4 for predicting NAFLD was 0.934 (95% CI 0.910-0.959). The optimal cut-off value was 6.575 ng/mL at Youden's index of 0.767. SDC4 had the highest diagnostic sensitivity (84.1%), positive predictive value (82.5%), negative predictive value (93.3%) and positive likelihood ratio (11.356) among all the variables. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum SDC4 level is associated with metabolic disorders and the prevalence of NAFLD among general population. Serum SDC4 may serve as a biomarker of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Sindecana-4 , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sindecana-4/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432639

RESUMO

Joint extraction of entities and their relations benefits from the close interaction between named entities and their relation information. Therefore, how to effectively model such cross-modal interactions is critical for the final performance. Previous works have used simple methods, such as label-feature concatenation, to perform coarse-grained semantic fusion among cross-modal instances but fail to capture fine-grained correlations over token and label spaces, resulting in insufficient interactions. In this article, we propose a dynamic cross-modal attention network (CMAN) for joint entity and relation extraction. The network is carefully constructed by stacking multiple attention units in depth to dynamic model dense interactions over token-label spaces, in which two basic attention units and a novel two-phase prediction are proposed to explicitly capture fine-grained correlations across different modalities (e.g., token-to-token and label-to-token). Experiment results on the CoNLL04 dataset show that our model obtains state-of-the-art results by achieving 91.72% F1 on entity recognition and 73.46% F1 on relation classification. In the ADE and DREC datasets, our model surpasses existing approaches by more than 2.1% and 2.54% F1 on relation classification. Extensive analyses further confirm the effectiveness of our approach.

14.
One Health ; 13: 100313, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458548

RESUMO

Assays to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies are important to monitor seroprevalence, to study asymptomatic infections and to reveal (intermediate) hosts. A recently developed assay, the surrogate virus-neutralization test (sVNT) is a quick and commercially available alternative to the "gold standard" virus neutralization assay using authentic virus, and does not require processing at BSL-3 level. The assay relies on the inhibition of binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) on the spike (S) protein to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) by antibodies present in sera. As the sVNT does not require species- or isotype-specific conjugates, it can be similarly used for antibody detection in human and animal sera. In this study, we used 298 sera from PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 151 sera from patients confirmed with other coronavirus or other (respiratory) infections, to evaluate the performance of the sVNT. To analyze the use of the assay in a One Health setting, we studied the presence of RBD-binding antibodies in 154 sera from nine animal species (cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, ferrets, rabbits, hamsters, cats, cattle, mink and dromedary camels). The sVNT showed a moderate to high sensitivity and a high specificity using sera from confirmed COVID-19 patients (91.3% and 100%, respectively) and animal sera (93.9% and 100%), however it lacked sensitivity to detect low titers. Significant correlations were found between the sVNT outcomes and PRNT50 and the Wantai total Ig and IgM ELISAs. While species-specific validation will be essential, our results show that the sVNT holds promise in detecting RBD-binding antibodies in multiple species.

15.
JAMIA Open ; 4(3): ooab068, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423260

RESUMO

Objectives: Classifying hospital admissions into various acute myocardial infarction phenotypes in electronic health records (EHRs) is a challenging task with strong research implications that remains unsolved. To our knowledge, this study is the first study to design and validate phenotyping algorithms using cardiac catheterizations to identify not only patients with a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but the specific encounter when it occurred. Materials and Methods: We design and validate multi-modal algorithms to phenotype STEMI on a multicenter EHR containing 5.1 million patients and 115 million patient encounters by using discharge summaries, diagnosis codes, electrocardiography readings, and the presence of cardiac catheterizations on the encounter. Results: We demonstrate that robustly phenotyping STEMIs by selecting discharge summaries containing "STEM" has the potential to capture the most number of STEMIs (positive predictive value [PPV] = 0.36, N = 2110), but that addition of a STEMI-related International Classification of Disease (ICD) code and cardiac catheterizations to these summaries yields the highest precision (PPV = 0.94, N = 952). Discussion and Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate that the incorporation of percutaneous coronary intervention increases the PPV for detecting STEMI-related patient encounters from the EHR.

16.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452319

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people globally since its first detection in late 2019. Besides humans, cats and, to some extent, dogs were shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for surveillance in a One Health context. Seven veterinary clinics from regions with high incidences of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were recruited during the early pandemic (March to July 2020) for the screening of patients. A total of 2257 oropharyngeal and nasal swab specimen from 877 dogs and 260 cats (including 18 animals from COVID-19-affected households and 92 animals with signs of respiratory disease) were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the viral envelope (E) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. One oropharyngeal swab from an Italian cat, living in a COVID-19-affected household in Piedmont, tested positive in RT-qPCR (1/260; 0.38%, 95% CI: 0.01-2.1%), and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the animal was serologically confirmed six months later. One oropharyngeal swab from a dog was potentially positive (1/877; 0.1%, 95% CI: 0.002-0.63%), but the result was not confirmed in a reference laboratory. Analyses of convenience sera from 118 animals identified one dog (1/94; 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.02-5.7%) from Lombardy, but no cats (0/24), as positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing activity. These findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cat and dog populations, and hence, the risk of zoonotic transmission to veterinary staff, was low during the first wave of the pandemic, even in hotspot areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética
17.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117715, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256288

RESUMO

Maricultured organisms are chronically exposed to water containing antibiotics but the bioaccumulative behavior of antibiotics in exposed organisms at different growth stages has received little attention. Here, we investigated the concentrations and tissue-specific bioaccumulation characteristics of 19 antibiotics during three growth stages (youth stage, growth stage, and adult stage) of various organisms (Scophthalmus maximus, Penaeus vannamei, Penaeus japonicus, and Apostichopus japonicus) cultivated in typical marine aquaculture regions, and explored the factors that could affect the bioaccumulation of antibiotics. Tetracyclines (TCs) and fluoroquinolones (FQs) were the dominant antibiotics in all organisms, and the total concentrations of the target antibiotics in fish (S. maximus) were significantly higher than those in shrimp (P. vannamei and P. japonicus) and sea cucumber (A. japonicus) (p < 0.01). The bioaccumulation capacity of a class of statistically significant antibiotics in most samples was strongest during the youth stage and weakest during the adult stage. The antibiotics exhibited higher bioaccumulation capacity in lipid-rich tissues (fish liver and shrimp head) or respiratory organs (fish gill) than muscle. Our results also reveal significant metabolic transformation of enrofloxacin in fish. Different from previous studies, the logarithm bioaccumulation factor (log BAF) was positively correlated with log Dlipw in low-biotransformation tissues (fish gill and muscle) rather than lipid-rich tissues (fish liver). Based on the calculated hazard quotients (HQ), doxycycline in fish muscle may pose a distinct risk to human health, which deserves special attention. Overall, these results provide insight into the bioaccumulation patterns of antibiotics during different growth stages and tissues of maricultured organisms.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bioacumulação , China , Peixes , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126508, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323729

RESUMO

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is a promising technology for refractory pollutant treatment. The nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) assisted anaerobic system could enhance contaminant removal. In this work, we added nZVI into an anaerobic system to investigate the effects on system performances and metabolic mechanism for chloramphenicol (CAP) wastewater treatment. As nZVI concentrations increased from 0 to 1 g/L, the CAP removal efficiency was appreciably improved from 46.5% to 99.2%, while the CH4 production enhanced more than 20 times. The enhanced CAP removal resulted from the enrichments of dechlorination-related bacteria (Hyphomicrobium) and other functional bacteria (e.g., Zoogloea, Syntrophorhabdus) associated with refractory contaminants degradation. The improved CH4 production was ascribed to the increases in fermentative-related bacteria (Smithella and Acetobacteroides), homoacetogen (Treponema), and methanogens. The increased abundances of anaerobic functional genes further verified the mechanism of CH4 production. Furthermore, the abundances of potential hosts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were reduced under high nZVI concentration (1 g/L), contributing to ARGs attenuation. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the mechanism in metabolic performance enhancement and ARGs attenuation during nZVI-assisted anaerobic CAP wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Cloranfenicol , Purificação da Água , Anaerobiose , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ferro/farmacologia
19.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224109

RESUMO

Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-B55) is a re-emergent acute respiratory disease pathogen that causes adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previous studies have shown that the receptor of HAdV-B14, which genome is highly similar with HAdV-B55, is human Desmoglein 2 (DSG2). However, whether the receptor of HAdV-B55 is DSG2 is undetermined because there are three amino acid mutations in the fiber gene between HAdV-B14 and HAdV-B55. Here, firstly we found the 3T3 cells, a mouse embryo fibroblast rodent cell line which does not express human DSG2, were able to be infected by HAdV-B55 after transfected with pcDNA3.1-DSG2, while normal 3T3 cells were still unsusceptible to HAdV-B55 infection. Next, A549 cells with hDSG2 knock-down by siRNA were hard to be infected by HAdV-B3/-B14/-B55, while the control siRNA group was still able to be infected by all these types of HAdVs. Finally, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy indicated visually that Cy3-conjugated HAdV-B55 viruses entered A549 cells by binding to DSG2 protein. Therefore, DSG2 is a major receptor of HAdV-B55 causing adult CAP. Our finding is important for better understanding of interactions between adenoviruses and host cells and may shed light on the development of new drugs that can interfere with these processes as well as for the development of potent prophylactic vaccines.

20.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 678967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249931

RESUMO

Background: SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily C member 1 (SMARCC1) protein is a potential tumor suppressor in various cancers. However, its role in prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the biological function of SMARCC1 in PCa and explore the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Methods: The expression of SMARCC1 was validated in PCa tissues by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, function experiments were used to evaluate the regulatory role on cell proliferation and metastasis in PCa cells with SMARCC1 depletion both in vitro and in vivo. The expression levels of relevant proteins were detected by Western blotting. Results: Our finding showed that SMARCC1 was significantly downregulated in prostate adenocarcinoma, with a higher Gleason score (GS) than that in low GS. The decreased expression of SMARCC1 was significantly correlated with a higher GS and poor prognosis. Additionally, we found that silencing of SMARCC1 dramatically accelerated cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression and enhancing cell migration by inducing epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, depletion of SMARCC1 facilitated PCa xenograft growth and lung metastasis in murine models. Mechanistically, the loss of SMARCC1 activated the PI3K/AKT pathway in PCa cells. Conclusion: SMARCC1 suppresses PCa cell proliferation and metastasis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and is a novel therapeutic target.

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