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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170386

RESUMO

Sho1 is an important membrane sensor upstream of the HOG-MAPK signaling pathway, which plays critical roles in osmotic pressure response, growth, and virulence in fungi. Here, a Sho1 homolog (MaSho1), containing four transmembrane domains and one Src homology (SH3) domain, was characterized in Metarhizium acridum, a fungal pathogen of locusts. Targeted gene disruption of MaSho1 impaired cell wall integrity, virulence, and tolerances to UV-B and oxidative stresses, while none of them was affected when the SH3 domain was deleted. Intriguingly, disruption of MaSho1 significantly increased conidial yield, which was not affected in the SH3 domain mutant. Furthermore, it was found that deletion of MaSho1 led to microcycle conidiation of M. acridum on the normal conidiation medium. Deletion of MaSho1 significantly shortened the hyphal cells but had no effect on conidial germination. Digital gene expression profiling during conidiation indicated that differential expression of genes was associated with mycelial development, cell division, and differentiation between the wild type and the MaSho1 mutant. These data suggested that disruption of MaSho1 shifted the conidiation pattern by altering the transcription of genes to inhibit mycelial growth, thereby promoting the conidiation of M. acridum.

2.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157603

RESUMO

Ticks are involved in the transmission of various arboviruses and some tick-borne viruses pose significant threats to the health of humans or livestock. This study aimed to investigate the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-associated viruses in central and eastern China. Total 573 ticks from domestic animals including dogs, sheep and cattle were collected in 2017. Two genera of ticks were identified including Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis. Sequencing was performed on Miseq Illumina platform to characterize the tick viromes from the four different sampling locations. Following trimming, 13,640 reads were obtained and annotated to 19 virus families. From these sequences, above 37.74% of the viral reads were related to the RNA viruses. Virome comparison study revealed that the tick viral diversity was considerably different in the two identified tick genera. The viral diversity of R. microplus was significantly different from that of other Rhipicephalus species. On the other hand, substantial overlap in viral species was observed between the same genera. In addition, we found no evidence that the natural host played a major role in shaping virus diversity based on the comparison of their viromes. Rather, the geographic location seems to significantly influence the viral families. Phylogenetic study indicated that the novel negative-sense RNA viruses identified in this study was closely related to Bole tick virus 1 and 3 viruses. In conclusion, the present study provides a baseline for comparing viruses detected in ticks, according to species, natural hosts, and geographic locations.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143507

RESUMO

Polygalacturonase (PG) is an essential hydrolytic enzyme responsible for pectin degradation and thus plays an important role in fruit softening and other cell separation processes. PG protein is encoded by a multigene family, however, the members of PG gene family in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) have not been extensively identified. In this study, a total of 51 AcPG genes in kiwifruit genome were identified. They are phylogenetically clustered into seven clades, and of them AcPG4 and AcPG18 with other known PG genes involved in fruit softening from peach, pear, papaya and melon form a small cluster together. The members of kiwifruit PG gene family consist of three to nine exons and two to eight introns, and their exon/intron structures are generally conserved in all clades except the clade D and E. During fruit softening of kiwifruit 'Donghong' under ambient temperature, cell wall modifying enzymes, including PG, PL (pectate and pectin lyases), and PE (pectinesterase, also known as pectin methylesterase, PME) showed a different activity profile, and of them, PG and PE activities largely correlated with the change of pectin content and firmness. Moreover, only 11 AcPG genes were highly or moderately expressed in softening fruit, and of which three AcPG genes (AcPG4, AcPG18, and AcPG8, especially the former two) has been found to strongly correlate with the profile of PG activity and pectin content, as well as fruit firmness, suggesting that they maybe play an important role in fruit softening. Thus, our findings not only benefit the functional characterization of kiwifruit PG genes, but also provide a subset of potential PG candidate genes for further genetic manipulation.

4.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047109

RESUMO

Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and impaired autophagy all are general features of senescent cells. However, the crosstalk among these events and processes is not fully understood. Here, using NIH3T3 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide stress, we show that stress-induced DNA damage provokes the SASP largely via cytosolic chromatin fragment (CCF) formation, which activates a cascade comprising cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING), NF-κB, and SASP, and that autolysosomal function inhibits this cascade. We found that CCFs accumulate in senescent cells with activated cGAS-STING-NF-κB signaling, promoting SASP and cellular senescence. We also present evidence that the persistent accumulation of CCFs in prematurely senescent cells is partially associated with a defect in DNA- degrading activity in autolysosomes and reduced abundance of activated DNase 2a. Intriguingly, we found that metformin- or rapamycin-induced activation of autophagy significantly lessened the size and levels of CCFs and repressed the activation of the cGAS-STING-NF-κB-SASP cascade and cellular senescence. These effects of autophagy activators indicated that autolysosomal function contributes to CCFs clearance and SASP suppression, further supported by the fact that the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1 blocked the role of autophagy-mediated CCFs clearance and senescence repression. Taken together, these findings confirm the significant role of CCFs formation in the SASP and oxidative stress-induced senescence and reveal that CCF-mediated SASP inversely correlated with autolysosomal function. We conclude that the restoration of autolysosomal function may prevent DNA damage-provoked SASP production and cellular senescence.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 4, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066658

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a male-to-female prevalence of 4:1. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying this gender difference remain unclear. Mutation burden analysis, a TADA model, and co-expression and functional network analyses were performed on de novo mutations (DNMs) and corresponding candidate genes. We found that the prevalence of putative functional DNMs (loss-of-function and predicted deleterious missense mutations) in females was significantly higher than that in males, suggesting that a higher genetic load was required in females to reach the threshold for a diagnosis. We then prioritized 174 candidate genes, including 60 shared genes, 91 male-specific genes, and 23 female-specific genes. All of the three subclasses of candidate genes were significantly more frequently co-expressed in female brains than male brains, suggesting that compensation effects of the deficiency of ASD candidate genes may be more likely in females. Nevertheless, the three subclasses of candidate genes were co-expressed with each other, suggesting a convergent functional network of male and female-specific genes. Our analysis of different aspects of genetic components provides suggestive evidence supporting the female-protective effect in ASD. Moreover, further study is needed to integrate neuronal and hormonal data to elucidate the underlying gender difference in ASD.

6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 33, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf mold disease caused by Cladosporium fulvum is a serious threat affecting the global production of tomato. Cf genes are associated with leaf mold resistance, including Cf-16, which confers effective resistance to leaf mold in tomato. However, the molecular mechanism of the Cf-16-mediated resistance response is largely unknown. RESULTS: We performed a comparative transcriptome analysis of C. fulvum-resistant (cv. Ontario7816) and C. fulvum-susceptible (cv. Moneymaker) tomato cultivars to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 8 days post inoculation (dpi) with C. fulvum. In total, 1588 and 939 more DEGs were found in Cf-16 tomato than in Moneymaker at 4 and 8 dpi, respectively. Additionally, 1350 DEGs were shared between the 4- and 8-dpi Cf-16 groups, suggesting the existence of common core DEGs in response to C. fulvum infection. The up-regulated DEGs in Cf-16 tomato were primarily associated with defense processes and phytohormone signaling, including salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Moreover, SA and JA levels were significantly increased in Cf-16 tomato at the early stages of C. fulvum infection. Contrary to the previous study, the number of up-regulated genes in Cf-16 compared to Cf-10 and Cf-12 tomatoes was significantly higher at the early stages of C. fulvum infection. CONCLUSION: Our results provide new insight into the Cf-mediated mechanism of resistance to C. fulvum, especially the unique characteristics of Cf-16 tomato in response to this fungus.

7.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia, significantly increases cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis and treatment of AF remain a major challenge in the field of cardiology. We previously found that cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) regulated ventricular repolarization by posttranscriptionally regulating Kv4.2/4.3 ion channels in rats, but the role of CIRP in AF is not clear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to confirm that CIRP participates in atrial electrophysiological remodeling and AF occurrence by regulating atrial channels posttranscriptionally. METHODS: Programmed intra-atrial stimulation was used to induce AF in wild-type or transcription activator-like effector nucleases-based CIRP knockout (KO) rats. Atrial optical mapping, patch clamp, Western blotting, RNA immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate the underlying mechanism of atrial electrical remodeling. RESULTS: First, we observed a shortened atrial effective refractory period and increased susceptibility to AF in CIRP KO rats. Second, atria-specific CIRP delivery through an adeno-associated viral vector serotype 9 prolonged the atrial effective refractory period and attenuated AF development in CIRP KO rats. Third, we observed the shortened action potential duration and enhanced expression of Kv1.5 and Kv4.2/4.3 in KO rats. The transient outward current blocker 4-Aminopyridine and ultrarapid component of the delayed rectifier current blocker Diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 restored the shortened action potential duration in KO atria. Finally, we demonstrated that CIRP suppressed Kv1.5 and Kv4.2/4.3 expression by directly targeting their 3'-untranslated regions. CONCLUSION: CIRP plays a protective role in preventing AF onset through the posttranscriptional regulation of Kv1.5 and Kv4.2/4.3.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 304, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941936

RESUMO

The bacteria inhabiting brackish lake environments in arid or semi-arid regions have not been thoroughly identified. In this study, the 454 pyrosequencing method was used to study the sedimentary bacterial community composition (BCC) and diversity in Lake Bosten, which is located in the arid regions of northwestern China. A total of 210,233 high-quality sequence reads and 8,427 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were successfully obtained from 20 selected sediment samples. The samples were quantitatively dominated by members of Proteobacteria (34.1% ± 11.0%), Firmicutes (21.8% ± 21.9%) and Chloroflexi (13.8% ± 5.2%), which accounted for more than 69% of the bacterial sequences. The results showed that (i) Lake Bosten had significant spatial heterogeneity, and TOC(total organic carbon), TN(total nitrogen) and TP(total phosphorus) were the most important contributors to bacterial diversity; (ii) there was lower taxonomic richness in Lake Bosten, which is located in an arid region, than in reference lakes in eutrophic floodplains and marine systems; and (iii) there was a low percentage of dominant species in the BCC and a high percentage of unidentified bacteria. Our data help to better describe the diversity and distribution of bacterial communities in contaminated brackish lakes in arid regions and how microbes respond to environmental changes in these stable inland waters in arid or semi-arid regions.

9.
FASEB J ; 34(3): 4134-4146, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930571

RESUMO

As a convenient, effective and economical kidney replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), peritoneal dialysis is available in approximately 11% of ESRD patients worldwide. However, long-term peritoneal dialysis treatment causes peritoneal fibrosis. In recent years, the application potential of molecular hydrogen in the biomedicine has been well recognized. Molecular hydrogen selectively scavenges cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and acts as an antioxidant. In this experiment, a high glucose-induced peritoneal fibrosis mouse model was successfully established by intraperitoneal injection of high glucose peritoneal dialysate, and peritoneal fibrosis mice were treated with hydrogen-rich peritoneal dialysate. In addition, in vitro studies of high glucose-induced peritoneal fibrosis were performed using MeT-5A cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments show that molecular hydrogen could inhibit peritoneal fibrosis progress induced by high glucose effectively. Furthermore, it has been found that molecular hydrogen alleviate fibrosis by eliminating intracellular ROS and inhibiting the activation of the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway. The present data proposes that molecular hydrogen exerts the capacity of anti-peritoneal fibrosis through the ROS/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway. Therefore, molecule hydrogen is a potential, safe, and effective treatment agent, with peritoneal protective property and great clinical significance.

10.
Mol Ther ; 28(3): 901-913, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991109

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a predominant cancer type in developing countries such as China, where ESCC accounts for approximately 90% of esophageal malignancies. Lacking effective and targeted therapy contributes to the poor 5-year survival rate. Recent studies showed that about 30% of ESCC cases have high levels of SOX2. Herein, we aim to target this transcription factor with aptamer. We established a peptide aptamer library and then performed an unbiased screening to identify several peptide aptamers including P42 that can bind and inhibit SOX2 downstream target genes. We further found that P42 overexpression or incubation with a synthetic peptide 42 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells. Moreover, peptide 42 treatment inhibited the growth and metastasis of ESCC xenografts in mouse and zebrafish. Further analysis revealed that P42 overexpression led to alternations in the levels of proteins that are important for the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells. Taken together, our study identified the peptide 42 as a key inhibitor of SOX2 function, reducing the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo, and thereby offering a potential therapy against ESCC.

11.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 29: 101649, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficiency and safety of hematoporphyrin mono-methylether photodynamic therapy (HMME-PDT) in treating port-wine stains (PWS) with Chinese patients, and to evaluate the advantage of photograph,VISIA Complexion Analysis System, and dermoscopy in efficacy evaluation.Analyzing changes of pain during treatment and related adverse reactions. METHOD: 62 patients were treated in our department during2017-2019 with HMME-PDT, among which, 20 cases were pink type, 32 cases were purple type and remain 11 cases were nodular thickening type. Initially, all patients received an intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg HMME, and then the lesion areas of the patients were exposed to 532 nm LED green light after 10 min. The irradiation power density was range between 80-100 mW/cm2. By utilization of photograph,VISIA system, and dermoscopy to evaluate the clearance after treatments, and then informing the patients to value the pain level during the treatment via visual analogue scale(VAS), and recording the adverse reactions. RESULT: After 2 times treatments, 11 of the 62 cases were cured (17.74 %), 17 cases showed a good efficacy (27.42 %), 20 cases indicated alleviation (32.26 %), while 14 cases displayed no efficacy (22.58 %).By observation, The VISIA system combined with image analysis software is an excellent technique in assessing efficacy. Dermoscopy helps to classify PWS types.It showed that the pain level each patient could endure was distinct, and it's remarkable that when receiving consecutive 12.09 ± 3.74 min of treatment, most of patients have showed severe pain.Patients with severe pain except young children who couldn't value the pain, had better efficacy.The side effects after treatment mainly displayed with edema, crust, hyperpigmentation. No recurrence within 2 years. CONCLUSION: It shows that after treating with HMME-PDTt efficacy is remarkable, with advantage of safety and fewer side effects. HMME_PDT should undergo further research and promotion. VISIA system combined with image analysis software and dermoscopy are excellent techniques for evaluating efficacy.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136569, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955086

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) contamination in the aquatic environment have received significant attention recently due to the potential risks they pose. However, there have been few studies about the simultaneous behaviors of As and Sb, resulting in a poor understanding of their occurrence at the sediment-water interface (SWI), especially at the millimeter scale. In this study, soluble and labile concentrations of As and Sb were investigated using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) in Nansi Lake, China, respectively. Results showed mean soluble concentrations of As and Sb were 5.00 µg/L and 2.05 µg/L, respectively. DGT-labile concentrations of As and Sb ranged from 0 to 0.80 µg/L and from 0.50 to 0.67 µg/L, respectively. In the vertical profile, different tends for DGT-labile concentration As and Sb were observed. The reductive dissolution of Fe/Mn (hydr)oxides was considered as a crucial driver for As release and mobility, which was supported by its significant correlation (r = 0.348, p < .05) with Fe. While DGT-labile Sb concentration was negatively correlated with DGT-labile Fe (r = -0.24, p < .05) and Mn (r = -0.324, p < .05), this may be attributed to the absorption of the Sb(III) by the green rusts in sub-oxic and mildly alkaline environments. The significant differences between DGT-labile concentration and community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction were shown using a linear regression relationship, indicating that BCR chemical fractions cannot reflect the mobility of As and Sb in the sediment. Furthermore, the net diffusive fluxes of As and Sb based on DGT-labile concentration were 0.24 and - 0.56 µg∙m-2∙day-1, respectively. There was a potential risk of toxicity to the overlying water from As.

13.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 6897390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998809

RESUMO

Podocyte injury is an important pathogenesis step causing proteinuric kidney diseases such as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in podocyte induced by multiple pathogenic factors is believed to be the key process resulting in glomerular injury. Many studies have recently shown that transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) in podocyte plays a critical role in the development and progression of proteinuric kidney disease by regulating its actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. This review is aimed at summarizing the role of TRPC6 on DKD by regulating the podocyte actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, thereby help further broaden our views and understanding on the mechanism of DKD and provide a theoretic basis for exploring new therapeutic targets for DKD patients.

14.
Mol Divers ; 24(1): 141-154, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868332

RESUMO

hURAT1 (human urate transporter 1) is a successful target for hyperuricemia. Recently, the modification work on hURAT1 inhibitors showed that the flexible linkers would benefit biological activity. The study aimed to investigate the contribution of the linkers and give modification strategies on this kind of structures based on QSAR models (HQSAR and topomer CoMFA). The most effective HQSAR and topomer CoMFA models were generated by applying the training set containing 63 compounds, with the cross-validated q2 values of 0.869/0.818 and the non-cross-validated correlation coefficients r2 of 0.951/0.978, respectively. The Y-randomization test was applied to ensure the robustness of the models. The external predictive correlation coefficient (rpred2) grounded on the external test set (21 compounds) of two models was 0.910 and 0.907, respectively. In addition, the models were validated by Golbraikh-Tropsha and Roy methods, as well as other statistical metrics. The results showed that both models were reliable. Topomer CoMFA steric/electrostatic contours and HQSAR atomic contribution maps illustrated the structural features which governed their inhibitory potency. The dependable results could provide important insights to guide the designing of more potential hURAT1 inhibitors.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(3): 1139-1143, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657884

RESUMO

Semiconducting polymeric carbon nitride (CN) has drawn wide attention ranging from photocatalysis to more recent biosensing owing to unique defect-tolerated optoelectronic properties and being metal-free, cheap, and highly stable. However, at the core of electrical-optical interconversion, the preparation of the CN photoelectrode is still challenging. Now, the growth of CN on electrodes is achieved simply by microwave-assisted condensation in seconds. The ultrafast heating not only addressed the thermodynamic contradiction of precursor volatilization during polymerization but also led to strongly adhesive CN layer on electrodes with gradient carbon-rich texture, greatly accelerating the electron-hole separation and mobility. Consequently, the CN photoelectrode exhibited a remarkable photocurrent and a record cathodic efficiency of electrochemiluminescence up to 7 times that of benchmark Ru(bpy)3 Cl2 in aqueous solution.

16.
Neurotox Res ; 37(1): 67-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691188

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits and psychiatric disorders have been regarded as the most common clinical symptoms of methamphetamine (MA) users. Accumulating evidence has shown that liver disease may be involved in cognitive deficits and psychiatric disorders. This study examines whether cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms are associated with serum levels of liver biomarkers in MA users. Cognition was assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Liver function was assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), triglyceride, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations in 106 MA addicts and 76 controls. Compared to control subjects, MA users had greater severity of psychotic symptoms on the dimension of somatization, depression, anxiety, psychoticism, addiction, and global severity index in SCL-90, and lower scores of cognition, including the total RBANS score and all five subscales. The globulin levels were increased, while the albumin, albumin/globulin, and ApoB levels were decreased. ApoB levels were positively correlated with immediate memory, attention, and total RBANS score. Furthermore, stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that ApoB levels were associated with immediate memory, attention, and total RBANS score. The findings of this study suggest that MA addicts might experience cognitive deficits, psychiatric disorders, and liver damage. Serum ApoB levels may be involved in cognitive deficits; thus, improving liver function may help to treat cognitive deficits and psychiatric disorders in MA addicts.

17.
Planta Med ; 86(3): 172-179, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801162

RESUMO

Valeriana jatamansi is widely used in Chinese folk medicine and contains iridoids as important active ingredients. The brain-gut axis describes a complex bidirectional system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we evaluated the antidepressant effects of total iridoids of Valeriana jatamansi (TIV) and preliminarily investigated the effects of gut microbiota on their antidepressant effects using a chronic, unpredictable mild-stress mouse model. Mice were given 5.7, 11.4, or 22.9 mg/kg TIV for 1 week. Fluoxetine (2.6 mg/kg) served as a positive control. Body weight was measured, and behavioral tests including SPT and TST were applied. Colon pathology was assessed through hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), substance P (SP) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hippocampus and colon were measured by ELISA. In addition, 16SrRNA gene sequencing was performed to explore changes in intestinal microbiota richness and diversity. Our results demonstrated that the model group showed significant depression-like behavior, while the fluoxetine group showed improved depression-like symptoms; after administration, TIV increased body weight, sucrose solution consumption, and ameliorated depression-like behaviors. The overall cell degeneration in colons also improved. In addition, TIV modulated the levels of 5-HT, NE, SP, and CRF expression in the hippocampus and colon. The diversity and richness of gut microbes increased compared to the model group. We therefore conclude that the antidepressant effects of TIV may be related to gut flora structures and regulation of 5-HT, NE, SP, and CRF in the brain and intestine.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Valeriana , Animais , Antidepressivos , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo , Intestinos , Iridoides , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715507

RESUMO

Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is an economically important marine fish cultured in China. In this study, we performed transcriptome gene expression profiling of kidney tissue in turbot exposed to heat stress (20, 23, 25 and 28 °C); control fish were maintained at 14 °C. We investigated gene relationships based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Accordingly, enrichment analyses of GO terms and KEGG pathways showed that several pathways (e.g., fat metabolism, cell apoptosis, immune system, and insulin signaling) may be involved in the response of turbot to heat stress. Moreover, via WGCNA, we identified 19 modules: the dark grey module was mainly enriched in pathways associated with fat metabolism and the FOXO and Jak-STAT signaling pathways. The ivory module was significantly enriched in the P53 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the key hub genes CBP, AKT3, CCND2, PIK3r2, SCOS3, mdm2, cyc-B, and p48 were enriched in the FOXO, Jak-STAT and P53 signaling pathways. This is the first study reporting co-expression patterns of a gene network after heat stress in marine fish. Our results may contribute to our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of thermal tolerance.

19.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(1): 14-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Menopause can lead to osteoporosis, which is characterized by destruction of bone microstructure, poor mechanical properties, and prone to fracture. LIPUS can effectively promote bone formation and fracture healing. MSTN is a transforming growth factor-ß family member that acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. A MSTN deficiency also has a positive effect on bone formation. However, whether LIPUS could inhibit bone loss and promote healing of bone injury of menopause through the inhibition of the MSTN signaling pathway has not been previously investigated. We herein investigated the effects of LIPUS on bone architecture, mechanical properties, the healing of bone defects, and its potential molecular mechanisms in ovariectomized rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham ovariectomized group (Sham), ovariectomized model group (OVX), ovariectomized model with LIPUS therapy group (OVX + LIPUS). The OVX + LIPUS rats were treated with LIPUS (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm2) on the femur for 20 min/day that lasted for 19 days. RESULTS: LIPUS effectively improved the bone microstructure, increased mechanical properties and promoted the healing of bone defects in ovariectomized rats. Moreover, LIPUS effectively decreased the MSTN content in serum and quadriceps muscle in ovariectomized rats, and inhibited the expression of MSTN downstream signaling molecules and activated the Wnt signaling pathway in the femur. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that LIPUS improved osteoporosis and promoted bone defect healing in the ovariectomized rats may through the inhibition of the MSTN signal pathway.

20.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(1): e6-e10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449208

RESUMO

The effect of maxillary skeletal expansion (MSE) on upper airway in adolescent patients is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the upper airway airflow with MSE treatment using computational fluid dynamics analysis. Three-dimensional upper airway finite element models fabricated from cone beam computed tomography images were obtained before and after treatment in an adolescent patient with maxillary constriction. Turbulent analyses were applied. The nasal cavity (NC) was divided into 6 planes along the y-axis and the pharynx was divided into 7 planes in the z-axis. Changes in cross-sectional area, airflow velocity, pressure, and total resistance at maximum expiration and maximum inspiration were determined at each plane after MSE treatment. The greatest increase in area occurred in the oropharynx which was around 40.65%. The average increase in area was 7.42% in the NC and 22.04% in the pharynx. The middle part of pharynx showed the greatest increase of 212.81 mm and 217.99 mm or 36.58% and 40.66%, respectively. During both inspiration and expiration, airflow pressure decreased in both the NC and pharynx, which ranged from -11.34% to -23.68%. In the NC, the average velocity decrease was -0.18 m/s at maximum expiration (ME) and -0.13 m/s at maximum inspiration (MI). In the pharynx, the average velocity decrease was -0.07 m/s for both ME and MI. These results suggest that treatment of maxillary constriction using MSE appliance may show positive effects in improvement of upper airway cross-sectional areas and reduction of upper airway resistance and velocity.

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