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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 915: 170049, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218497

RESUMO

Globally, nitrate (NO3-) leaching from agroecosystems has been of major concern. There is evidence that NO3- leaching exhibits intense seasonal variation in subtropical regions. However, influencing factors to the seasonal dynamics remain unclear. In this study, a two-year field lysimeters experiment was conducted with three red soils derived from different parent materials (Quaternary red clay (QR), red sandstone (RS), and basalt (BA)). An N fertilizer (15N-enriched urea, 10 atom% excess) of 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was applied for maize. The effect of parent material on NO3- leaching characteristics was examined in surface (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-100 cm) layers. The results showed due to the weakening of abundant drainage, there was no significant effect of parent materials on NO3- leaching characteristics in surface layers. Environmental factors (precipitation and temperature) and fertilization together led to obvious seasonal characteristics, i.e. abundant NO3- leaching during both crop growth and fallow periods. In subsoil layers, NO3- leaching characteristics were completely different among three soils. The concentrations and δ15N of NO3- in QR and RS soils showed a continuous increase after first year's fertilization, while those in BA soil remained relatively stable after reaching peak levels around harvest in first year. Meanwhile, the NO3- leaching amount in BA soil was significantly lower than in the other two soils. These might be explained by different NO3- adsorption capacities caused by the differences in mineral composition and free iron and aluminium contents. These elucidated in subsoil layers, NO3- leaching characteristics highly depended on parent materials. Meanwhile, adsorption capacity was limited and cannot slow NO3- leaching in the long run. Our results suggest that seasonal variation of NO3- leaching in surface layers and temporary retardant effect from NO3- adsorption capacity in subsoil layers should receive much attention when calculating and predicting NO3- leaching in subtropical regions.

2.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(1): e13262, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284577

RESUMO

The growing emphasis on dietary health has facilitated the development of plant-based foods. Plant proteins have excellent functional attributes and health-enhancing effects and are also environmentally conscientious and animal-friendly protein sources on a global scale. The addition of plant proteins (including soy protein, pea protein, zein, nut protein, and gluten protein) to diverse cheese varieties and cheese analogs holds the promise of manufacturing symbiotic products that not only have reduced fat content but also exhibit improved protein diversity and overall quality. In this review, we summarized the utilization and importance of various plant proteins in the production of hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs. Meanwhile, classification and processing methods related to these cheese products were reviewed. Furthermore, the impact of different plant proteins on the microstructure, textural properties, physicochemical attributes, rheological behavior, functional aspects, microbiological aspects, and sensory characteristics of both hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs were discussed and compared. Our study explores the potential for the development of cheeses made from full/semi-plant protein ingredients with greater sustainability and health benefits. Additionally, it further emphasizes the substantial chances for scholars and developers to investigate the optimal processing methods and applications of plant proteins in cheeses, thereby improving the market penetration of plant protein hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Dieta
3.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 67(23): e2300372, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37849247

RESUMO

SCOPE: Liver is an important metabolic organ regulating whole-body homeostasis. This study aims to investigate how prebiotic-induced changes in the metabolic activity of the gut microbiome (GM) and dietary calcium depletion modulates the hepatic metabolome and transcriptome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The serum metabolome, liver metabolome, and transcriptome are determined on samples from ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a control diet (Control, n = 7), a control diet supplemented with 5% w/w inulin (Inulin, n = 7), or a calcium-deficient diet (CaDef, n = 7). Inulin fortification is associated with higher serum concentrations of acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and reduced concentration of dimethyl sulfone, revealing that changes in the metabolic activity of the GM are reflected in circulating metabolites. Metabolomics also reveal that the inulin-fortified diet results in lower concentrations of hepatic glutamate, serine, and hypoxanthine while transcriptomics reveal accompanying effects on the hepatic expression of ferric iron binding-related genes. Inulin fortification also induces effects on the hepatic expression of genes involved in olfactory transduction, suggesting that prebiotics regulate liver function through yet unidentified mechanisms involving olfactory receptors. CONCLUSION: Inulin ingestion impacts hepatic gene expression and is associated with an upregulation of ferritin synthesis-related genes and liver ferritin content.


Assuntos
Inulina , Transcriptoma , Ratos , Animais , Inulina/farmacologia , Inulina/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Prebióticos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metaboloma
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14555, 2023 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37666914

RESUMO

Belowground bacterial communities play essential roles in maintaining ecosystem multifunction, while our understanding of how and why their distribution patterns and community compositions may change with the distinct pedogenetic conditions of different soil types is still limited. Here, we evaluated the roles of soil physiochemical properties and biotic interactions in driving belowground bacterial community composition across three typical zonal soil types, including black calcium soil (QS), typical black soil (HL) and dark brown soil (BQL), with distinct pedogenesis on the Northeast China Plain. Changes in soil bacterial diversity and community composition in these three zonal soil types were strongly correlated with soil pedogenetic features. SOC concentrations in HL were higher than in QS and BQL, but bacterial diversity was low, and the network structure revealed greater stability and connectivity. The composition of the bacterial community correlated significantly with soil pH in QS but with soil texture in BQL. The bacterial co-occurrence network of HL had higher density and clustering coefficients but lower edges, and different keystone species of networks were also detected. This work provides a basic understanding of the driving mechanisms responsible for belowground bacterial biodiversity and distribution patterns over different pedogenetic conditions in agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Cálcio da Dieta , China , Solo
5.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 19(19): 6577-6588, 2023 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37772732

RESUMO

Trajectory surface hopping (TSH) is a widely used mixed quantum-classical dynamics method that is used to simulate molecular dynamics with multiple electronic states. In TSH, time-derivative coupling is employed to propagate the electronic coefficients and in that way to determine when the electronic state on which the nuclear trajectory is propagated switches. In this work, we discuss nonadiabatic TSH dynamics algorithms employing the curvature-driven approximation and overlap-based time derivative couplings, and we report test calculations on six photochemical reactions where we compare the results to one another and to calculations employing analytic nonadiabatic coupling vectors. We correct previous published results thanks to a bug found in the software. We also provide additional, more detailed studies of the time-derivative couplings. Our results show good agreement between curvature-driven algorithms and overlap-based algorithms.

6.
Nutrients ; 15(16)2023 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37630739

RESUMO

Brown adipocytes mainly utilize glucose and fatty acids to produce energy, which play key roles in thermogenesis. Furthermore, brown adipocytes also utilize other substrates, such as amino acids, for energy expenditure in various conditions. Here, we report the new physiological roles of proton-coupled amino acid transporters, SLC36A2 and SLC36A3, on global energy metabolism. The relative mRNA expression levels of both Slc36a2 and Slc36a3 were all highest in brown adipose tissue. We then generated global Slc36a2 and Slc36a3 knockout mice to investigate their functions in metabolism. Neither loss of Slc36a2 nor Slc36a3 affected the body weight and body composition of the mice. Slc36a2 knockout mice exhibited increased oxygen consumption during the daytime. After cold treatment, inhibition of Slc36a2 significantly decreased the mass of brown adipose tissue compared to wildtype mice, while it lowered the expression level of Cpt1a. Moreover, the serum lipid levels and liver mass were also decreased in Slc36a2 knockout mice after cold treatment. On the contrary, Slc36a3 knockout impaired glucose tolerance and up-regulated serum LDL-cholesterol concentration. Thus, SLC36A2 and SLC36A3 play central and different roles in the energy metabolism of the mice.


Assuntos
Prótons , Termogênese , Animais , Camundongos , Adipócitos Marrons , Tecido Adiposo Marrom , Camundongos Knockout
7.
Am J Transl Res ; 15(5): 3686-3696, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37303648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of Huangqi Guizhi decoction of five ingredients on hemorheology and inflammatory factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A total of 111 cases of AMI treated in Tongchuan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from February 2019 to February 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 47 patients who received routine treatment were assigned to the control group, while those who received Huangqi Guizhi decoction of five ingredients in addition to the treatment of the control group were assigned to the study group. The clinical efficacy in the two groups was evaluated after therapy. The two groups were compared as to changes in serum inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] before and after therapy. The two groups were also compared as to differences in fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, whole blood low-shear viscosity (WBLSV), and whole blood high-shear viscosity (WBHSV) before and after therapy. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the two groups were evaluated. In addition, the two groups were compared as to incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in 6 months. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the risk factors for MACE. RESULTS: The study group showed a significantly higher treatment efficacy than the control group (P < 0.05). After therapy, the study group had significantly lower levels of TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, WBLSV, and WBHSV than the control group (all P < 0.05), and showed lower LVEDD and LVESD levels and a higher LVEF level than the control group. According to logistic regression analysis, age, history of diabetes mellitus (TM), New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, hsCPR, and LVEF were independent risk factors for MACE (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Huangqi Guizhi decoction of five ingredients contributes to higher efficacy in AMI and has the effects of inhibiting the inflammation and hemorheology of patients. In addition, age, history of TM, NYHA classification, hsCPR, and LVEF were independent risk factors for MACE.

8.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1118099, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36949913

RESUMO

Introduction: Role overload is not new, but its increasing prevalence in recent years calls for further research. This study considers empowering leadership as a means of resource investment and proposes that it is exerted by entrepreneurs to reduce their role overload. This study adds clarity by revealing how entrepreneurs' role overload is mitigated via the intermediate mechanism of empowering leadership. Hypotheses are derived from conservation of resources theory. Methods: Data were collected from 315 entrepreneurs in China using a three-round questionnaire survey. Results: This study finds that entrepreneurs' previous experience of role overload positively relates to their current empowering leadership behavior and their previous empowering leadership behavior negatively relates to their current role overload, which implies a mediating role of empowering leadership. Specifically, the second stage of the indirect effect of previous role overload on current role overload through empowering leadership is moderated by top management team (TMT) heterogeneity. When TMT heterogeneity is higher, the negative indirect effect is stronger. Discussion: This study contributes to the idea of positive psychology and extends the scope of conservation of resources theory into the fields of entrepreneurship and leadership.

9.
PeerJ ; 11: e14875, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36923505

RESUMO

The RNA-binding metabolic enzyme LTA4H is a novel target for cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Recent research shows that the increased expression of LTA4H in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) promotes tumor proliferation, migration, and metastasis. However, its mechanism remains unclear. To investigate the potential role of LTA4H in LSCC, we employed the improved RNA immunoprecipitation and sequencing (iRIP-Seq) experiment to get the expression profile of LTA4H binding RNA in HeLa model cells, a cancer model cell that is frequently used in molecular mechanism research. We found that LTA4H extensively binds with mRNAs/pre-mRNAs and lncRNAs. In the LTA4H binding peak, the frequency of the AAGG motif reported to interact with TRA2ß4 was high in both replicates. More notably, LTA4H-binding genes were significantly enriched in the mitotic cell cycle, DNA repair, RNA splicing-related pathways, and RNA metabolism pathways, which means that LTA4H has tumor-related alternative splicing regulatory functions. QRT-PCR validation confirmed that LTA4H specifically binds to mRNAs of carcinogenesis-associated genes, including LTBP3, ROR2, EGFR, HSP90B1, and lncRNAs represented by NEAT1. These results suggest that LTA4H may combine with genes associated with LSCC as an RNA-binding protein to perform a cancer regulatory function. Our study further sheds light on the molecular mechanism of LTA4H as a clinical therapy target for LSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Laríngeas , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
10.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 19(6): 1672-1685, 2023 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36877830

RESUMO

Mixed quantum-classical nonadiabatic dynamics is a widely used approach to simulate molecular dynamics involving multiple electronic states. There are two main categories of mixed quantum-classical nonadiabatic dynamics algorithms, namely, trajectory surface hopping (TSH) in which the trajectory propagates on a single potential energy surface, interrupted by hops, and self-consistent-potential (SCP) methods, such as semiclassical Ehrenfest, in which propagation occurs on a mean-field surface without hops. In this work, we will illustrate an example of severe population leaking in TSH. We emphasize that such leaking is a combined effect of frustrated hops and long-time simulations that drive the final excited-state population toward zero as a function of time. We further show that such leaking can be alleviated-but not eliminated-by the fewest switches with time uncertainty TSH algorithm (here implemented in the SHARC program); the time uncertainty algorithm slows down the leaking process by a factor of 4.1. The population leaking is not present in coherent switching with decay of mixing (CSDM), which is an SCP method with non-Markovian decoherence included. Another result in this paper is that we find very similar results with the original CSDM algorithm, with time-derivative CSDM (tCSDM), and with curvature-driven CSDM (κCSDM). Not only do we find good agreement for electronically nonadiabatic transition probabilities but also we find good agreement of the norms of the effective nonadiabatic couplings (NACs) that are derived from the curvature-driven time-derivative couplings as implemented in κCSDM with the time-dependent norms of the nonadiabatic coupling vectors computed by state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent field theory.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160931, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529395

RESUMO

Accumulation of soluble organic nitrogen (SON) in soil poses a significant threat to groundwater quality and plays an important role in regulating the global nitrogen cycle; however, most related studies have focused only on the upper 100-cm soil layers. Surface land-use management and soil properties may affect the vertical distribution of SON; however, their influence is poorly understood in deep soil layers. Therefore, this study assessed the response of SON concentration, pattern, and storage in deep regoliths to land-use conversion from woodlands to orchards in a subtropical hilly region. Our results showed that the SON stocks of the entire soil profile (up to 19.5 m) ranged from 254.5 kg N ha-1 to 664.1 kg N ha-1. Land-use conversion not only reshaped the distribution pattern of SON, but also resulted in substantial accumulation of SON at the 0-200 cm soil profile in the orchards compared to that in the woodlands (124.1 vs 190.5 kg N ha-1). Land-use conversion also altered the SON/total dissolved nitrogen ratio throughout the regolith profile, resulting in a relatively low (<50 %) ratio in orchard soils below 200 cm. Overall, 76.8 % of SON (338.4 ± 162.0 kg N ha-1) was stored in the layers from 100 cm below the surface to the bedrock. Regolith depth (r = -0.52 and p < 0.05) was found to be significantly correlated with SON concentration, explaining 17.8 % of the variation in SON, followed by total nitrogen (14.4 %), total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (10.1 %), and bulk density (9.3 %). This study provides insights into the estimation of terrestrial nitrogen and guidance for mitigation of groundwater contamination risk due to deep accumulation of SON.

12.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 407, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess and compare the efficacy, safety, accuracy, predictability and visual quality of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and a refractive rotationally asymmetric bifocal IOL in eyes with axial myopia. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with implantation of the diffractive trifocal IOL or the refractive bifocal IOL. Eyes were divided into four groups according to the IOL implanted and axial length. Manifest refraction, uncorrected and corrected visual acuity at far, intermediate and near distances, prediction error of spherical equivalent (SE), contrast sensitivity and aberrations were evaluated three months after surgery. RESULTS: In total, 80 eyes of 80 patients were included: 20 eyes in each group. Three months postoperatively, the corrected distance visual acuity of two trifocal groups were significantly better than the axial myopia bifocal group (P = 0.007 and 0.043). There was no significant difference of postoperative SE (P = 0.478), but the SE predictability of the trifocal IOL was better, whether in axial myopia groups (P = 0.015) or in control groups (P = 0.027). The contrast sensitivity was similar among four groups. The total aberration, higher order aberration and trefoil aberration of bifocal groups were significantly higher (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The diffractive trifocal IOL and the refractive bifocal IOL both provided good efficacy, accuracy, predictability and safety for eyes with axial myopia. By contrast, the trifocal IOL had a better performance in corrected distance visual acuity and visual quality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered and posted on clinicaltrials.gov at 12/02/2020 (NCT04265846).


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Miopia , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Desenho de Prótese , Miopia/cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente
13.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235281

RESUMO

Fluorescent imaging has been expanded, as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for cancers, in recent years. Fluorescent probes in the near-infrared window can provide high sensitivity, resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio, without the use of ionizing radiation. Some fluorescent compounds with low molecular weight, such as rhodamine B (RhB) and indocyanine green (ICG), have been used in fluorescent imaging to improve imaging contrast and sensitivity; however, since these probes are excreted from the body quickly, they possess significant restrictions for imaging. To find a potential solution to this, this work investigated the synthesis and properties of novel macromolecular fluorescent compounds. Herein, water-soluble dextran fluorescent compounds (SD-Dextran-RhB) were prepared by the attachment of RhB and sulfadiazine (SD) derivatives to dextran carrier. These fluorescent compounds were then characterized through IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV, GPC, and other methods. Assays of their cellular uptake and cell cytotoxicity and fluorescent imaging were also performed. Through this study, it was found that SD-Dextran-RhB is sensitive to acidic conditions and possesses low cell cytotoxicities compared to normal 293 cells and HepG2 and HeLa tumor cells. Moreover, SD-Dextran-RhB demonstrated good fluorescent imaging in HepG2 and HeLa cells. Therefore, SD-Dextran-RhB is suitable to be potentially applied as a probe in the fluorescent imaging of tumors.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/química , Rodaminas/química , Sulfadiazina/farmacologia , Água
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 980110, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117984

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the presbyopia-correcting performance, visual quality, satisfaction and life quality after implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) in eyes with different axial lengths (AL). Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with implantation of a trifocal IOL. Manifest refraction, uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuity at different distances, contrast sensitivity, aberrations and IOL decentration were measured 3 months after surgery. Spectacle independence, adverse photic phenomena, overall satisfaction and life quality were assessed with a questionnaire. Results: This study included 61 eyes of 61 patients: 16 eyes in the short AL group, 28 eyes in the control group and 17 eyes in the long AL group. Postoperatively, the prediction error (PE) of spherical equivalent showed a difference (P = 0.002). The uncorrected near visual acuity in the long AL group was higher (P = 0.047). Although a higher IOL decentration was obtained in the long AL group (P = 0.034), no significant difference was found in contrast sensitivity and aberrations (all P > 0.05). In the questionnaire, patients in the long AL group showed a relatively lower spectacle independence at near distance (P = 0.060) and had difficulties in near activities, mental health and role in daily life (P = 0.003, 0.021, and 0.033). However, no significant difference was observed in overall satisfaction (P = 0.124). Conclusion: With detailed preoperative evaluation, the trifocal IOL provided satisfactory visual outcomes for patients with different AL. AL had a certain influence on predictability and IOL decentration. And for patients with long AL, the inadaptability to the near focal point might become an important problem.

15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4180, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853877

RESUMO

Traditional approaches for transition-metal catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling reactions rely on sp2-hybridized starting materials, such as aryl halides, and more specifically, homogeneous catalysts. We report a heterogeneous Pd-catalyzed radical relay method for the conversion of a heteroarene C(sp3)-H bond into ethers. Pd nanoparticles are supported on an ordered mesoporous composite which, when compared with microporous activated carbons, greatly increases the Pd d charge because of their strong interaction with N-doped anatase nanocrystals. Mechanistic studies provide evidence that electron-deficient Pd with Pd-O/N coordinations efficiently catalyzes the radical relay reaction to release diffusible methoxyl radicals, and highlight the difference between this surface reaction and C-H oxidation mediated by homogeneous catalysts that operate with cyclopalladated intermediates. The reactions proceed efficiently with a turn-over frequency of 84 h-1 and high selectivity toward ethers of >99%. Negligible Pd leaching and activity loss are observed after 7 catalytic runs.


Assuntos
Paládio , Quinolinas , Catálise , Éteres/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Paládio/química
16.
J Refract Surg ; 38(4): 235-242, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes after topography-guided and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) planned with the Phorcides Analytic Engine (PAE) algorithm system and Sirius tomography data for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism when the ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) was great or not. METHODS: In this retrospective study, a total of 163 eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism (99 patients) were included. Eyes with myopic astigmatism and high ORA of 0.75 diopters (D) or greater were assigned to the high ORA group and the others to the low ORA group. All surgeries were performed by topography-guided FS-LASIK planned with a PAE algorithm system. PAE took anterior and posterior corneal negative cylinder of the 5-mm zone from the Sirius combined topography and tomography. Refractive and visual outcomes, vector analysis, and corneal aberrations were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: At 6 months postoperatively, the uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/16 or better was measured in 59% of eyes in the high ORA group and 66% of eyes in the low ORA group (P = .307). Postoperative corrected distance visual acuity, manifest refractive spherical equivalent, refractive astigmatism, target induced astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, and difference vector were similar between the two groups (P > .05). The postoperative corneal astigmatism was significantly higher in the high ORA group (P = .008), and the high ORA group over-corrected astigmatism with the rule and showed a higher correction index (P = .003) compared with the low ORA group. CONCLUSIONS: Topography-guided FS-LASIK with PAE algorithm and Sirius combined topography and tomography data for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism achieved the predicted surgical outcomes and there was a tendency to have a similar clinical outcome for PAE when the ORA was great or not. However, the PAE with high ORA overcorrected astigmatism with-the-rule and showed a higher correction index compared with the low ORA group. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(4):235-242.].


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Miopia , Algoritmos , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Humanos , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 828233, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280869

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the level of sex hormone in relation to keratoconus (KC). Methods: Sixty-two eyes of 62 patients (12 females, 50 males) classified as KC and 120 eyes of 120 patients (21 females, 99 males) with mild to moderate myopia and astigmatism were analyzed. Plasma samples were collected and analyzed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay to determine the concentrations of estriol (E3), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T). Corneal morphological parameters, such as the central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), and maximum simulated keratometry (Kmax), were measured using Pentacam and Sirius. Results: The mean age was 23.73 ± 5.16 years for patients with KC and 23.68 ± 6.10 years for patients treated with laser vision correction (LVC). Among the patients with KC, 12 were female (19.35%) and 50 were male (80.65%). The majority of patients with KC were between 20 and 30 years old. In female patients, the concentration of T in the KC group was significantly lower than that in the LVC group (0.86 ± 0.33 vs. 1.18 ± 0.58 nmol/L; P = 0.044). There were positive correlations between T, CCT (r = 0.395, P = 0.023) and TCT (r = 0.378, P = 0.030) in female patients. In male patients, E2 was higher in the KC group than the LVC group (143.75 ± 34.82 vs. 124.80 ± 43.56 pmol/L; P = 0.013), while T was significantly lower (11.59 ± 2.85 vs. 13.58 ± 4.77 nmol/L; P = 0.026). A positive correlation was found between E2 and Kmax (r = 0.222, P = 0.007) in male patients. Conclusions: Conclusively, our results showed that T level was reduced in both female and male KC plasma, while E2 was increased in male KC plasma. Different levels of sex hormones are correlated with KC, which, may provide the basis of a new technique for screening and diagnosing KC with or without the assistance of current imaging techniques. Moreover, the correlations between sex hormone alterations and KC provide compelling insight into KC etiopathogenesis.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 827: 154338, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257752

RESUMO

Soil acidification along with base cations loss degrades soil quality and is a major environmental problem, especially in agroecosystems with extensive nitrogen (N) fertilization. So far, the rates of proton (H+) production and real soil acidification (loss of base cations) remain unclear in subtropical agricultural watersheds. To assess the current status and future risk of soil acidification in subtropical red soil region of China, a two-year monitoring was conducted in a typical agricultural watershed with upland, paddy fields, and orchards where high N fertilizers are applied (320 kg N ha-1 yr-1). H+ production, neutralization and base cations losses were quantified based on the inputs (rainwater, inflow of water, and fertilizer) and outputs (outflow of water, groundwater drainage, and plant uptake) of major elements (K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and H+). The result showed that total H+ production in the watershed was 5152 molc ha-1 yr-1. N transformation was the most important H+ source (68%), followed by excess plant uptake of cations (25%) and H+ deposition (7%). Base cations exchange and weathering of minerals (3842 molc ha-1 yr-1) dominated H+ neutralization, followed by SO42- adsorption (1081 molc ha-1 yr-1), while H+ and Al3+ leaching amounted to 431 molc ha-1 yr-1, only. These results state clearly that despite significant soil acidification, the acidification of surface waters is minor, implying that soils have buffered substantially the net H+ addition. As a result of soil buffering, there was abundant loss of base cations, whose rate is significantly higher than the previously reported weathering rate of minerals in red soils (3842 vs 230-1080 molc ha-1 yr-1). This suggests that the pool of exchangeable base cations is being depleted in the watershed, increasing the vulnerability of the watershed, and posing a serious threat to future recovery of soils from acidification.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Solo , Cátions , Fertilizantes/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 816: 151596, 2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774948

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N)-induced soil acidification has received much attention worldwide. Nitrification and soil N mineralization are two key N cycle processes that affect soil acidification. However, the seasonal dynamics of soil pH under their combined influence is unclear. We studied the effect of N fertilization on soil pH and N transformations using 15N tracing in field lysimeters with soils developed from different parent materials (Quaternary red clay, sandstone, and basalt). Maize was planted with 200 kg N ha-1 yr-115N-labeled urea addition. During 7-45 days after fertilization, proton (H+) production due to nitrification of fertilizer N, nitrate (NO3-) leaching, and plant uptake exceeded H+ consumption by base cations mobilization and leaching, resulting in a significant soil pH decline. When nitrification activity decreased (after 45 days), due to exhausted ammonium (NH4+) availability, soil pH rose again. During the fallow period, acid neutralization due to base cation mobilization, and ammonification of soil organic N (SON) offset H+ production caused by nitrification of mineralized SON, leading to a sustained rise in soil pH. After the one-year experiment, no significant soil pH decrease was observed in any of the soils. Parent material had little effect on the seasonal dynamics of soil acidification, which appeared to be controlled by fertilization, environmental factors (temperature and moisture), and plant uptake. In subtropical regions, monitoring of soil pH on an annual basis may mask the effect of N fertilization on soil acidification.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Solo , China , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(14): 20186-20199, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725759

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) loss and enrichment in water bodies caused by fertilization are a major environmental problem in agricultural areas. However, the quantitative contribution of different NO3- sources, especially chemical fertilizers (CF) and soil organic nitrogen (SON), to NO3- runoff loss remains unclear. In this study, a systematic investigation of NO3- runoff and its sources was conducted in a subtropical agricultural watershed located in Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province, China. A semi-monthly sampling was performed at the inlet and outlet from March 2018 to February 2019. Hydrochemical and dual NO3- isotope (15 N and 18O) approaches were combined to estimate the NO3- runoff loss and quantify the contribution of different sources with a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Source apportionment by Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) suggested that NO3- in runoff was mainly derived from nitrification of ammonium (NH4+) mineralized from SON (37-52%) and manure/sewage (M&S) (25-47%), while the contribution of CF was relatively small (14-25%). The contribution of various sources showed seasonal variations, with a greater contribution of CF in the wet growing season (March to August). Compared with the inlet which contributed 37-40% to runoff NO3-, SON contributed more at the outlet (49-52%). Denitrification in the runoff was small and appeared to be confined to the dry season (September to February), with an estimated NO3- loss of 2.73 kg N ha-1. The net NO3- runoff loss of the watershed was 34.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, accounting for 15% of the annual fertilization rate (229 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Besides M&S (22%), fertilization and remineralization of SON (CF + SON) were the main sources for the NO3- runoff loss (78%), suggesting accelerated nitrification of NH4+ from CF (24%) and SON mineralization (54%). Our study indicates that NO3- runoff loss in subtropical agricultural watersheds is dominated by nonpoint source pollution from fertilization. SON played a more important role than CF. Besides, the contribution of sewage should not be neglected. Our data suggest that a combination of more rational fertilizer N application (CF), better management of SON, and better treatment of domestic sewage could alleviate NO3- pollution in subtropical China.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Teorema de Bayes , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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