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Plant Cell ; 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299379


The flower-infecting fungus Ustilaginoidea virens causes rice false smut, which is a severe emerging disease threatening rice (Oryza sativa) production worldwide. False smut not only reduces yield, but more importantly produces toxins on grains, posing a great threat to food safety. U. virens invades spikelets via the gap between the two bracts (lemma and palea) enclosing the floret and specifically infects the stamen and pistil. Molecular mechanisms for the U. virens-rice interaction are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rice flowers predominantly employ chitin-triggered immunity against U. virens in the lemma and palea, rather than in the stamen and pistil. We identify a crucial U. virens virulence factor, named UvGH18.1, which carries glycoside hydrolase activity. Mechanistically, UvGH18.1 functions by binding to and hydrolyzing immune elicitor chitin and interacting with the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR BINDING PROTEIN (OsCEBiP) and co-receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (OsCERK1) to impair their chitin-induced dimerization, suppressing host immunity exerted at the lemma and palea for gaining access to the stamen and pistil. Conversely, pretreatment on spikelets with chitin induces a defense response in the lemma and palea, promoting resistance against U. virens. Collectively, our data uncover a mechanism for a U. virens virulence factor and the critical location of the host-pathogen interaction in flowers and provide a potential strategy to control rice false smut disease.

Reprod Domest Anim ; 58(12): 1745-1755, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874861


Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly complicated and intricately organized process involving spermatogonia propagation (mitosis) and meiotic differentiation into mature sperm cells (spermiogenesis). In pigs, spermatogonia development and the role of somatic cells in spermatogenesis were previously investigated in detail. However, the characterization of key molecules fundamental to pig spermiogenesis remains less explored. Here we compared spermatogenesis between humans and pigs, focusing on spermiogenesis, by integrative testicular single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. Human and pig testicular cells were clustered into 26 different groups, with cell-type-specific markers and signalling pathways. For spermiogenesis, pseudo-time analysis classified the lineage differentiation routes for round, elongated spermatids and spermatozoa. Moreover, markers and molecular pathways specific to each type of spermatids were examined for humans and pigs, respectively. Furthermore, high-dimensional weighted gene co-expression network analysis (hdWGCNA) identified gene modules specific for each type of human and pig spermatids. Hub genes (pig: SNRPD2.1 related to alternative splicing; human: CATSPERZ, Ca[2+] ion channel) potentially involved in spermiogenesis were also revealed. Taken together, our integrative analysis found that human and pig spermiogeneses involve specific genes and molecular pathways and provided resources and insights for further functional investigation on spermatid maturation and male reproductive ability.

Sêmen , Transcriptoma , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Suínos/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides , Espermátides/metabolismo , Mamíferos