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1.
Cancer Pathog Ther ; 2(2): 103-111, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601485

RESUMO

Background: Chemotherapy remains the standard-of-care for many patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but acquired resistance presents challenges. The aim of this open-label, multicenter phase 2 clinical trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of utidelone, a novel genetically engineered epothilone analog and microtubule-stabilizing agent, as a third- or later-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Methods: Patients who had failed standard second-line treatment (including platinum-containing chemotherapy or targeted therapy) received utidelone (40 mg/m2 via intravenous injection daily, day 1-5) every 21 days. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were the duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results: From March 12, 2019 to January 18, 2021, 26 pretreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (100% of patients had received prior platinum and 65.4% patients had received prior taxane treatment) were enrolled (80.8% of patients had adenocarcinoma). At baseline, nine (34.6%) patients had received second-line treatment, 10 (38.5%) patients had received third-line treatment, and seven (26.9%) patients had received fourth- or later-line treatment. By the data cut-off date of August 10, 2021, the median follow-up was 7.49 months (range, 1.4-26.7 months). The ORR was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4%-34.9%) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) cohort (N = 26) and 19.0% (95% CI, 5.4%-41.9%) in the per-protocol (PP) cohort (N = 21). The disease control rate was 69.2% (95% CI, 48.2%-85.7%) and 81.0% (95% CI, 58.1%-94.6%) in the ITT and PP cohorts, respectively. The median DoR was 4.1 months (95% CI, 3.1-5.1 months) in the ITT cohort. The median PFS was 4.37 months (95% CI, 2.50-5.29 months) in the ITT cohort and 4.37 months (95% CI, 2.50-9.76 months) in the PP cohort. The median OS was not reached, and the 12-month OS rate was 69% (95% CI, 45.1%-84.1%). Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 38.5% of patients, and the most common was peripheral neuropathy (23.1%, all Grade 3), which was manageable with dose modifications. Conclusions: In this clinical trial, utidelone showed promising efficacy and had a manageable safety profile. Further clinical studies are warranted to confirm its role in NSCLC treatment. Trial registration: No.NCT03693547; https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460751

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC) prognosis remains poor. The phase 3 RATIONALE-312 study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tislelizumab plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for ES-SCLC. METHODS: RATIONALE-312 is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, conducted in the People's Republic of China. Eligible patients with previously untreated ES-SCLC were randomized 1:1 to receive four cycles of tislelizumab 200 mg or placebo, with etoposide plus carboplatin or cisplatin intravenously every 3 weeks, followed by tislelizumab 200 mg or placebo as maintenance. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival and safety. RESULTS: Between July 22, 2019 and April 21, 2021, 457 patients were randomized to tislelizumab (n = 227) or placebo (n = 230), plus chemotherapy. Baseline demographics were generally balanced between arms. At the data cutoff (April 19, 2023), the median study follow-up was 14.2 months (interquartile range: 8.6-25.3). Tislelizumab plus chemotherapy exhibited a statistically significant OS benefit versus placebo plus chemotherapy (stratified hazard ratio = 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.93]; one-sided p = 0.0040; median: 15.5 [95% CI: 13.5-17.1] versus 13.5 mo [95% CI: 12.1-14.9], respectively). Progression-free survival was significantly improved in the tislelizumab versus placebo arm (stratified hazard ratio = 0.64 [95% CI: 0.52-0.78]; p < 0.0001; median: 4.7 [95% CI: 4.3-5.5] versus 4.3 mo [95% CI: 4.2-4.4], respectively). Grade greater than or equal to 3 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 86% of patients in each treatment arm and were mostly hematologic. CONCLUSIONS: Tislelizumab plus chemotherapy exhibited statistically significant clinical benefit and manageable safety compared with placebo plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced ES-SCLC.

3.
J Org Chem ; 89(6): 4249-4260, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443760

RESUMO

The Minisci-type dehydrogenative coupling of N-heteroaromatic rings with inert C-H or Si-H partners via visible-light-catalyzed hydrogen atom transfer has been reported. This methodology allows the coupling reactions to be carried out in water as a solvent under air atmospheric conditions with visible-light illumination. A wide range of inert C-H and Si-H partners could be directly coupled with various N-aromatic heterocycles to deliver products in good to excellent yields.

4.
Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 27(4): 453-460, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419889

RESUMO

Objectives: Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a potent α2-adrenergic receptor(α2-AR) agonist that has been shown to protect against sepsis-induced lung injury, however, the underlying mechanisms of this protection are not fully understood. Autophagy and the Smad2/3 signaling pathway play important roles in sepsis-induced lung injury, but the relationship between Dex and Smad2/3 is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy and the Smad2/3 signaling pathway in Dex-mediated treatment of sepsis-induced lung injury. Sepsis was performed using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6J mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n=6 per group): sham, CLP, CLP-Dex, and CLP-Dex-YOH, Yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH) is an α2-AR blocker. The cecum was carefully separated to avoid blood vessel damage and was identified and punctured twice with an 18-gauge needle. The pathological changes, inflammatory factor levels, oxidative stress, autophagy, Smad2/3 signaling pathway-related protein levels in lung tissues, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the serum were measured. Results: CLP-induced lung injury was reflected by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and oxidative stress, along with an increase in the expression of autophagy and Smad2/3 signaling pathway-related proteins. Dex could reverse these changes and confer a protective effect on the lung during sepsis. However, the administration of YOH significantly reduced the positive effects of Dex in mice with sepsis. Conclusion: Dex exerts its beneficial effects against sepsis-induced lung injury through the regulation of autophagy and the Smad2/3 signaling pathway.

5.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The initial phase II stuty (NCT03215693) demonstrated that ensartinib has shown clinical activity in patients with advanced crizotinib-refractory, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we reported the updated data on overall survival (OS) and molecular profiling from the initial phase II study. METHODS: In this study, 180 patients received 225 mg of ensartinib orally once daily until disease progression, death or withdrawal. OS was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods with two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Next-generation sequencing was employed to explore prognostic biomarkers based on plasma samples collected at baseline and after initiating ensartinib. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) was detected to dynamically monitor the genomic alternations during treatment and indicate the existence of molecular residual disease, facilitating improvement of clinical management. RESULTS: At the data cut-off date (August 31, 2022), with a median follow-up time of 53.2 months, 97 of 180 (53.9%) patients had died. The median OS was 42.8 months (95% CI: 29.3-53.2 months). A total of 333 plasma samples from 168 patients were included for ctDNA analysis. An inferior OS correlated significantly with baseline ALK or tumor protein 53 (TP53) mutation. In addition, patients with concurrent TP53 mutations had shorter OS than those without concurrent TP53 mutations. High ctDNA levels evaluated by variant allele frequency (VAF) and haploid genome equivalents per milliliter of plasma (hGE/mL) at baseline were associated with poor OS. Additionally, patients with ctDNA clearance at 6 weeks and slow ascent growth had dramatically longer OS than those with ctDNA residual and fast ascent growth, respectively. Furthermore, patients who had a lower tumor burden, as evaluated by the diameter of target lesions, had a longer OS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further uncovered the independent prognostic values of bone metastases, higher hGE, and elevated ALK mutation abundance at 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: Ensartinib led to a favorable OS in patients with advanced, crizotinib-resistant, and ALK-positive NSCLC. Quantification of ctDNA levels also provided valuable prognostic information for risk stratification.

6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3598, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351146

RESUMO

This single-arm, multi-center clinical trial aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, DLT, recommended dose (RD), preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics (PK) characteristics of lurbinectedin, a selective inhibitor of oncogenic transcription, in Chinese patients with advanced solid tumors, including relapsed SCLC. Patients with advanced solid tumors were recruited in the dose-escalation stage and received lurbinectedin in a 3 + 3 design (two cohorts: 2.5 mg/m2 and 3.2 mg/m2, IV, q3wk). The RD was expanded in the following dose-expansion stage, including relapsed SCLC patients after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoints included safety profile, tolerability, DLT, RD, and preliminary efficacy profile, while the secondary endpoints included PK characteristics. In the dose-escalation stage, ten patients were included, while one patient had DLT in the 3.2 mg/m2 cohort, which was also the RD for the dose-expansion stage. At cutoff (May 31, 2022), 22 SCLC patients were treated in the ongoing dose-expansion stage, and the median follow-up was 8.1 months (range 3.0-11.7). The most common grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) included neutropenia (77.3%), leukopenia (63.6%), thrombocytopenia (40.9%), anemia (18.2%), and ALT increased (18.2%). The most common severe adverse events (SAEs) included neutropenia (27.3%), leukopenia (22.7%), thrombocytopenia (18.2%), and vomiting (9.1%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. The Independent Review Committee (IRC)-assessed ORR was 45.5% (95% CI 26.9-65.3). Lurbinectedin at the RD (3.2 mg/m2) showed manageable safety and acceptable tolerability in Chinese patients with advanced solid tumors, and demonstrates promising efficacy in Chinese patients with SCLC as second-line therapy.Trial registration: This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04638491, 20/11/2020.


Assuntos
Anemia , Carbolinas , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neutropenia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Anemia/etiologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carbolinas/efeitos adversos , China , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia
7.
Heliyon ; 10(2): e24378, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298673

RESUMO

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have been identified as promising therapeutic targets for non-small cell lung cancer. Osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-targeting drug, has good anti-tumor ability and excellent intracranial effects. However, management of osimertinib resistance is a clinical challenge. The clinical benefit of osimertinib combined with the antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, remains to be determined. Case presentation: A 40-year-old female with right lung adenocarcinoma (cT2aN3M1c, IVb) was confirmed positive for EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation (c.2235_2249del, 1.3%). After receiving 5 months of osimertinib (80 mg, qd) therapy, the patient's disease progressed and she subsequently accepted treatment with osimertinib (80 mg, qd) plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, q21d) and achieved notable clinical remission for 23 months until renal impairment occurred, after which bevacizumab was discontinued. The patient had 6 months of remission before progression, after which bevacizumab was added again. To date, the disease has been under control. The brain lesion showed partial response again, and the side effects of bevacizumab were tolerable. The overall survival time exceeded 4 years. Conclusion: This case report describes a treatment strategy for osimertinib-resistant patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion mutations. Metronomic treatment with osimertinib plus bevacizumab was achieved for more than 4 years.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penpulimab is a novel programmed death (PD)-1 inhibitor. This study aimed to establish the efficacy and safety of first line penpulimab plus chemotherapy for advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial enrolled patients with locally advanced or metastatic squamous non-small-cell lung cancer from 74 hospitals in China. Eligible participants were aged 18-75 years, had histologically or cytologically confirmed locally advanced (stage IIIb or IIIc) or metastatic (stage IV) squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, were ineligible to complete surgical resection and concurrent or sequential chemoradiotherapy, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, did not have previous systemic chemotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, and had one or more measurable lesions according to RECIST (version 1.1). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous penpulimab 200 mg or placebo (excipient of penpulimab injection), plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC of 5 intravenously on day 1 every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by penpulimab or placebo as maintenance therapy. Stratification was done according to the PD-L1 tumour proportion score (<1% vs 1-49% vs ≥50%) and sex (male vs female). The participants, investigators, and other research staff were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was progression-free survival assessed by the masked Independent Radiology Review Committee in the intention-to-treat population and patients with a PD-L1 tumour proportion score of 1% or more (PD-L1-positive subgroup). The primary analysis was based on the intention-to-treat analysis set (ie, all randomly assigned participants) and the PD-L1-positive subgroup. The safety analysis included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug after enrolment. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03866993). FINDINGS: Between Dec 20, 2018, and Oct 10, 2020, 485 patients were screened, and 350 participants were randomly assigned (175 in the penpulimab group and 175 in the placebo group). Of 350 participants, 324 (93%) were male and 26 (7%) were female, and 347 (99%) were of Han ethnicity. In the final analysis (June 1, 2022; median follow-up, 24·7 months [IQR 0-41·4]), the penpulimab group showed an improved progression-free survival compared with the placebo group, both in the intention-to-treat population (median 7·6 months, 95% CI 6·8--9·6 vs 4·2 months, 95% CI 4·2-4·3; HR 0·43, 95% CI 0·33-0·56; p<0·0001) and in the PD-L1-positive subgroup (8·1 months, 5·7-9·7 vs 4·2 months, 4·1-4·3; HR 0·37, 0·27-0·52, p<0·0001). Grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 120 (69%) 173 patients in the penpulimab group and 119 (68%) of 175 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: Penpulimab plus chemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival in patients with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer compared with chemotherapy alone. The treatment was safe and tolerable. Penpulimab combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin is a new option for first-line treatment in patients with this advanced disease. FUNDING: The National Natural Science Foundation of China, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission, Chia Tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical, Akeso.

9.
Curr HIV Res ; 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in China have a high risk for HIV infection but experience suboptimal rates of HIV testing and service engagement due to various social and structural barriers. We developed a mobile health (mHealth) intervention entitled "WeTest-Plus" (WeTest+) as a user-centered "one-stop service" approach for delivering access to comprehensive information about HIV risk, HIV self-testing, behavioral and biomedical prevention, confirmatory testing, treatment, and care. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of WeTest+ to provide continuous HIV services to high-risk MSM. METHODS: Participants completed a 3-week pilot test of WeTest+ to examine acceptability, feasibility, and recommendations for improvement. Participants completed a structured online questionnaire and qualitative exit interviews facilitated by project staff. "Click-through" rates were assessed to examine engagement with online content. RESULTS: 28 participants were included, and the average age was 27.6 years (standard deviation = 6.8). Almost all participants (96.4%) remained engaged with the WeTest+ program over a 3-week observational period. The majority (92.9%) self-administered the HIV self-test and submitted their test results through the online platform. Overall click-through rates were high (average 67.9%). Participants provided favorable comments about the quality and relevance of the WeTest+ information content, the engaging style of information presentation, and the user-centered features. CONCLUSION: This pilot assessment of WeTest+ supports the promise of this program for promoting HIV self-testing and linkage to in-person services for MSM in China. Findings underscore the utility of a user-centered approach to mHealth program design.

10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 40(2): 367-377, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369827

RESUMO

The CRISPR sensing and detection technology has the advantages of cheap, simple, portable, high sensitivity, and high specificity, therefore is regarded as the "next-generation molecular diagnostic technology". Due to the specific recognition, cis-cleavage and nonspecific trans-cleavage capabilities, CRISPR-Cas systems have been implemented for the detection of nucleic acid targets (DNA and RNA) as well as non-nucleic acid targets (e.g., proteins, exosomes, cells, and small molecules). This review summarizes the current CRISPR sensing and detection technologies in terms of the activity characteristics of different Cas proteins, with the aim to understand the advantages and development history of different CRISPR sensing and detection technologies, as well as promote its development and application. Moreover, this review summarizes the applications of various CRISPR sensing and detection technologies according to the types of detection targets, hoping to facilitate the development of novel CRISPR sensing detection technology.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Exossomos , Ácidos Nucleicos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , RNA , Tecnologia
11.
J Med Chem ; 67(2): 1044-1060, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38173250

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) offer an opportunity to overcome multidrug resistance. Here, novel peptides were designed based on AMP fragments derived from sea cucumber hemolytic lectin to enhance anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity with less side effects. Two designed peptides, CGS19 (LARVARRVIRFIRRAW-NH2) and CGS20 (RRRLARRLIFFIRRAW-NH2), exhibited strong antibacterial activities against clinically isolated MRSA with MICs of 3-6 µM, but no obvious cytotoxicity was observed. Consistently, CGS19 and CGS20 exerted rapid bactericidal activity and effectively induced 5.9 and 5.8 log reduction of MRSA counts in mouse subeschar, respectively. Further, CGS19 and CGS20 kill bacteria not only through disturbing membrane integrity but also by binding formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase, a key enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway, thereby inhibiting the folate pathway of MRSA. CGS19 and CGS20 are promising lead candidates for drug development against MRSA infection. The dual mechanisms on the identical peptide sequence or scaffold might be an underappreciated manner of treating life-threatening pathogens.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Camundongos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sequência de Aminoácidos
12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 19(2): 314-324, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37776953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment options for treatment-naive patients with advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR exon 20 insertion (ex20ins) mutations are limited. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of YK-029A, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and the preliminary efficacy of YK-029A in treatment-naive patients with EGFR ex20ins mutation. METHODS: This multicenter, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion phase 1 clinical trial enrolled patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations. During the dose-escalation phase, YK-029A was orally administered using the traditional 3+3 principle at 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/d. In the dose-expansion phase, treatment-naive patients with EGFR ex20ins mutations were enrolled and administered YK-029A 200 mg/d. The primary end point was safety and tolerability. RESULTS: The safety analysis included 108 patients. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were anemia (50.9%), diarrhea (49.1%), and rash (34.3%). There was minimal drug accumulation after multiple doses. A total of 28 treatment-naive patients with EGFR ex20ins mutations were enrolled in the dose-expansion and 26 were included in the efficacy analysis. According to the independent review committee evaluation, the objective response rate was 73.1% (95% confidence interval: 52.21%-88.43%), and the disease control rate was 92.3% (95% confidence interval: 74.87%-99.05%). CONCLUSIONS: YK-029A was found to have manageable safety and be tolerable in patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations and have promising antitumor activity in untreated patients with EGFR ex20ins mutations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Mutação , Receptores ErbB , Éxons
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 12(3): 217-224, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38101437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sunvozertinib is an oral, irreversible, and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has a favourable safety profile and encouraging antitumour activity, as shown in phase 1 studies of patients with heavily pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR exon 20 insertion mutation (exon20ins). We aimed to assess the antitumour efficacy of sunvozertinib in patients with platinum-pretreated locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with EGFR exon20ins. METHODS: WU-KONG6 is a single-group, open-label, multicentre phase 2 trial of sunvozertinib monotherapy, conducted across 37 medical centres in China. We enrolled adult patients with pathologically or cytologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC whose tumour tissue carried an EGFR exon20ins mutation. All patients had received at least one line of previous systemic therapy, with at least one line containing platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), as assessed by the independent review committee. The ORR was defined as the percentage of patients who achieved complete or partial response, confirmed by two separate assessments with at least 4-week time interval, until disease progression or initiation of any new anti-cancer therapy. Enrolled patients received sunvozertinib 300 mg once daily until meeting discontinuation criteria per the protocol. Patients who received at least one dose of treatment and were evaluable for efficacy analysis were included in the primary analysis, and all patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the safety analysis. This study is registered with ChinaDrugTrials.org, CTR20211009, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05712902, and efficacy and safety follow-up are ongoing. FINDINGS: Between July 19, 2021, and May 6, 2022, 104 patients were enrolled. At data cutoff (Oct 17, 2022), the last enrolled patient had been followed up for about 6 months. Among 97 patients evaluable for efficacy analysis, 59 (61%) patients achieved tumour response, with a confirmed ORR of 61% (95% CI 50-71). All tumour responses were partial responses. Tumour responses were observed irrespective of age, sex, smoking history, EGFR exon20ins subtypes, brain metastasis at baseline, previous lines of therapy, and history of onco-immunotherapy. In total, 19 death events occurred over a median follow-up period of 7·6 months (IQR 6·1-9·4). Sunvozertinib was well tolerated at 300 mg once daily. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were blood creatine phosphokinase increased (18 [17%] of 104), diarrhoea (eight [8%]), and anaemia (six [6%]). The most common serious treatment-related adverse events were interstitial lung disease (five [5%] of 104), anaemia (three [3%]), vomiting (two [2%]), nausea (two [2%]) and pneumonia (two [2%]). INTERPRETATION: In this phase 2 study, sunvozertinib demonstrated antitumour efficacy in patients with platinum-based chemotherapy pretreated NSCLC with EGFR exon20ins, with a manageable safety profile. A multinational randomised, phase 3 study of sunvozertinib versus platinum-doublet chemotherapy in EGFR exon20ins NSCLC is ongoing (NCT05668988). FUNDING: Dizal Pharmaceutical.


Assuntos
Anemia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Mutagênese Insercional , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , China , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons/genética
14.
Ann Hematol ; 102(12): 3357-3367, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37726492

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment effectively prolongs the overall survival of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Mutations in the oncogene PML::RARA were found in patients with ATO-resistant and relapsed APL. However, some relapsed patients do not have such mutations. Here, we performed microarray analysis of samples from newly diagnosed and relapsed APL, and found different microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns between these two groups. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-603 was expressed at the lowest level in relapsed patients. The expression of miR-603 and its predicted target tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) were determined by PCR and Western blot. Proliferation was measured using an MTT assay, while apoptosis, cell cycle and CD11b expression were analyzed using flow cytometry. In APL patients, the expression of miR-603 was negatively correlated with that of TrkB. miR-603 directly targeted TrkB and downregulated TrkB expression in the APL cell line NB4. miR-603 increased cell proliferation by promoting the differentiation and inhibiting the apoptosis of NB4 cells. This study shows that the miR-603/ TrkB axis may be a potent therapeutic target for relapsed APL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Arsenicais , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/metabolismo , Arsenicais/farmacologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , Trióxido de Arsênio/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proliferação de Células , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico
15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 18(12): 1743-1755, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37574132

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This open-label, phase 3 trial (ALTA-3; NCT03596866) compared efficacy and safety of brigatinib versus alectinib for ALK+ NSCLC after disease progression on crizotinib. METHODS: Patients with advanced ALK+ NSCLC that progressed on crizotinib were randomized 1:1 to brigatinib 180 mg once daily (7-d lead-in, 90 mg) or alectinib 600 mg twice daily, aiming to test superiority. The primary end point was blinded independent review committee-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Interim analysis for efficacy and futility was planned at approximately 70% of 164 expected PFS events. RESULTS: The population (N = 248; brigatinib, n = 125; alectinib, n = 123) was notable for long median duration of prior crizotinib (16.0-16.8 mo) and low rate of ALK fusion in baseline circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA; 78 of 232 [34%]). Median blinded independent review committee-assessed PFS was 19.3 months with brigatinib and 19.2 months with alectinib (hazard ratio = 0.97 [95% confidence interval: 0.66-1.42], p = 0.8672]). The study met futility criterion. Overall survival was immature (41 events [17%]). Exploratory analyses pooled across the treatment groups revealed median PFS of 11.1 versus 22.5 months in patients with versus without ctDNA-detectable ALK fusion at baseline (hazard ratio: 0.48 [95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.71]). Treatment-related adverse events in more than 30% of patients (brigatinib, alectinib) were elevated levels of blood creatine phosphokinase (70%, 29%), aspartate aminotransferase (53%, 38%), and alanine aminotransferase (40%, 36%). CONCLUSIONS: Brigatinib was not superior to alectinib for PFS in crizotinib-pretreated ALK+ NSCLC. Safety was consistent with the well-established and unique profiles of each drug. The low proportion of patients with ctDNA-detectable ALK fusion may account for prolonged PFS with both drugs in ALTA-3.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Crizotinibe/farmacologia , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 301, 2023 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37574511

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements are present in about 5-6% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and associated with increased risks of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Envonalkib, a novel ALK inhibitor, demonstrated promising anti-tumor activity and safety in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC in the first-in-human phase I study. This phase III trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04009317) investigated the efficacy and safety of first-line envonalkib in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC cases. Totally 264 participants were randomized 1:1 to receive envonalkib (n = 131) or crizotinib (n = 133). Median independent review committee (IRC)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) times were 24.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.64-30.36) and 11.60 (95% CI: 8.28-13.73) months in the envonalkib and crizotinib groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.64, p < 0.0001). IRC-assessed confirmed objective response rate (ORR) was higher (81.68% vs. 70.68%, p = 0.056) and duration of response was longer (median, 25.79 [95% CI, 16.53-29.47] vs. 11.14 [95% CI, 9.23-16.59] months, p = 0.0003) in the envonalkib group compared with the crizotinib group. In participants with baseline brain target lesions, IRC-assessed CNS-ORR was improved with envonalkib compared with crizotinib (78.95% vs. 23.81%). Overall survival (OS) data were immature, and median OS was not reached in either group (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.48-1.47, p = 0.5741). The 12-month OS rates were 90.6% (95% CI, 84.0%-94.5%) and 89.4% (95% CI, 82.8%-93.6%) in the envonalkib and crizotinib groups, respectively. Grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were observed in 55.73% and 42.86% of participants in the envonalkib and crizotinib groups, respectively. Envonalkib significantly improved PFS and delayed brain metastasis progression in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Crizotinibe/farmacologia , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 62: 102106, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37593227

RESUMO

Background: Inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) function can improve the efficacy of immunotherapy by modulating the tumor immune microenvironment. AK112 is the first-in-class humanized IgG1 bispecific antibody targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) and VEGF. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AK112 combined with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter, phase II clinical trial was conducted in 11 hospitals in China. Eligible participants were adults aged 18-75 years with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, at least one measurable lesion, and an estimated life expectancy of at least 3 months. The participants were categorized into three cohorts based on prior therapy and functional genomic alterations. Patients in cohort 1 were previously untreated advanced NSCLC, had no epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene modifications, and received AK112 combined with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) for non-squamous (non-sq)-NSCLC or paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) for sq-NSCLC plus carboplatin (area under the curve of 5 mg/mL per min) for four cycles, followed by AK112 with pemetrexed for non-sq-NSCLC and AK112 alone for sq-NSCLC as maintenance therapy. The participants in cohort 2 had advanced NSCLC with EGFR-sensitive mutations, failed previous EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, and received pemetrexed plus AK112 and carboplatin for four cycles, followed by pemetrexed plus AK112 as maintenance therapy. The participants in cohort 3 had advanced NSCLC who failed systemic platinum-based chemotherapy and anti-PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) treatments and received AK112 plus docetaxel (75 mg/m2). Two dosages of AK112 (10 or 20 mg/kg) were examined in each cohort, and the drug was administered intravenously on day 1 of each 3-week treatment cycle. The primary endpoints were the investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR) and safety. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04736823). Findings: Eighty-three patients were enrolled from February 2021 to August 2022 and received the study treatment. Cohorts 1, 2, and 3 had 44, 19, and 20 patients, respectively. The confirmed ORR was 53.5% (23/43) [95% CI, 36.9-67.1], 68.4% (13/19) [95% CI, 43.4-87.4], and 40.0% (8/20) [95% CI, 19.1-63.9] in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In cohort 1, the median PFS was not reached, and the 12-month PFS rate was 59.1%. In cohorts 2 and 3, the median PFS were 8.5 [95% CI, 5.5-NE] and 7.5 [95% CI, 2.3-NE] months, and the 12-month PFS rates were 35.5% and 44.5%, respectively. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were decreased white blood cell count [7 (8.4%)], neutropenia [5 (6.0%)], thrombocytopenia [2 (2.4%)], anemia [4 (4.8%)], and myelosuppression [2 (2.4%)]. Interpretation: AK112 plus platinum-doublet showed promising antitumor activity and safety not only in first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC patients without driver mutation but also in patients with EGFR-functional mutation who failed previous EGFR-TKI therapy and advanced NSCLC patients who failed prior systemic platinum-based chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatments, suggesting a valuable potential new treatment option for this patient population. Funding: Akeso Biopharma, Inc., Zhongshan, China, and National Natural Science Foundation of China.

18.
Biogerontology ; 2023 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37572203

RESUMO

Jingfang Granule (JFG), a traditional Chinese medicine, is frequently employed in clinical settings for the treatment of infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the anti-aging and anti-infection effects of JFG remain uncertain. In the present study, these effects were evaluated using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) N2 as a model organism. The results demonstrated that JFG significantly increased the median lifespan of C. elegans by 31.2% at a dosage of 10 mg/mL, without any discernible adverse effects, such as alterations in the pharyngeal pumping rate or nematode motility. Moreover, JFG notably increased oviposition by 11.3%. Subsequent investigations revealed that JFG enhanced oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans by reducing reactive oxygen species levels and significantly improved survival rates in nematodes infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. These findings suggest that JFG delays reproductive senescence in C. elegans and protects them from oxidative stress, thereby extending their lifespan. Additionally, JFG improves the survival of P. aeruginosa-infected nematodes. Consequently, JFG has potential as a candidate for the development of anti-aging and anti-infection functional medicines.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(8)2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options are limited for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after treatment failure with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This multicenter open-label, phase II study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tislelizumab plus chemotherapy (cohort 1, TIS+chemo) or tislelizumab plus chemotherapy and bevacizumab (cohort 2, TIS+chemo+ beva) in EGFR-mutated non-squamous NSCLC patients who progressed on EGFR TKI therapies. Here, the primary analysis of the TIS+chemo cohort is reported. METHODS: In the TIS+chemo cohort, patients with EGFR-sensitizing mutations with prior EGFR TKI failure received tislelizumab plus carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel as induction treatment, followed by maintenance with tislelizumab plus pemetrexed. The primary endpoint was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate. The planned sample size was 66 with a historical control of 7%, an expected value of 20%, a one-sided α of 0.05, and a power of 85%. RESULTS: Between July 11, 2020 and December 13, 2021, 69 patients were enrolled. As of June 30, 2022, the median follow-up was 8.2 months. Among the 62 patients in the efficacy analysis set, estimated 1-year PFS rate was 23.8% (90% CI 13.1% to 36.2%), and its lower bound of 90% CI was higher than the historical control of chemotherapy (7%), which met the primary endpoint. The median PFS was 7.6 (95% CI 6.4 to 9.8) months. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached (95% CI 14.0 to not estimable), with a 1-year OS rate of 74.5% (95% CI 56.5% to 86.0%). The objective response rate and disease control rate were 56.5% (95% CI 43.3% to 69.0%) and 87.1% (95% CI 76.1% to 94.3%), respectively. Patients who had progressed on first-generation/second-generation and third-generation EGFR-TKIs at baseline had shorter PFS than those who progressed on first-generation/second-generation EGFR-TKIs (median 7.5 vs 9.8 months, p=0.031). Patients with positive ctDNA had shorter PFS (median 7.4 vs 12.3 months, p=0.031) than those with negative ctDNA. No grade 5 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were observed. Grades 3-4 TEAEs occurred in 40.6% (28/69) of patients. Grades 3-4 immune-related AEs occurred in 5 (7.2%) patients. CONCLUSION: The study met the primary endpoint for the TIS+chemo cohort. Tislelizumab plus chemotherapy is effective with an acceptable safety profile for EGFR-mutated non-squamous NSCLC after EGFR TKI failure.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética
20.
Drug Resist Updat ; 70: 100987, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37392558

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used for human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is the major barrier of treatment success, and new resistance mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that elevated NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression was associated with acquired EGFR-TKIs resistance. Gefitinib is the first-generation FDA-approved EGFR-TKI, and osimertinib is the third-generation FDA-approved EGFR-TKI. We demonstrated that NOX4 knockdown in the EGFR-TKI resistant cells enabled the cells to become sensitive to gefitinib and osimertinib treatment, while forced expression of NOX4 in the sensitive parental cells was sufficient to induce resistance to gefitinib and osimertinib in the cells. To elucidate the mechanism of NOX4 upregulation in increasing TKIs resistance, we found that knockdown of NOX4 significantly down-regulated the expression of transcription factor YY1. YY1 bound directly to the promoter region of IL-8 to transcriptionally activate IL-8 expression. Interestingly, knockdown of NOX4 and IL-8 decreased programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, which provide new insight on TKIs resistance and immune escape. We found that patients with higher NOX4 and IL-8 expression levels showed a shorter survival time compared to those with lower NOX4 and IL-8 expression levels in response to the anti-PD-L1 therapy. Knockdown of NOX4, YY1 or IL-8 alone inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Furthermore, the combination of NOX4 inhibitor GKT137831 and gefitinib had synergistic effect to inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth and to increase cellular apoptosis. These findings demonstrated that NOX4 and YY1 were essential for mediating the acquired EGFR-TKIs resistance. IL-8 and PD-L1 are two downstream targets of NOX4 to regulate TKIs resistance and immunotherapy. These molecules may be used as potential new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for overcoming TKIs resistance in the future.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-8/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , /farmacologia
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