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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121162, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520933

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO) and elemental mercury (Hg0) are three common air pollutants in flue gas. SO2 and NO are the main precursors for chemical smog and Hg0 is a bio-toxicant for human. Cooperative removal of multi-air-pollutant in flue gas using radical-induced oxidation reaction is considered as one of the most promising methods due to the high removal efficiency, low cost and less secondary environmental impact. The common radicals used in air pollution control can be classified into four types: (1) hydroxyl radical (OH), (2) sulfate radical (SO4-), (3) chlorine-containing radicals (Cl, ClO2, ClO, HOCl-, etc.) and (4) ozone. This review summarizes the generation methods and mechanism of the four kinds of radicals, as well as their applications in the removal of multi-air-pollutant in flue gas. The reactivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of the four kinds of radicals in multi-air-pollutant removal were comprehensively described. Finally, some future research suggestions on the development of new technique for cooperative removal of multi-air-pollutant in flue gas were provided.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121135, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542692

RESUMO

We developed a novel method, microwave (MW) induced ultraviolet (UV) irradiating H2O/O2, to cooperatively remove NO and Hg0, with the efficiencies of 89.3% and 99.5%. It also can remove 97% SO2. O2 at a content of 2-8% was sufficient to conduct a good removal of NO and Hg0. Ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (HO•) were proved to be the major oxidants for the removal of Hg0 and NO, respectively. High temperature facilitated NO removal but impaired Hg0 removal. SO2 greatly promoted the removal of NO and Hg0 due to the formation of SO4•-. The presence of Cl- and Br-suppressed NO removal but promoted Hg0 removal, because Cl- and Br-quenched HO• to produce Cl- and Br-radicals. The produced NO2 could be totally absorbed by the Na2SO3 solution that followed the main reactor. The O3 yield and the formation of HO• under different conditions were determined using iodine quantity method and electron spin resonance (ESR). The distributions of anion concentration and mercury proportion were obtained using ion chromatography (IC) and cold atom fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), and the main products were identified to be SO42-, NO3- and HgO. The mechanisms of removal of SO2, NO and Hg0 were speculated.

3.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(15): 4991-4999, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794598

RESUMO

Purpose: Genomic reprogramming and cellular dedifferentiation are critical to the success of de novo tissue regeneration in lower vertebrates such as zebrafish and axolotl. In tissue regeneration following injury or disease, differentiated cells must retain lineage while assuming a progenitor-like identity in order to repopulate the damaged tissue. Understanding the epigenetic regulation of programmed cellular dedifferentiation provides unique insights into the biology of stem cells and cancer and may lead to novel approaches for treating human degenerative conditions. Methods: Using a zebrafish in vivo model of adult muscle regeneration, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) to characterize early changes in epigenetic signals, focusing on three well-studied histone modifications-histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), and histone H3 trimethylated or acetylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3 and H3K27Ac, respectively). Results: We discovered that zebrafish myocytes undergo a global, rapid, and transient program to drive genomic remodeling. The timing of these epigenetic changes suggests that genomic reprogramming itself represents a distinct sequence of events, with predetermined checkpoints, to generate cells capable of de novo regeneration. Importantly, we uncovered subsets of genes that maintain epigenetic marks paradoxical to changes in expression, underscoring the complexity of epigenetic reprogramming. Conclusions: Within our model, histone modifications previously associated with gene expression act for the most part as expected, with exceptions suggesting that zebrafish chromatin maintains an easily editable state with a number of genes paradoxically marked for transcriptional activity despite downregulation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790597

RESUMO

The demand for air filtration materials in recent years has been substantially increasing on a worldwide scale because people are paying extensive attention to particulate matter (PM) pollution. In this work, we report a type of needle-punched triboelectric air filter (N-TAF) consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fibers modified by silica nanoparticles and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) fibers. Compared to conventional electrostatic precipitators, the N-TAF can be charged online by a unique nonwoven processing technology without additional energy consumption and toxic ozone emission. Owing to the triboelectrification effect, a large number of charges were generated during the process of carding and needle-punching, resulting in an increased filtration performance. Benefiting from the addition of silica nanoparticles, the PTFE fibers are endowed with many pores and grooves and substantial surface roughness, which contributes to the enhancement of triboelectrification. As a result, the N-TAF with 2 wt% silica nanoparticles (N-TAF-2) exhibited a high removal efficiency of 89.4% for PM, which is 45% higher than unmodified N-TAF (61.8%), and a low pressure drop of 18.6 Pa. Meanwhile, the decay of the removal efficiency for N-TAF-2 retained at a low level (6.4%) for 60 days. More importantly, N-TAF-2 could realize a high efficiency of 99.7% and a low pressure drop of 55.4 Pa at a high surface density. In addition, the washed N-TAF has an excellent charge regeneration performance via air blowing or manual rubbing, thus recovering the removal efficiency easily and rapidly. Ultimately, the powerful dust holding capacity (227 g m-2) for N-TAF-2 indicates that the filter has a long service life, which makes it a promising air purification material. The filter reported in this work has the potential to be practically applied to air purification fields because it has excellent filtration performance and is easy to be produced on a large industrial scale.

5.
J Therm Biol ; 86: 102449, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789237

RESUMO

Heat stress induces oxidative stress, and reduces antioxidant defenses of birds, which may affect poultry-production performance. Dietary antioxidants may protect against heat stress. We evaluated the effect of increasing concentrations of dietary curcumin on antioxidant parameters of hens under high-temperature conditions for nine weeks. Roman laying hens (n = 336, 22 weeks old, 1420 g weight) were divided into three treatment groups. The first group served as a thermo-neutral control (kept at 25 ±â€¯1 °C). The second group was exposed to high temperatures (32 ±â€¯1 °C, 6 h/day), and fed a basal diet. The third group was further divided into five groups, and all were exposed to high temperatures (32 ±â€¯1 °C, 6 h/day) and provided a basal diet supplemented with 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg curcumin (H1, H2, H3, H4, H5). All treatments included four replicates of 12 hens. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly higher in H2 and H3 groups, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) was higher in H2, H3, and H5 groups. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were significantly higher in the H3 group. Malondialdehyde concentrations were lower in curcumin supplemented hens compared to control groups hens. Hens in all curcumin treatment groups had slightly (but non-significantly) higher activities of CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC in liver, heart, and lung tissues, compared to heat stressed control group. It is concluded that dietary curcumin given to laying hens under heat stress may enhance their antioxidant status, and ameliorate stressful environmental conditions.

6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(15): 4985-4990, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791062

RESUMO

Purpose: Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) was used to investigate if the clinical stage of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was correlated with global and regional macular choriocapillaris (CC) perfusion. Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 6 × 6-mm SS-OCTA images from eyes with early, intermediate, and advanced dry AMD (56 eyes, 41 patients) were analyzed using algorithms described in the literature to assess regional flow deficit percentage (FD%) and average flow deficit size. Regions were defined by concentric areas centered on the fovea: a 1-mm-diameter area, 3-mm-diameter ring, 5-mm-diameter area, 5-mm-diameter ring, and 6 × 6-mm whole image. Data were modeled using the generalized estimating equations approach. Results: The relationship between age and CC FD% and average flow deficit size was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) in all regions of analysis by linear modeling. The relationship between dry AMD stage and FD% was statistically significant by linear modeling in the 5-mm ring, and between dry AMD stage and average flow deficit size in the 3-mm ring, 5-mm area, 5-mm ring, and 6 × 6-mm whole image. Conclusions: Linear modeling suggests a statistically significant relationship between dry AMD stage and CC perfusion, most prominent in the more peripheral regions of the macula.

7.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 28(4): 408-411, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To detect the gene expression of miRNAs in patients with periodontitis and to explore their biological functions and involved signaling pathways. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis of gene chip data from 158 periodontitis patients and 40 healthy controls of the microarray database GSE54710 were performed. The expression changes of miRNAs were analyzed. The involved biological function and signal path was predicted. SPSS 19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Five miRNAs (hsa-miR-451, hsa-miR-223, hsa-miR-486-5p, hsa-miR-3917, hsa-miR-671-5p) were significantly up-regulated, and 4 miRNAs (hsa-miR-203, hsa-miR-210, hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-1260) were significantly down-regulated. Among them, there were 584 target genes of hsa-miR-1260 and 139 target genes of hsa-miR-451. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that hsa-miR-1260 target gene was significantly enriched into 12 signaling pathways such as TGF-beta, and hsa-miR-451 target gene was significantly enriched into 17 signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: miRNAs expression profiles were obtained in periodontitis tissues, periodontitis-induced hsa-miR-1260 and hsa-miR-451 may play a key role in the pathophysiology of periodontitis.

8.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that rotavirus (RV) is a causative factor for diarrhea and gastroenteritis in pediatric and neonatal settings. Baicalin has many functions, including antibacterial, antiinflammatory, and antihypertensive activities. However, the immunological mechanism of RV-induced diarrhea with heat-dampness syndrome (RV-DH) remains unclear. AIMS: The aim of this study is to explore the role of baicalin in RV-DH diarrhea and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: A mouse model of pediatric RV-DH diarrhea was established and treated with baicalin. The concentrations of cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), while protein expression levels were determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of lymphocytes. RESULTS: The concentrations of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, RVvb, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and colonic mucosa were significantly increased in the RV-DH group. Decreased expression of occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) indicated loss of tight junction function and disturbances in intestinal mucosal permeability in the RV-DH group. Flow cytometry analysis showed a high rate of CD8+ lymphocytes and low amount of CD4+ lymphocytes in the RV-DH group. Treatment of RV-DH mice with baicalin significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and ameliorated the symptoms and pathological and immunological changes. Furthermore, baicalin inhibited STAT1 and activated STAT3 signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the curative and immunoregulatory properties of baicalin and have direct practical and clinical relevance for the treatment of RV-DH enteritis in humans.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endoscopic stenting for unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures (MHBS) remains challenging. Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) cholangitis (PEC) can be the most common and fatal adverse event. In the present study, we aimed to systematically evaluate the incidence, severity, risk factors and consequences of PEC after endoscopic procedures for advanced MHBS. METHODS: Of 924 patients, we identified 502 patients with MHBS (Bismuth type II to IV) who underwent endoscopic stenting as the primary therapy at two centers over 16 years. PEC and its severity were verified according to the current Tokyo guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients (21.5%) experienced acute PEC. Mild, moderate and severe cholangitis was encountered in 51 (10.1%), 42 (8.4%) and 15 (3.0%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that metal stenting (verse plastic stenting) (OR 0.328, 95% CI 0.200-0.535, p<0.001) and Bismuth classification (IV vs. III/II) (OR 2.499, 95% CI 1.150-5.430) were independent predictors for PEC and the moderate/severe type. Patients with PEC had significantly lower clinical success rates (86.3% vs 41.7%, p<0.001), a higher rate of early death (6.5% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001), a shorter median stent patency (4.9 vs. 6.4 months, p<0.001), and shorter overall survival (2.6 vs. 5.2 months, p<0.001) compared to the noncholangitis group. CONCLUSIONS: After endoscopic stenting for advanced MHBS, cholangitis may occur in as many as 21.5% of patients, which may be associated with a poor prognosis. The risk is high in patients with Bismuth type IV and may be reduced by using metal stents.

10.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common sleep-related respiratory disease. Despite reports of low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation of tonsils and adenoids for the treatment of OSAHS, the effects on lung function and quality of life are unclear. AIMS: This study aims to explore the effects of low-temperature plasma treatment on pulmonary function in children with OSAHS. METHODS: A total of 110 children with OSAHS were included in this prospective study. Low-temperature plasma radiofrequency treatment and routine surgical treatment were performed in group A and group B, respectively. Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), forced vital capacity (FVC), and total lung capacity (TLC) were measured. OSA-18 survey was used to evaluate the quality of life 1 year after operation. RESULTS: Group A had significantly higher effective treatment rate (P < 0.05) and lower operative period, bleeding volume, visual analog score, pseudomembrane detachment time, and time required to feed after operation than group B (all P < 0.001). There were no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the groups and MVV, FVC, and TLC between the groups before and after operation (all P > 0.05), and the above indexes in both groups were significantly increased after operation (all P < 0.05). OSA-18 scores in group A were significantly lower than group B after operation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low-temperature plasma technique performed in OSAHS children has a good clinical effect, which can reduce the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain, pseudomembrane detachment time, hospitalization time, and improve pulmonary function and quality of life.

11.
Nanomedicine ; : 102124, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756533

RESUMO

The potency of polymeric micelle-based doxorubicin, SP1049C, against cancer stem cells (CSCs) in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is evaluated. CSCs with high epithelial specific antigen (ESA), high CD44 and low CD24 expression levels were derived from the TNBC cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. These CSCs were resistant to free doxorubicin (Dox) and displayed increased colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro, along with higher tumorigenicity in vivo, compared to the parental and non-CSCs counterparts. SP1049C downregulated the expression and inhibited the functional activity of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in CSCs. The polymeric micelle drug had higher cytotoxicity and potency in reducing the colony formation of CSCs compared to the free drug. It was also more potent in inhibiting the tumor growth in the orthotopic animal tumor models derived from CSCs. These results indicate that SP1049C is active against CSCs and has potential in treating TNBC.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670377

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play crucial regulatory roles in a variety of biological circuits. To document regulatory interactions between ncRNAs and biomolecules, we previously created the NPInter database (http://bigdata.ibp.ac.cn/npinter). Since the last version of NPInter was issued, a rapidly growing number of studies have reported novel interactions and accumulated numerous high-throughput interactome data. We have therefore updated NPInter to its fourth edition in which are integrated 600 000 new experimentally identified ncRNA interactions. ncRNA-DNA interactions derived from ChIRP-seq data and circular RNA interactions have been included in the database. Additionally, disease associations were annotated to the interacting molecules. The database website has also been redesigned with a more user-friendly interface and several additional functional modules. Overall, NPInter v4.0 now provides more comprehensive data and services for researchers working on ncRNAs and their interactions with other biomolecules.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 999, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that CD103 is an important marker for tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) which plays an important role in anti-infection. However, the role of CD103+ TRM was not elucidated in the progress of S. japonicum infection induced disease. METHODS: 6-8 weeks old C57BL/6 mice were infected by S. japonicum. Mice were sacrificed and the lungs were removed 5-6 weeks after infection. Immunofluorescent staining and Q-PCR were performed to identify the expression of CD103 molecule. Single cellular populations were made, percentages of CD103 on both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were dynamical observed by flow cytometry (FCM). Moreover, the expression of memory T cells related molecules CD69 and CD62L, T cell function associated molecules CD107a, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10 were compared between CD103+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by FCM. RESULTS: CD103+ cells were emerged in the lung of both naive and S. japonicum infected mice. Both the percentage and the absolute numbers of pulmonary CD4+ and CD8+ cells were increased after S. japonicum infection (P < 0.05). The percentage of CD103+ cells in CD8+ T cells decreased significantly at the early stage of S. japonicum infection (P < 0.05). Increased CD69, decreased CD62L and CD107a expressions were detected on both CD4+ and CD8+ CD103+ T cells in the lungs of infected mice (P < 0.05). Compared to CD8+ CD103+ T cells, CD4+ CD103+ T cells from infected mice expressed higher level of CD69 and lower level CD62L molecules (P < 0.05). Moreover, higher percentage of IL-4+, IL-9+ and IL-10+ cells on CD4+ CD103+ pulmonary T cells was found in infected mice (P < 0.05). Significantly increased IL-4 and IL-9, and decreased IFN-γ expressing cells were detected in CD8+CD103+ cells of infected mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CD103-expressing pulmonary CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play important roles in mediating S. japonicum infection induced granulomatous inflammation in the lung.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(46): 42865-42872, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696697

RESUMO

A double-network nanogel, composed of a silane-cross-linked polyethylenimine (PEI) network (i.e., PEI-S) and a pH-responsive poly(2-(hexamethyleneimino) ethyl methacrylate) (PC7A) polymer, was developed for efficient DNA transfection. The chemical cross-linking and hydrophobic interactions in the two networks led to improved stability outside the cell and also pH-triggered intracellular release of DNA. The nanogel with an optimal PEI-S and PC7A weight ratio of 1.3:1 exhibited significantly higher transfection efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 in multiple cell lines. The nanogel also possessed a small size with a hydrodynamic diameter of 55 nm, low cytotoxicity, and superior stability in serum-containing media. Moreover, besides the PEI-based gene delivery system, we have also demonstrated that addition of the PC7A polymer to several types of cationic polymers commonly used for gene delivery also led to significant transfection enhancement of the resulting nanoparticles, suggesting that the PC7A polymer may be a universal additive that can benefit versatile cationic polymer-based gene delivery systems.

15.
J Chem Inf Model ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710212

RESUMO

Convolutional neural network (CNN) is employed to construct generative and prediction models for the design and analysis of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) in organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that the dilated causal CNN can be trained as a good string-based molecular generation model, and the diversity of the generated NFAs is influenced by the depth of convolutional layers. In the property prediction model, the features of NFAs are extracted from the string representations by the dilated CNN. Specially, the attention mechanism is adopted to pool the extracted information, from which the contributions of fragments to molecular properties can be obtained by calculating the corresponding weighted sum. The promising NFAs among the predicted molecules are further verified by quantum chemistry calculations. The proposed generative, prediction models and the theoretical calculations perform as a complete cycle from molecular generation and property prediction to verification, which offer a strategy for the application of CNN in material discovery.

16.
Cancer Lett ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705929

RESUMO

Dysregulation of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the concrete regulatory mechanism is lack of research. We mined gene expression profiles of 457 HCC samples from TCGA and TJMUCH cohorts and further validated in 64 FFPE HCC tissues. LncRNA H19 overexpression in situ was significantly correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients, which induced EMT, promoted stemness and accelerated invasion of HCC cells in vitro. Co-expression network analysis indicated lncRNA H19 negatively correlated with miR-193b and positively correlated with MAPK1 gene, which implicated that lncRNA H19 served as a sponge molecule to hijack miR-193b and protect MAPK1. Forced overexpression of H19 attenuated miR-193b-mediated inhibition on multiple driver oncogenes (EGFR, KRAS, PTEN and IGF1R) and MAPK1 gene, thus triggered EMT and stem cell transformation in HCC. LncRNA H19 positively correlated with CD68 + TAMs in situ. TAMs-induced lncRNA H19 promotes HCC aggressiveness via triggering and activating the miR-193b/MAPK1 axis, mediates the crosstalk between HCC and immunological microenvironment, and causes poor clinical outcomes. LncRNA H19 is a valuable predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

17.
Semin Immunopathol ; 41(6): 681-697, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696251

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with prominent chronic inflammatory aspects. SLE most often affects women (9:1) in childbearing age. The multifactorial nature of the etiopathogenesis of SLE involves a deficient clearance of dead and dying cells. This is supported by the occurrence of autoantibodies directed against autoantigens modified in dying and dead cells (dsDNA, high mobility group box 1 protein, apoptosis-associated chromatin modifications, e.g., histones H3-K27-me3; H2A/H4 AcK8,12,16; and H2B-AcK12) that are deposited in various tissues, including skin, kidneys, joints, muscles, and brain. The subsequent hyperinflammatory response often leads to irreparable tissue damage and organ destruction. In healthy individuals, dead and dying cells are rapidly removed by macrophages in an anti-inflammatory manner, referred to as efferocytosis. In SLE, extensive and prolonged cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation) leads to autoantigens leaking out of the not cleared cell debris. These neo-epitopes are subsequently presented to B cells by follicular dendritic cells in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid tissues conditioning the break of self-tolerance. Activation of autoreactive B cells and subsequent production of autoantibodies facilitate the formation of immune complexes (ICs) fueling the inflammatory response and leading to further tissue damage. ICs may also be ingested by phagocytes, which then produce further pro-inflammatory cytokines. These processes establish a vicious circle that leads to sustained inflammation. This review highlights the cell death-related events in SLE, the protagonists involved in SLE pathogenesis, the resolution of inflammation in various tissues affected in SLE, and explores strategies for intervention to restore hemostasis in a hyperinflammatory state.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 49: 354-363, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mothers are the primary source of bacteria for newborns, but it is unclear whether mother-to-newborn transmission occurs prior to, during or after birth. Similarly, the effect of the delivery mode on neonatal microorganisms has been the focus of controversy. METHODS: Healthy maternal and neonatal pairs that underwent vaginal birth and caesarean section were enrolled in this study. Meconium, placenta, membrane and amniotic fluid samples for newborns and vaginal, rectal and oral samples for mothers were collected. All samples were amplified and sequenced by a 16S rRNA gene primer set targeting bacteria and archaea. FINDINGS: A total of 550 samples from 36 mother-neonate pairs with vaginal births and 42 mother-neonate pairs with caesarean sections were included in this study. The negative controls showed that the data analysis in this study was not affected by contamination. There was a high diversity of microbial communities in the pregnancy environment of the foetus. Meconium samples could be divided into three distinct types that were not influenced by the delivery method. INTERPRETATION: The distribution patterns of bacterial communities in the meconium, placenta, and foetal membranes were highly similar and had nothing to do with the mode of delivery. For approximately half of the placental microorganisms, the same sequence could be found in the vaginal, rectal, and oral samples of the mother.

19.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 7405-7420, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698619

RESUMO

Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in Asian populations. Laser iridotomy (LI) has been the standard therapeutic modality for treating PACG to avoid blindness. However, the complex structure of the eyeball, the aqueous fluidity, and the limitation of detecting equipment will cause difficulty in surgery and the probability of complications. Numerical simulation was conducted to investigate aqueous humor (AH) flow under different physiological structures before and after laser surgery. When the anterior chamber depth decreases from 2.8 mm to 2.0 mm (caused by angle-closure glaucoma), the maximum velocity of natural convection is doubled, and the pressure difference between the posterior and anterior chambers increases by 20%. Therefore, a shallow anterior chamber depth is crucial for the accurate investigation of glaucoma. Pupil block sharply increases the intraocular pressure (IOP). When the gap between the lens and iris decreases from 10 µm to 0.5 µm, P between the posterior and anterior chambers is approximately 37 times higher than before, thereby damaging intraocular tissues. LI can effectively reduce the IOP caused by pupil block, but the velocity of AH after operation is 40 times the normal condition, and the increased corneal shear stress could lead to corneal damage, which can be solved by adjusting the incident angle of laser beam On the basis of the allowable angle range of surgical equipment and the effect of different incident angles on the cornea and iris, the optimum angle of laser drilling is 45°.

20.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104707, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704518

RESUMO

The current study aims to determine the brain areas critical for response to anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in PPA. Anodal tDCS and sham were administered over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), combined with written naming/spelling therapy. Thirty people with PPA were included in this study, and assessed immediately, 2 weeks, and 2 months post-therapy. We identified anatomical areas whose volumes significantly predicted the additional tDCS effects. For trained words, the volumes of the left Angular Gyrus and left Posterior Cingulate Cortex predicted the additional tDCS gain. For untrained words, the volumes of the left Middle Frontal Gyrus, left Supramarginal Gyrus, and right Posterior Cingulate Cortex predicted the additional tDCS gain. These findings show that areas involved in language, attention and working memory contribute to the maintenance and generalization of stimulation effects. The findings highlight that tDCS possibly affects areas anatomically or functionally connected to stimulation targets.

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