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2.
Vet Med Sci ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955684

RESUMO

Gelsemium is a small genus of flowering plants from the family Loganiaceae comprising five species, three of which, Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J. St.-Hil., G. elegans Benth and G. rankinii Small, are particularly popular. Compared with other alkaloids from G. elegans, gelsemine, gelsevirine and koumine exhibit equally potent anxiolytic effects and low toxicity. Although the pharmacological activities and metabolism of koumine and gelsemine have been reported in previous studies, the species differences of gelsevirine metabolism have not been well studied. In this study, the metabolism of gelsevirine was investigated by using liver microsomes of humans, pigs, goats and rats by means of HPLC-QqTOF/MS. The results indicated that the metabolism of gelsevirine in liver microsomes had qualitative and quantitative species differences. Based on the results, the possible metabolic pathways of gelsevirine in liver microsomes were proposed. Investigation of the metabolism of gelsevirine will provide a basis for further studies of the in vivo metabolism of this drug.

3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 125, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talc pleurodesis is an effective treatment for malignant pleural effusions (MPEs). This study was designed to estimate complication rates of thoracoscopic talc insufflation. METHODS: Literature search was conducted in electronic databases and studies were selected if they reported complication rates of thoracoscopic talc insufflation in cancer patients with MPEs. Meta-analyses of proportions were performed to obtain incidence rates of complications. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (4482 patients; age 62.9 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 61.5, 64.4]; 50% [95% CI: 43, 58] females) were included. Intraoperative, perioperative, 30-day, and 90-day mortality rates were 0% [95% CI: 0, 1], 2% [95% CI: 0, 4], 7% [95% CI: 3, 13] and 21% [95% CI: 5, 43] respectively. Incidence rates [95% CI] of various complications were: pain (20% [1, 2]), fever (14% [3, 4]), dyspnea (13% [5, 6]), pneumothorax (6% [7, 8]) pneumonia (4% [0, 12]), emphysema (3% [3, 7]), prolonged air leakage (3% [0, 7]), prolonged drainage (3% [9, 10]), thromboembolism (3% [9, 11]), lung injury (2% [7, 12]), respiratory insufficiency (2% [0, 5]), re-expansion pulmonary edema (1% [0, 3]), empyema (1% [0, 2]), respiratory failure (0% [0, 1]), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 0% [0, 1]. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas pain and fever were the most frequent complications of thoracoscopic talc insufflation, the incidence of ARDS was low. Pneumothorax, pneumonia, emphysema, prolonged air leakage, pulmonary embolism, arrythmia, re-expansion pulmonary edema, and empyema are important complications of thoracoscopic talc insufflation.

4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 630504, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959095

RESUMO

Background: Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) significantly increases the risk of female infertility and contributes to reproductive technology failure. Recently, the role of melatonin in improving ovarian reserve (OR) has attracted widespread attention. However, details on the pharmacological targets and mechanisms of melatonin-improved OR remain unclear. Objective: A systems pharmacology strategy was proposed to elucidate the potential therapeutic mechanism of melatonin on DOR at the molecular, pathway, and network levels. Methods: The systems pharmacological approach consisted of target identification, data integration, network construction, bioinformatics analysis, and molecular docking. Results: From the molecular perspective, 26 potential therapeutic targets were identified. They participate in biological processes related to DOR development, such as reproductive structure development, epithelial cell proliferation, extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, PI3K signaling, among others. Eight hub targets (MAPK1, AKT1, EGFR, HRAS, SRC, ESR1, AR, and ALB) were identified. From the pathway level, 17 significant pathways, including the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and the estrogen signaling pathway, were identified. In addition, the 17 signaling pathways interacted with the 26 potential therapeutic targets to form 4 functional modules. From the network point of view, by regulating five target subnetworks (aging, cell growth and death, development and regeneration, endocrine and immune systems), melatonin could exhibit anti-aging, anti-apoptosis, endocrine, and immune system regulation effects. The molecular docking results showed that melatonin bound well to all hub targets. Conclusion: This study systematically and intuitively illustrated the possible pharmacological mechanisms of OR improvement by melatonin through anti-aging, anti-apoptosis, endocrine, and immune system regulation effects.

5.
Cell Prolif ; : e13052, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Senescence, characterized by permanent cycle arrest, plays an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanism of renal senescence is still unclear, and the treatment targeting it remains to be further explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DN mice were induced by HFD and STZ, and 3 types of renal cells were treated with high glucose (HG) to establish in vitro model. Senescence-related and autophagy-related markers were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Further, autophagy inhibitors and co-immunoprecipitation were used to clarify the mechanism of CO. Additionally, the specific relationship between autophagy and senescence was explored by immunofluorescence triple co-localization and ELISA. RESULTS: We unravelled that senescence occurred in vivo and in vitro, which could be reversed by CO. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that CO inhibited the dysfunction of autophagy in DN mice partly through dissociating Beclin-1-Bcl-2 complex. Further results showed that autophagy inhibitors blocked the improvement of CO on senescence. In addition, the data revealed that autophagy regulated the degradation of senescence-related secretory phenotype (SASP) including Il-1ß, Il-6, Tgf-ß and Vegf. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that CO protects DN mice from renal senescence and function loss via improving autophagy partly mediated by dissociating Beclin-1-Bcl-2 complex, which is possibly ascribed to the degradation of SASP. These findings bring new ideas for the prevention and treatment of DN and the regulation of senescence.

6.
AIDS ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recycling tenofovir and lamivudine/emtricitabine (XTC) with dolutegravir would provide a more tolerable, affordable, and scalable second-line regimen than dolutegravir with an optimized nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone. We evaluated efficacy of tenofovir/lamivudine/dolutegravir (TLD) in patients failing first-line tenofovir/XTC/efavirenz or nevirapine. DESIGN: Single arm, prospective, interventional study. SETTING: Two primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: 60 adult patients with two viral loads (VL)>1000 copies/mL. INTERVENTION: Participants were switched to TLD with additional dolutegravir (50 mg) for two weeks to overcome efavirenz induction. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Proportion achieving VL<50 copies/mL at week 24 using the FDA snapshot algorithm. RESULTS: Baseline median CD4 count was 248 cells/mm3, VL 10580 copies/mL and 48/54 (89%) had resistance (Stanford score ≥15) to one or both of tenofovir and XTC. No participants were lost to follow-up. At week 24, 51/60 (85%, 95% CI 73-93%) were virologically suppressed, six had VL 50-100 copies/mL, one VL 100-1000 copies/mL, one no VL in window, and one switched due to tenofovir-related adverse event. No integrase mutations were detected in the one participant meeting criteria for resistance testing. Virological suppression was achieved by 29/35 (83%, 95% CI 66-93%) with resistance to tenofovir and XTC, 11/13 (85%, 95% CI 55-98%) with resistance to XTC, and 6/6 (100%, 95% CI 54-100%) with resistance to neither. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of adults switching to second-line TLD achieved virologic suppression despite substantial baseline NRTI resistance and most not suppressed had low-level viraemia (≤100 copies/mL). This suggests recycling tenofovir and XTC with dolutegravir could provide an effective second-line option.

7.
J Genet Genomics ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931338

RESUMO

Gene therapy has become the most effective treatment for monogenic diseases. Congenital LEPTIN deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive monogenic obesity syndrome caused by mutations in the Leptin gene. Ob/ob mouse is a monogenic obesity model, which carries a homozygous point mutation of C to T in Exon 2 of the Leptin gene. Here, we attempted to edit the mutated Leptin gene in ob/ob mice preadipocytes and inguinal adipose tissues using CRISPR/Cas9 to correct the C to T mutation and restore the production of LEPTIN protein by adipocytes. The edited preadipocytes exhibit a correction of 5.5% of Leptin alleles and produce normal LEPTIN protein when differentiated into mature adipocytes. The ob/ob mice display correction of 1.67% of Leptin alleles, which is sufficient to restore the production and physiological functions of LEPTIN protein, such as suppressing appetite and alleviating insulin resistance. Our study suggests CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in situ genome editing as a feasible therapeutic strategy for human monogenic diseases, and paves the way for further research on efficient delivery system in potential future clinical application.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931813

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in agriculture for pest control, but the pesticide residues in environmental and agricultural products were a big threat to the health of non-target organisms. In this study, a new immunochromatographic strip test was established for the rapid detection of imidacloprid residue, a neonicotinoid insecticide, based on up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) coupled with the monoclonal antibody against imidacloprid. Under optimal conditions, the half inhibitory concentration (IC50), detection limit, and the linear range of this strip were 8.37 ng/mL, 0.45 ng/mL, and 0.97-250 ng/mL. The strip test could be completed in 30 min. The average recoveries of imidacloprid spiked in water, Chinese cabbages, cucumber, honey, and tea samples were 70.1~101.8%, with coefficient of variations less than 18.9%. The strip was used to test real samples and verified by UPLC-MS/MS method with the good agreement (R2 was 0.9825), indicating this novel strip immunoassay is accurate and reliable.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 12067-12085, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793420

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to drive the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) via the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). We studied the miRNA expression profile of primary CSCs isolated from patients with CRC (pCRCSCs). Compared to pCRCSC-derived differentiated cells, 98 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in pCRCSCs. Target genes encoding pCRCSC-related miRNAs were identified using a combination of miRNA target databases and miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks from the same patient. The pCRCSC-related miRNA target genes were associated with pathways contributing to malignant phenotypes, including I-kappa B kinase/NF-kappa B signaling, signal transduction by p53 class mediator, Ras signaling, and cGMP-PKG signaling. The pCRCSC-related miRNA expression signature was independently associated with poor overall survival in both the training and validation cohorts. We have thus identified several pCRCSC-related miRNAs with oncogenic potential that could serve as prognostic biomarkers for CRC.

10.
Opt Lett ; 46(9): 2192-2195, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929452

RESUMO

We demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first high-power large-mode-area Er:Yb codoped fiber amplifier pumped by 1018 nm fiber lasers. The output power reaches 219.6 W, which is the highest power operating at 1600 nm with near-diffraction-limitation beam quality. The 1018 nm pumping scheme contributes to the mitigation of Er,Yb fiber bottlenecking, improvement in signal gain, and reduction of heat generation. Also, we inject co-propagating C-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) into the master amplifier to avoid unwanted backward-propagating ASE.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876773
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(17): e25676, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrauterine adhesion seriously affects reproductive health in women. Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis using cold scissors or electrosurgery is the main treatment, although there is no consensus on the preferable method. This review aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of these methods for treating moderate to severe intrauterine adhesion. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched on April 30, 2020. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that were published in all languages (must contain English abstracts) and compared hysteroscopic cold scissors with electrosurgery for the treatment of intrauterine adhesion were included. Mean differences, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Data were analyzed using RevMan software (Review Manager version 5.3, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2014). Two researchers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. If a consensus was not reached, a third researcher was consulted. RESULTS: Nine studies (n = 761; 6 randomized controlled trials and 3 retrospective studies) were included. The intrauterine adhesion recurrence rate with second look hysteroscopy was significantly lower (odds ratio = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16-0.56; P = .0002) with hysteroscopic cold scissors than with electrosurgery. The total operation time was significantly shorter (mean difference = -7.78, 95% confidence interval = -8.50 to -7.07; P < .00001), intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower (mean difference = -9.88, 95% CI = -11.25 to -8.51; P < .00001), and the menstrual flow rate was significantly higher (odds ratio = 4.36, 95% confidence interval = 2.56-7.43; P < .00001) with hysteroscopic cold scissors than with electrosurgery. There were no significant differences in the pregnancy rate. One complication (1 perforation case, hysteroscopic cold scissors group) was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Hysteroscopic cold scissors is more efficient in preventing intrauterine adhesion recurrence, increasing the menstrual flow, reducing intraoperative blood loss, and shortening the operation time.


Assuntos
Eletrocirurgia/métodos , Histeroscopia/instrumentação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Doenças Uterinas/cirurgia , Adulto , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia/efeitos adversos , Menstruação , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Uterinas/patologia
13.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(6): e10032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909853

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the safety of multiple repeated percutaneous punctures of cisterna magna for collecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and preliminarily determine the optimal time interval and volume at each collection. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups: 10 d-0 µL, 10 d-100 µL (100 µL CSF collected at an interval of 10 days), 10 d-150 µL, 15 d-0 µL, 15 d-100 µL, and 15 d-150 µL. CSF was collected by percutaneous puncture of the cisterna magna at four time-points. Simultaneously, locomotor activity, cisterna magna pressure, and acetylcholine levels in the CSF were monitored. Compared with the 10 d-0 µL group, the escape latency by Morris water maze was significantly prolonged in the 10 d-100 µL and 10 d-150 µL groups (P<0.05). Compared with the 15 d-0 µL group, the indices of 15 d-100 µL and 15 d-150 µL groups had no significant differences. When compared with that at the first training, the exception of the 10 d-150 µL and 15 d-150 µL groups, significant differences in escape latency were found at the 6th attempt (P<0.05). Compared with baseline readings for each group, the cisterna magna pressure in the 10 d-150 µL group began to decrease significantly from the third measurement (P<0.05). The optimal time interval during four CSF collections (100 µL per collection) via cisterna magna percutaneous puncture was determined to be 15 days. The procedure did not significantly affect learning processes, performance, or other related indices.


Assuntos
Cisterna Magna , Punções , Animais , Locomoção , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
J Dermatol Sci ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is known to play a key role in autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare the characteristics in the gut microbial composition of patients with alopecia areata (AA) and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: In a cross-sectional discovery cohort, we enrolled 33 patients with AA and 35 HCs from the same geographic location in Shanghai, China. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatic analyses were conducted to analyze DNA extracted from the subjects. RESULTS: The α-diversity of the AA group demonstrated no statistically significant differences compared with the HC group (P > 0.05). However, the overall gut microbial communities in the AA group were distinct from the HCs (P = 0.0096). We also adopted a random forest model to select three AA-associated OTU biomarkers: OTU1237(Achromobacter), OTU257(Megasphaera), and OTU1784(Lachnospiraceae Incertae Sedis). CONCLUSION: The overall gut microbial composition for AA was distinct from that of HCs. The gut microbial markers we identified may potentially be used for earlier diagnosis and as therapeutic targets.

15.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106349, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905861

RESUMO

Morphologically identified Penicillium (n = 103) and Talaromyces marneffei (n = 8) isolates were collected from various clinical sources between 2016 and 2017 at a medical centre in Beijing, China. Identification to species level was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, ß-tubulin gene (benA) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene. Of the 111 isolates, 56 (50.5%) were identified as Penicillium spp. and 55 (49.5%) as Talaromyces spp. Eleven species of Penicillium were detected, of which Penicillium oxalicum was the commonest, accounting for 51.8% (29/56), followed by Penicillium rubens (10.7%; 6/56) and Penicillium citrinum (10.7%; 6/56). Among the 55 Talaromyces isolates, nine species were identified, with Talaromyces funiculosus (36.4%; 20/55), Talaromyces stollii (27.3%; 15/55) and Talaromyces marneffei (14.5%; 8/55) being the most common. Of note, 89.3% (50/56) of the Penicillium isolates and 98.2% (54/55) of the Talaromyces isolates exhibited growth at 37°C. The isolates were mainly recovered from patients with pulmonary disorders (56.8%; 63/111), autoimmune disease (12.6%; 14/111) and AIDS (5.4%; 6/111). The azoles and amphotericin B exhibited potent activity against T. marneffei, while various levels of activity were observed against Penicillium and other Talaromyces species The echinocandins had the lowest MECs (MEC90, ≤0.12 mg/L) against most Penicillium and Talaromyces species, with the exception of T. marneffei whose MEC90 (4 mg/L) was five or more dilutions higher than that of the other species tested. These data on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility expand the current clinical knowledge of Penicillium and Talaromyces species.

16.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 356, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824281

RESUMO

Circular RNAs have been reported to play significant roles in regulating pathophysiological processes while also guiding clinical diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, only a few circRNAs have been identified thus far. Herein, we investigated the role of a specific closed-loop structure of hsa_circ_101555 that was generated by back-splicing of the host gene casein kinase 1 gamma 1 (CSNK1G1) in the development and proliferation of HCC. We investigated the expression of Hsa_circ_101555 in HCC and normal tissues using bioinformatics. The expression level of hsa_circ_101555 was further detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR in ten HCC patients. Transwell, migration, WST-1 assays, and colony formation assays were used to evaluate the role of hsa_circ_101555 in HCC development and proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms of hsa_circ_101555 in miR-145-5p and CDCA3 were determined by dual luciferase reporter assay. A mouse xenograft model was also used to determine the effect of hsa_circ_101555 on HCC growth in vivo. hsa_circ_101555 showed greater stability than the linear RNA; while in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that hsa_circ_101555 silencing significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells. Rescue experiments further demonstrated that suppression of miR-145-5p significantly attenuated the biological effects of hsa_circ_101555 knockdown in HCC cells. We also identified a putative oncogene CDCA3 as a potential miR-145-5p target. Thus, our results demonstrated that hsa_circ_101555 might function as a competing endogenous RNA of miR-145-5p to upregulate CDCA3 expression in HCC. These findings suggest that hsa_circ_101555 may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with HCC.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7382, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795817

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness globally. Qidengmingmu Capsule (QC) is a Chinese patent medicine used to treat DR, but the molecular mechanism of the treatment remains unknown. In this study, we identified and validated potential molecular mechanisms involved in the treatment of DR with QC via network pharmacology and molecular docking methods. The results of Ingredient-DR Target Network showed that 134 common targets and 20 active ingredients of QC were involved. According to the results of enrichment analysis, 2307 biological processes and 40 pathways were related to the treatment effects. Most of these processes and pathways were important for cell survival and were associated with many key factors in DR, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), hypoxia-inducible factor-1A (HIF-1Α), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Based on the results of the PPI network and KEGG enrichment analyses, we selected AKT1, HIF-1α, VEGFA, TNFα and their corresponding active ingredients for molecular docking. According to the molecular docking results, several key targets of DR (including AKT1, HIF-1α, VEGFA, and TNFα) can form stable bonds with the corresponding active ingredients of QC. In conclusion, through network pharmacology methods, we found that potential biological mechanisms involved in the alleviation of DR by QC are related to multiple biological processes and signaling pathways. The molecular docking results also provide us with sound directions for further experiments.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818728

RESUMO

Waste classification is to reduce solid waste and its associated environmental pollution. This paper applied bibliometrics to assess publications related to classification technology of domestic waste from 2000 to 2019. A total of 466 publications were retrieved. The results showed the number of citations and papers increased rapidly. The major publication type regarding waste classification technology is article and English is the primary language for academic communication. The research is multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary, and its research directions are mainly divided into "Engineering," "Environmental Sciences Economics," and "Chemistry." It was identified that Waste Management (85) published most of papers in this topic. Meanwhile, China (93) contributed the most of publications, followed by the USA (42), France (40), Japan (36), and Italy (28). European countries are in the leading position in the study of garbage classification technology. Plastics and waste metals were the existing focus of waste classification technology, and waste identification and classification has become an important classification method. In addition, we also summarized the current mainstream technology progress and possible research challenges.

19.
J Control Release ; 334: 275-289, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930479

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common pathological process that is globally associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The underlying AKI mechanisms include over-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cell infiltration, and high levels of inflammatory mediators. Bilirubin is an endogenous compound with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, and could, therefore, be a promising therapeutic candidate. Nanotechnology-mediated therapy has emerged as a novel drug delivery strategy for AKI treatment. In this study, we report a hyaluronic acid (HA) coated ε-polylysine-bilirubin conjugate (PLBR) nanoparticle (nHA/PLBR) that can selectively accumulate in injured kidneys and alleviate the oxidative/inflammatory-induced damage. The in vitro study revealed that nHA/PLBR has good stability, biocompatibility, and exhibited higher antioxidant as well as anti-apoptotic effects when compared to nPLBR or bilirubin. The in vivo study showed that nHA/PLBR could target and accumulate in the injured kidney, effectively relieve oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions, protect the structure and function of the mitochondria, and more importantly, inhibit the apoptosis of tubular cells in an ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI rat model. Therefore, nHA/PLBR has the capacity to enhance specific biodistribution and delivery efficiency of bilirubin, thereby providing better treatment for AKI in the future.

20.
Res Dev Disabil ; 113: 103953, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reading activity involves visual processing in nature. Compared with hearing people, visual processing may be more critical for deaf people. However, much less research has explored the impact of visual processing on the reading ability of deaf children, and the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. AIMS: This study aimed to examine whether and how visual processing skills predict reading ability in elementary school deaf children in China. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 118 Chinese deaf children (mean age = 14.60 years) from grades 4-6 were tested on the tasks of visual-graphic processing, visual-orthographic processing, word segmentation, reading comprehension, and reading fluency. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The results showed that after chronological age was controlled, visual-graphic processing and visual-orthographic processing significantly predicted Chinese deaf children's reading ability. Specifically, visual-orthographic processing played a mediating role in the effect of visual-graphic processing on reading ability, whereas word segmentation played a mediating role in the effect of visual-orthographic processing on reading ability. However, the mediating role of word segmentation, as well as the chain mediating effect of visual-orthographic processing and word segmentation in the influence of visual-graphic processing on reading ability, were not significant. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings emphasized the importance of visual processing skills in reading activity and offered potential mechanisms underlying the contribution of visual processing skills to reading ability in Chinese deaf children.

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