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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109908, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706243

RESUMO

Pesticides have been extensively produced and used to help the agricultural production which leads to the contamination of the environment, soil, groundwater sources, and even foodstuffs. Fungicides carbendazim (CBZ) and chlorothalonil (Chl) are widely applied in agriculture and other aspects. CBZ or Chl have been reported to disrupt spermatogenesis and decrease semen quality. However, it is not understood the effects of pubertal exposure to low doses of CBZ and Chl together, and the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of current investigation was to explore the negative impacts of pubertal exposure to low doses of CBZ and Chl together on spermatogenesis and the role of epigenetic modifications in the process. We demonstrated that CBZ and Chl together synergize to decrease sperm motility in vitro (CBZ 1.0 + Chl 0.1, CBZ 10.0 + CHl 1.0, CBZ 100.0 + Chl 10 µM in incubation medium for 24 h) and sperm concentration and motility in vivo with ICR mice (CBZ 0.1 + Chl 0.1, CBZ 1.0 + CHl 1.0, CBZ 10.0 + Chl 10 mg/kg body weight; oral gavage for five weeks). CBZ + Chl significantly increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis by the increase in the protein level of caspase 8 in vitro. Moreover, CBZ + Chl synergized to disrupt mouse spermatogenesis with the disturbance in sperm production proteins and sperm proteins (VASA, A-Myb, STK31, AR, Acrosin). CBZ + Chl synergized to decrease the protein level of estrogen receptor alpha and the protein level of DNA methylation marker 5 mC in Leydig cells, and to increase the protein levels of histone methylation marker H3K9 and the methylation enzyme G9a in germ cells. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to the use of CBZ and Chl as pesticides to minimise their adverse impacts on spermatogenesis.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134531, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655453

RESUMO

Many natural and man-made urban lakes have been developed under urbanization. A unique feature of these lakes is the lack of an outlet; thus, they are defined as urban closed lakes (UCLs). UCLs are facing unexpected eutrophication under climate change and human activities. Our study assessed the trophic state, assimilative capacity (AC) and pollutant reduction of UCLs under different precipitation frequencies in Wuhan, China based on Carlson's Trophic State Index, assimilative capacity modelling, field investigations and observed data. The UCLs in Wuhan are nearly eutrophic in summer. Three primary nutrient sources are atmospheric deposition, pollutants carried in rainfall and nutrients released by sediments. TN and TP in the UCL water column are primarily contributed by surface runoff. The ACs of TN and TP in 2015 for Lingjiao Lake, Yue Lake, and Houxianghe Lake were 3472.07 kg, 13,800.99 kg, and 2805.58 kg, respectively, and 641.66 kg, 8386.79 kg, and 800.14 kg, respectively. The ACs of TN and TP were much higher at a 25% precipitation frequency (wet year) compared with a 50% frequency, and the lowest AC was observed at a 75% precipitation frequency (dry year). A comparison of the pollution load and AC showed that TN and TP reduction was highest in the dry and wet years, respectively. We found that specific meteorological conditions in the early stage led to the algal bloom. These results can facilitate governmental decision making in the future.

3.
Biosci Rep ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediabetes has been related with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the prognostic efficacy of prediabetes for patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains undetermined. We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the influence of diabetes on the risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) after PCI in a meta-analysis. METHODS: Longitudinal follow-up studies evaluating the association between prediabetes and risks of MACEs and mortality after PCI were identified by search of PubMed and Embase databases. A random-effect model was applied to pool the results. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the impacts of study characteristics on the outcome. RESULTS: Twelve follow-up studies including 10,048 patients that underwent PCI were included. Compared to patients with normoglycemia at admission, those with prediabetes were had significantly higher risk MACEs during follow-up (adjusted risk ratio [RR]: 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25 to 1.87, p < 0.001). Further subgroup analyses indicated that the association between prediabetes and higher risk of MACEs remained regardless of the study design, sample size, CAD subtype, PCI type, definition of diabetes, or follow-up duration. Moreover, patients with prediabetes had higher significantly risk of MACEs in studies with adjustment of coronary lesion severity (RR: 1.79, p < 0.001), but the association became insignificant in studies without adjustment of the coronary lesion severity (RR: 1.23, p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Prediabetes is independently associated with increased risk of MACEs after PCI as compared to those with normoglycemia, even in studies with adjustment of coronary severity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788929

RESUMO

The rational design of hierarchical hollow nanomaterials is of great importance to the high-rate and long-cycle anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, multi-wall Sn/SnO2@carbon hollow nanofibers evolve from SnO2 nanofibers are designed and pro-gramable synthesized by electrospinning, polypyrrole coating and annealing reduction method. The synthesized hollow nanofibers have a special wire-in-double-wall-tube structure with larger specific surface area and abundant inner spaces, which can provide effective contacting area of electrolyte with electrode materials and more active sites for redox reaction. Furthermore, it shows excellent cycling stability by virtue of effectively alleviate the volume expansion caused pulverization of tin-based electrode materials. Even after 2000 cycles, the wire-in-double-wall-tube Sn/SnO2@carbon nanofibers exhibit a high specific capacity of 986.3 mAh g-1 (1 A·g-1) and still maintains 508.2 mAh g-1 at high current density of 5 A·g-1. This outstanding electrochemical performance suggests the multi-wall Sn/SnO2@ carbon hollow nanofibers are great promising for high performance energy storage systems.

5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3021-3028, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692523

RESUMO

Background: Neolaxiflorin B is derived from ent-kaurane like laxiflorin J and eriocalyxin B with a relatively low potency as an antitumor agent. During preliminary structure-activity relationship studies, the α,ß-unsaturated ketone (enone) system is an important active group. Methods: Seven neolaxiflorin B derivatives containing α,ß-unsaturated ketone moieties were synthesized. In vitro, activity was evaluated against three human tumor cell lines and a rat myogenic cell line (HepG2, NSCLC-H292, SNU-1040, and L6, respectively) by MTT assay. Results: Compound 15 appeared a promising antitumor lead due to its cytotoxic potency and relatively high selectivity, with an SI value of 13.14. Flow cytometry analysis was conducted to show that NSCLC-H292 cells were blocked in the G0/G1 phase in the presence of compound 15, thus inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells. Conclusion: This study has revealed that compound 15 is a promising antitumor lead due to the cytotoxic potencies and the high selectivity it displayed when compared to natural counterparts.

6.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DnaJ/Hsp40 homolog, subfamily B, member 6 (DNAJB6) is significantly down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), while its complicated molecular mechanisms are still unknown. AIMS: To investigate the relationship between DNAJB6 and ESCC. METHODS: The expression of DNAJB6 was detected in ESCC patient by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. To overexpress DNAJB6a by lentivirus infection, colony-forming, CCK-8, transwell, mouse xenograft assays were utilized to verify the proliferous, invasive, and migratory role of DNAJB6a in ESCC cells. The MDA and GSH assays determine whether DNAJB6a participates in cell redox reaction. The variation of AKT and GPX4 was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: The correlation between DNAJB6 level and lymph node metastasis in ESCC patient was negative. Overexpressing DNAJB6a shows tumor-suppressive effects in vitro and in vivo. In addition, DNAJB6a overexpression was accompanied together with a remarkable reduction in the protein levels of GPX4 and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT). CONCLUSION: DNAJB6 plays an important anti-oncogenic role in ESCC evolvement via ferroptosis.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17854, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689877

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed malignancy in women. This study genotyped blood samples from 236 Han Chinese women with breast cancer and 128 healthy controls for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2977537, rs2929970, rs2929973, rs2977530, and rs62514004, to determine whether these WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1) genetic polymorphisms increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Compared with wild-type (AA) carriers, those carrying the WISP1 rs62514004 AG or AG + GG genetic variants had a greater risk of developing breast cancer. In an evaluation of the association between clinicopathological aspects and the WISP1 SNP rs62514004 in the breast cancer cohort, patients with the GG genotype were less likely than those with the AA genotype to develop stage III/IV disease. Patients carrying the WISP1 rs2929973 GG + TT variant were almost twice as likely as those carrying the GT genotype to have estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive tumors, while those with the WISP1 rs62514004 AG + GG genetic variants were around twice as likely as those with the AA genotype to have HER2-positive tumors. This study details risk associations between WISP1 SNPs and breast cancer susceptibility in women of Han Chinese ethnicity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular CCN/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Nat Immunol ; 20(12): 1621-1630, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740800

RESUMO

Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is essential for the innate immune response to intracellular bacteria. Noncoding RNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) need to be further considered in studies of regulation of the IFN-γ-activated signaling pathway in macrophages. In the present study, we found that the microRNA miR-1 promoted IFN-γ-mediated clearance of Listeria monocytogenes in macrophages by indirectly stabilizing the Stat1 messenger RNA through the degradation of the cytoplasmic long noncoding RNA Sros1. Inducible degradation or genetic loss of Sros1 led to enhanced IFN-γ-dependent activation of the innate immune response. Mechanistically, Sros1 blocked the binding of Stat1 mRNA to the RBP CAPRIN1, which stabilized the Stat1 mRNA and, consequently, promoted IFN-γ-STAT1-mediated innate immunity. These observations shed light on the complex RNA-RNA regulatory networks involved in cytokine-initiated innate responses in host-pathogen interactions.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745805

RESUMO

In anaerobic digestion, propionate is a key intermediate whose degradation is thermodynamically challenging and accumulation is detrimental to the process. Many wastewater streams contain antibiotics due to its globally increasing use, and these compounds can inhibit methane production. However, the effect of antibiotics on propionate degradation in anaerobic digestion remains unclear. In this study, the influence of two antibiotics (chlortetracycline [CTC] and enrofloxacin [EFX]) on biogas production and mesophilic propionate-degrading microbial community was investigated. CTC strongly repressed propionate oxidation, acetate utilization, and methane production, while EFX only inhibited propionate oxidation and methane production to a lesser extent. Microbial community analyses showed that syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria (SPOB) Syntrophobacter had strong tolerance to both CTC and EFX. CTC inhibition mainly acted on the activity of acetate-oxidizing bacteria (Mesotoga, Geovibrio, Tepidanaerobacter, unclassified Bacteroidetes, and unclassified Clostridia) and acetoclastic methanogen, while EFX inhibition applied to the SPOB Smithella and acetoclastic methanogen. Network analysis further indicated that more complicated correlation among bacterial genera occurred in CTC treatments. These results suggested that CTC and EFX inhibited propionate degradation via different mechanisms, which was the result of joint action by antibiotics and microbial interactions.

11.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 147, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727175

RESUMO

Neutrophils have long been considered as cells playing a crucial role in the immune defence against invading pathogens. Accumulating evidence strongly supported the direct and indirect regulatory effects of neutrophils on adaptive immunity. Exogenous cytokines or cytokines produced in an autocrine manner as well as a cell-to-cell contact between neutrophils and T cells could induce the expression of MHC-II and costimulatory molecules on neutrophils, supporting that neutrophils may function as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in respects of presenting antigens and activating T cells. In addition to the inflammatory roles, neutrophils also have the propensity and ability to suppress the immune response through different mechanisms. In this review, we will mainly highlight the heterogeneity and functional plasticity of neutrophils and the antigen-presenting capacity of different neutrophil subsets. We also discuss mechanisms relevant to the regulatory effects of neutrophils on adaptive immunity. Understanding how neutrophils modulate adaptive immunity may provide novel strategies and new therapeutic approaches for diseases associated with neutrophils.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; : 134578, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753497

RESUMO

With the increase in population and economic development, urban water demand has increased significantly over the past decades, and physical transfer water (i.e., freshwater transported from water source regions to water intake regions through channels or pipelines) and virtual water (i.e., freshwater used in the production of goods and services along their supply chains, abbreviated as VW) have gradually become viable water sources for many cities to relieve water stress. This study used Beijing as the research object and systematically analyzed the impact of physical transfer water, VW, and local water on urban water stress from 2000 to 2016. The results show that VW inflow related to food trade has increased from 3.55 billion m3 in 2000 to 16.76 billion m3 in 2016, and that energy's VW inflow increased from 52.76 million m3 to 137.47 million m3 over the same period. Before 2011, Beijing's water demand was largely met by local water resources; however, after 2011, external water resources (including physical transfer water and VW) accounted for majority of the city's water demand, and VW's contribution increased from 47% in 2011 to 53% in 2016. Although Beijing has significantly reduced local water use in favor of external sources, its water stress index in 2016 remained considerable, far exceeding the upper limit of available water. This study also proposes some measures to ensure Beijing's water security based on the sustainability of external water supply.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672920

RESUMO

Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) are two structurally distinct messengers that mobilize the endoplasmic and endo-lysosomal Ca2+-stores, respectively. Both are synthesized by CD38 molecule (CD38), which has long been thought to be a type II membrane protein whose catalytic domain, intriguingly, faces to the outside of the cell. Accordingly, for more than 20 years it has remained unresolved how CD38 can use cytosolic substrates such as NAD and NADP to produce messengers that target intracellular Ca2+-stores. The discovery of type III CD38 whose catalytic domain faces the cytosol has now begun to clarify this topological conundrum. This article reviews the ideas and clues leading to the discovery of the type III CD38; highlights an innovative approach for uncovering its natural existence, and discusses the regulators of its activity, folding and degradation. We also review the compartmentalization of cADPR and NAADP biogenesis. We further discuss the possible mechanisms that promote type III CD38 expression and appraise a  proposal of a Ca2+-signaling mechanism based on substrate limitation and product translocation. The surprising finding of another enzyme that produces cADPR and NAADP, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing1 (SARM1), is described. SARM1 regulates axonal degeneration and has no sequence similarity with CD38, but can catalyze the same set of multi-reactions and has the same cytosolic orientation as the type III CD38. The intriguing finding that SARM1 is activated by nicotinamide mononucleotide to produce cADPR and NAADP suggests that it may function as a regulated Ca2+-signaling enzyme like CD38.

14.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(24): 126638, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685340

RESUMO

Viral infectivity factor (Vif) is one of the accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) that inhibits host defense factor, APOBEC3G (A3G), mediated viral cDNA hypermutations. Previous work developed a novel Vif inhibitor 2-amino-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-6-((4-nitrophenyl)thio)benzamide (1) with strong antiviral activity. Through optimizations on the two side branches, a series of compound 1 derivatives (2-18) were designed, synthesized and tested in vitro for their antiviral activities. The biological results showed that compound 5 and 16 inhibited the virus replication efficiently with EC50 values of 9.81 and 4.62 µM. Meanwhile, low cytotoxicities on H9 cells were observed for the generated compounds by the MTT assay. The structure-activity relationship of compound 1 was preliminarily clarified, which gave rise to the development of more potent Vif inhibitors.

15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baixi sufu (BS) is a traditional Chinese spicy fermented bean curd manufactured with a natural starter. In this study, the bacterial and fungal communities during BS fermentation were determined by culture and the culture-independent method of high-throughput sequencing (HTS), and correlation analyses were performed to select the potential fermentation-contributing microorganisms. RESULTS: Throughout the fermentation of BS, 162 bacterial and 97 fungal strains were isolated and identified, and a total of 268314 bacterial and 287844 fungal high-quality sequences were analyzed. In general, the members of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially Enterococcus and Lactococcus, were dominant in the early stage of fermentation, and the spore-forming bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., became the predominant bacteria by the end of fermentation. Geotrichum, Mortierella, unclassified Ascomycota were the major fungal populations, which could not be detected in the final product. Correlation analyses indicated that Enterococcus, Bacillus, Geotrichum and unclassified Ascomycota significantly positively correlated with amino nitrogen. However, due to the sporulation characteristics of Bacillus, they may have little effect on BS ripening. The presence of Bifidobacterium spp. in sufu is reported for the first time, but the excessive counts of the Bacillus cereus group (> 105 CFU/g) indicate a potential hazard to consumers. CONCLUSION: The profiles obtained from this study will contribute to the development of autochthonous starter cultures to control BS fermentation, and may develop novel strategies to shorten the fermentation time of sufu products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771119

RESUMO

The prediction of protein-ligand binding sites is important in drug discovery and drug design. Protein-ligand binding site prediction computational methods are inexpensive and fast compared with experimental methods. This paper proposes a new computational method, SXGBsite, which includes the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) and the Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost). SXGBsite uses the position-specific scoring matrix discrete cosine transform (PSSM-DCT) and predicted solvent accessibility (PSA) to extract features containing sequence information. A new balanced dataset was generated by SMOTE to improve classifier performance, and a prediction model was constructed using XGBoost. The parallel computing and regularization techniques enabled high-quality and fast predictions and mitigated overfitting caused by SMOTE. An evaluation using 12 different types of ligand binding site independent test sets showed that SXGBsite performs similarly to the existing methods on eight of the independent test sets with a faster computation time. SXGBsite may be applied as a complement to biological experiments.

17.
Chin J Integr Med ; 25(10): 723-727, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782008

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke accounts for the majority of all strokes and has been primary causes of long-term disability and mortality in worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy suggests significantly improved effects on neurological functional outcome, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, blood-brain barrier permeability, inflammatory injury, neuroprotection and so on, following stroke. However, the occurrence of adverse effects results in restriction of the therapy. Chinese medicine accumulates abundant clinical experiences on stroke for over two thousand years, and some formulae and active ingredients of Chinese medicines have presented obvious efficacies in clinical treatment. Therefore, based on Chinese medicine theory, we provide some ideas of screening agents for combination treatment of Chinese medicines and MSC for ischemic stroke, and summarize the potentials of Chinese medicines in MSC treatment and analyze the feasibilities of Chinese medicines against side effects of MSC therapy. Consequently, we propose Chinese medicines combing with MSC should be a promising approach to clinical stroke treatment in future.

18.
Waste Manag ; 102: 569-578, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770691

RESUMO

Compost-based biofiltration is a method widely used to mitigate ammonia emissions during composting. To improve the efficiency of a composting-biofiltration system, it is necessary to determine the most effective degree of composting at which to process the packing media used in the biofiltration system. In this study, materials pre-composted for 20 and 30 d (C20 and C30, respectively), and mature compost (CM) that had been treated for 60 d, were applied as biofilter media to remove ammonia from dairy manure composting exhaust gases. A comparison of the results revealed that the C30 biofilter not only completely removed ammonia, but also produced the least nitrogen loss (1.84%). The C20 biofilter exhibited an inferior performance, indicating that enough pre-composted time is necessary for material used as the packing media. Though the CM biofilter displayed good performance with regard to ammonia removal (97.8%), it had a high nitrogen loss (6.46%). A spearman rank correlation matrix revealed that the abundance of nitrogen cycle genes including amoA, nosZ, nirK, and nirS, had a strong correlation with the physicochemical properties such as nitrate content, carbon source, moisture content, and pH of the biofilter media. C30 provided advantageous conditions and contained a relatively high abundance of nitrifiers and the lowest abundance of denitrifiers. As a result, C30 rather than CM was a more appropriate biofilter media for ammonia removal. Moreover, the occurrence of biological nitrification during the dairy manure composting process indicates the effectiveness of a material for use as biofilter media.

19.
Opt Express ; 27(22): 32193-32209, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684436

RESUMO

Strong-field photoelectron holography (SFPH), originating from the interference of the direct electron and the rescattering electron in tunneling ionization, is a significant tool for probing structure and electronic dynamics in molecules. We theoretically study SFPH by counter rotating two-color circularly (CRTC) polarized laser pulses. Different from the case of the linearly polarized laser field, where the holographic structure in the photoelectron momentum distribution (PEMD) is clustered around the laser polarization direction, in the CRTC laser fields, the tunneling ionized electrons could recollide with the parent ion from different angles and thus the photoelectron hologram appears in the whole plane of laser polarization. This property enables structural information delivered by the electrons scattering the molecule from different angles to be recorded in the two-dimensional photoelectron hologram. Moreover, the electrons tunneling at different laser cycles are streaked to different angles in the two-dimensional polarization plane. This property enables us to probe the sub-cycle electronic dynamics in molecules over a long time window with the multiple-cycle CRTC laser pulses.

20.
Pharmazie ; 74(10): 590-594, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685082

RESUMO

Inclusion complexes of essential oils with cyclodextrins are an effective way to improve stability and solubility, and turn liquid materials into easy to handle powders. In this work, an essential oil of Myristica fragrans Hott. (MFEO), already used in the food and cosmetics industries, was formulated with beta-cyclodextrins (ß-CD) using a co-precipitation method. The orthogonal array scheme was adapted for the optimization of preparation process. DSC and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis indicated the successful formation of MFEO/ß-CD inclusion complexes, which improved the thermal stability of MFEO. Furthermore, comparing the antimicrobial activity of MFEO/ß-CD inclusion complexes and free essential oil against Staphyloccocus aureus, Staphyloccocus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis, it was found that the antimicrobial effect was enhanced after the formation of inclusion complexes. This study demonstrates the potential for the use of MFEO/ß-CD inclusion complexes in the treatment of bacterial infection.

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