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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 193-203, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325341

RESUMO

High-performance electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption and shielding materials integrating with flexibility, air permeability, and anti-fatigue characteristics are of great potential in portable and wearable electronics. These materials usually prepared by depositing metal or alloy coatings on fabrics. However, the shortcomings of heavy weight and easy corrosion hamper its application. In this work, the cellulose nanofiber (CF) fabric was prepared by electrospinning technology. Then, conductive polyaniline (PANI) was deposited on the CF surface via a facile in-situ polymerization process. The interweaving cellulose/polyaniline nanofiber (CPF) composite constructs a conductive network, and the electrical conductivity can be adjusted by polymerization time. Benefiting from optimal impedance matching, strong conductive loss, as well as interfacial polarization, the CPF possesses excellent EM absorption performance. The minimum reflection loss (RLmin) value is -49.24 dB, and the effective absorption bandwidth (RL < -10 dB, fe) reaches 6.90 GHz. Furthermore, the CPF also exhibits outstanding electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding capability with shielding efficiency (SE) of 34.93 dB in the whole X band. Most importantly, the lightweight CPF fabrics have the merits of mechanical flexibility, breathability and wash resistance, which is highly applicable for wearable devices.


Assuntos
Celulose , Micro-Ondas , Compostos de Anilina , Têxteis
2.
Environ Res ; 203: 111870, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390719

RESUMO

Ferrihydrite (Fh), a precursor of more crystalline Fe (hydr)oxides, exhibits decent catalytic behavior; however, the instability of its amorphous structure limits its engineering applications. Siliceous ferrihydrite (FhSi) was readily synthesized in this study by co-precipitation. The formation of Fe-O-Si linkages did not alter the amorphous state of pure Fh, but increased the surface area (SBET), reduced the point of zero charge (pHZPC), and prevented the leaching of more iron. X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and pyridine-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, and potentiometric titration revealed the presence of silicon-occupied portions of growth sites on the Fh surface, which increased the coordination symmetry around the Fe atom and inhibited the transition of Fh to more stable crystalline Fe (hydr)oxides during repeated use. Meanwhile, the density of surface hydroxyl groups (Ds) and the total acid content of the catalytic system after five cycles of catalytic ozonation were 56.75 % and 63.58 % higher than those of freshly prepared system, thereby benefiting the catalysis of ozone for generating ·OH. In addition, the lower pHZPC of the FhSi/O3 system compared to that of the Fh/O3 system promoted the generation of neutral surface-hydroxyl species on the surface of FhSi, which enabled a decent catalytic performance in alkaline solutions, regardless of the catalytic cycle. Moreover, the removal of humic acids (HA) followed a hydroxy radical reaction, which involved self-decomposition (14.15 %), catalytic ozonation (21.58 %), and peroxone and Fenton-like reactions (64.27 %).

3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 1): 272-285, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390994

RESUMO

We demonstrate that the hierarchically porous metal hydroxide/metal-organic framework composite nanoarchitectures exhibit broad-spectrum removal activity for three chemically distinct toxic gases, viz. acid gases, base gases, and nitrogen oxides. A facile and general in-situ hydrolysis strategy combined with gentle ambient pressure drying (APD) was utilized to integrate both Zr(OH)4 and Ti(OH)4 with the amino-functionalized MOF-808 xerogel (G808-NH2). The M(OH)4/G808-NH2 xerogel composites manifested 3D crystalline porous networks and substantially hierarchical porosity, with controllable amounts of amorphous M(OH)4 nanoparticles residing at the edge of xerogel particles. Microbreakthrough tests were performed under both dry and moist conditions to evaluate the filtration capabilities of the composites against three representative compounds: SO2, NH3, and NO2. Compared with the pristine G808-NH2 xerogel, the incorporation of M(OH)4 effectively enhanced the broad-spectrum toxic chemical mitigation ability of the material, with the highest SO2, NH3, and NO2 breakthrough uptake reaching 74.5, 55.3, and 394.0 mg/g, respectively. Post-breakthrough characterization confirmed the abundant M-OH groups with diverse binding configurations, alongside the unsaturated M (IV) centers on the surface of M(OH)4 provided extra adsorption sites for irreversible toxic chemical capture besides Van der Waals driven physisorption. The ability to achieve high-capacity adsorption and strong retention for multiple contaminants is of great significance for real-world filtration applications.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Adsorção , Filtração , Hidróxidos/toxicidade , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/toxicidade , Porosidade
4.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 127: 104305, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718077

RESUMO

Beetles are the most diverse group of insects in Insecta which can be found in almost every habitat and environment on Earth. The possessing of the rapid and effective immune defenses is one of the important factors for their success. It is generally recognized that beetles only rely on the non-specific innate immune defense, without immunological memory, to fight against pathogens. However, there was cumulative evidence for the innate immune memory in invertebrates, including beetles, over the last decades, implying that insect innate immunity is more complex and has more features than previously thought. In beetles, it has been well documented that the specific or nonspecific enhanced immunocompetence can persist throughout development within generations and can even be transferred to the descendents in the next generation. Although insect immune priming might be shaped by epigenetic modifications and transferring effectors, mRNA and microbial signals, the solid experimental evidence to support the causal relationship between any of them and immune priming is still scarce. The combined usage of 'omics' approaches and CRISPR/Cas9 in the appropriate insect models with well-known genetic background, Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor, will help us to decipher the molecular mechanisms by which immune priming occurs in beetles in depth.

5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131635, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346339

RESUMO

Composting is a biodegradation and transformation process that converts lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products, such as humic substances (HSs). However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose hinders the utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose, decreasing the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulose. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the structure of lignocellulosic biomass. Many pretreatment methods for composting may cause microbial inactivation and death. Thus, the pretreatment methods suitable for composting can promote the degradation and transformation of lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, this review summarizes the pretreatment methods suitable for composting. Microbial consortium pretreatment, Fenton pretreatment and surfactant-assisted pretreatment for composting may improve the bioconversion process. Microbial consortium pretreatment is a cost-effective pretreatment method to enhance HSs yields during composting. On the other hand, the efficiency of enzyme production during composting is very important for the degradation of lignocellulose, whose action mechanism is unknown. Therefore, this review describes the mechanism of action of lignocellulase, the predominant microbes producing lignocellulase and their related genes. Finally, optimizing pretreatment conditions and increasing enzymatic hydrolysis to improve the quality of composts by controlling suitable microenvironmental factors and core target microbial activities as a research focus in the bioconversion of lignocellulose during composting in the future.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Biomassa , Celulose , Lignina
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777536

RESUMO

Background: Moxibustion has been recognized as an effective approach for ulcerative colitis, yet its mechanism is not clear. The research aimed to investigate the influence of moxibustion on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and its mechanism in treating ulcerative colitis by observing miR7/RNF183 inducing IκB α ubiquitination to regulate NF-κB signaling pathway in an ulcerative colitis rat model. Methods: An ulcerative colitis rat model was established by unlimited access to self-administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium solution. Mild moxibustion was applied to bilateral Tianshu points (ST25) in the moxa-stick moxibustion group; rats in the control group were intervened by intraperitoneal injection of ubiquitination inhibitor, MG132. The disease activity index was determined at the end of the intervention; colon injury was observed and scored after hematoxylin-eosin staining; the immunohistochemical method was adopted to detect the expressions of colonic IL-1ß and NLRP3 proteins; Western blot determined the expressions of RNF183, IκB α, and NF-κB p65 proteins in the colon; the immunofluorescence test was used to observe the coexpression of IκB α/ubiquitin and IκB α/RNF183 proteins in the colon; immunoprecipitation assay was adopted to observe the interaction between IκB α and RNF183 proteins; and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined the expression of colonic miR7. Results: Moxibustion lowered the disease activity index, manifesting as restored colonic tissue and reduced inflammatory reaction, and decreased expression levels of NLRP3 and IL-1ß proteins, compared with the model group. It also reduced colonic expression of NF-κB p65 protein, together with the increased level of IκB α protein and weaker expression levels of ubiquitin and RNF183 proteins and mRNAs and stronger expression of miR7. There were no significant differences between the moxa-stick moxibustion group and the control group except the expressions of RNF183 protein and mRNA and miR7. Conclusion: Moxibustion encourages the recovery of colon injury probably by regulating the expression of NLRP3 protein in ulcerative colitis rats through miR7/RNF183/NF-κB signaling pathway.

7.
Clin Rehabil ; : 2692155211050558, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of stigma on social participation in community-dwelling Chinese patients with stroke sequelae. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: The study was conducted in two community centres in Tianjin, China. SUBJECTS: Community-dwelling Chinese patients with stroke sequelae. MEASURES: Chinese version of Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness, Chinese version of Impact on Participation and Autonomy, Modified Barthel index, Self-Rating Depression Scale, Social Support Rating Scale, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, background and disease-related questions. Pearson's correlation coefficients were computed between stigma and social participation. The impact of stigma on social participation was estimated by hierarchical multiple regression analysis after controlling for demographic, physical and psychosocial characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 136 patients with stroke sequelae were included in this study, with a mean age of 67.8 years. The Chinese version of the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness had a mean score of 48.4 (SD 16.9), and the Chinese version of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy was 67.1 (SD 21.1). Significant correlations were found between stigma and social participation. Pearson's correlation coefficient ranged from 0.354 to 0.605 (P < 0.01). Enacted stigma provided a significant explanation for the variance of social participation by 1.1% (P < 0.05). Felt stigma provided a significant explanation for the variance of social participation by 2.9% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Felt stigma and enacted stigma have independent associations with social participation. Patients with stroke sequelae who reported higher stigma experienced a lower level of social participation.

8.
New Phytol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787921

RESUMO

Heat stress is a major limiting factor for global wheat production and causes dramatic yield loss worldwide. The TaMBF1c is up-regulated in response to heat stress in wheat. Understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with heat stress responses will pave the way to improve wheat thermotolerance in future. Through CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing, polysome profiling coupled with RNA-seq analysis, and protein-protein interaction, we proved that TaMBF1c conferred heat response via regulating specific gene translation in wheat. Results showed that TaMBF1c is evolutionarily conserved in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species, and its knock-down and knock-out lines show increased heat sensitivity. TaMBF1c is co-localized with stress granule complex and interacts with TaG3BP. TaMBF1c affects translation efficiency of a subset of heat responsive genes, which are significantly enriched in the 'sequence-specific DNA binding' term. Moreover, gene expression network analysis demonstrated that TaMBF1c is closely associated with the translation of heat shock proteins. Our findings reveal a contribution of TaMBF1c regulating heat stress response via translation process, and provide new target for improving heat tolerance in wheat breeding programs.

9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 229(Pt B): 109057, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This work evaluated the psychometric properties of the single-item Opioid Craving Visual Analog Scale (OC-VAS) for opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS: Psychometric evaluation of the OC-VAS (range: 0-100 mm) was supported by Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) item 16 and total score, Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) scores, and the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, using data from phase 3 study (NCT02357901; N = 487) participants who received randomized treatment and completed the OC-VAS at screening. Descriptive properties, test-retest reliability, construct validity, known-groups validity, and responsiveness were assessed. Interpretation of meaningful change and predictive validity were also explored. RESULTS: Descriptive properties for the OC-VAS at screening did not provide evidence of problematic floor/ceiling effects or missingness. The test-retest reliability was established by weekly intraclass correlations >0.70. At the screening and end of the study, the strong positive correlations between OC-VAS and SOWS Total/Item 16 score and the significant OC-VAS differences among COWS severity groups supported construct validity and known-groups (discriminating ability) validity, respectively. The associations between the changes in OC-VAS and in supporting measures/opioid use from screening to the end of the study demonstrated responsiveness and the ability to detect change in clinical status. During the induction and randomization treatment periods, significant relationships were identified between OC-VAS score and subsequent opioid use. CONCLUSIONS: This psychometric evaluation of the OC-VAS performed on a large OUD patient population provides evidence to support its use to measure the severity of opioid craving and its ability to predict opioid use.

10.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813418

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has shown that protocatechuic acid (PCA) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It can alleviate the injury of sciatic nerve, while the mechanism of its therapeutic effect on neuralgia remains unknown . In vivo, chromium bowel ligation was used to establish a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model to induce sciatic nerve pain, then two doses of PCA were used to treat CCI rats. In vitro, 10 ng/mL TNF-α was used to stimulate glial satellite cells derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) L4-L6 of the sciatic nerve to simulate sciatic nerve pain. PCA relieved mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats. CCK-8 assay revealed that PCA inhibited the proliferation of glial satellite cells induced by TNF-α. Moreover, ELISA demonstrated that PCA could improve the inflammatory response of rats caused by CCI and cells induced by TNF-α. Next, RT-qPCR and Western blot assays testified that PCA blocked the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/the chemokine ligand 1/CXC chemokine receptor 2 (JNK/CXCL1/CXCR2) pathway by inhibiting CXCL1 levels in cells induced by TNF-α and DRG of CCI rats. In conclusion, PCA can alleviate neuropathic pain of CCI rats, improve oxidative stress by inhibiting the JNK/CXCL1/CXCR2 signaling pathway, which provides a new perspective for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by CCI.

11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(6): 7806-7836, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814277

RESUMO

The height of standing trees is an important index in forestry research. This index is not only hard to measure directly but also the environmental factors increase the measurement difficulty. Therefore, the measurement of the height of standing trees is always a problem that experts and scholars are trying to improve. In this study, improve fuzzy c-means algorithm to reduce the calculation time and improve the clustering effect, used on this image segmentation technology, a highly robust non-contact measuring method for the height of standing trees was proposed which is based on a smartphone with a fisheye lens. While ensuring the measurement accuracy, the measurement stability is improved. This method is simple to operate, just need to take a picture of the standing tree and determine the shooting distance to complete the measurement. The purpose of the fisheye lens is to ensure that the tree remains intact in the photograph and to reduce the shooting distance. The results of different stability experiments show that the measurement error ranged from -0.196m to 0.195m, and the highest relative error of tree measurement was 3.05%, and the average relative error was 1.45%. Analysis shows that compared with previous research, this method performs better at all stages. The proposed approach can provide a new way to obtain tree height, which can be used to analyze growing status and change in contrast height because of high accuracy and permanent preservation of images.

12.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the evidence on the effectiveness of music therapy in the recovery of language function in post-stroke aphasia, compared with conventional therapy or no therapy. METHODS: We searched studies that explored the effect of music therapy on language function in post-stroke aphasia and published in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to March 2021. Six reviewers independently screened out eligible studies, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological quality. Results were pooled using mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by the chi-square test and I2 statistic. RESULTS: Six studies were included in this meta-analysis involving 115 patients. The methodological quality of these studies ranged from poor to excellent. There was significant mean difference in functional communication for post-stroke aphasia by 1.45 (95% CI: 0.24, 2.65; P = 0.02, from poor to excellent evidence), in repetition by 6.49 (95% CI: 0.97, 12.00; P = 0.02, from acceptable to excellent evidence), and in naming by 11.44 (95% CI: 1.63, 21.26; P = 0.02, from acceptable to excellent evidence). But there was no significant difference in comprehension for post-stroke aphasia by 7.21 (95% CI: - 10.88, 25.29; P = 0.43, from acceptable to excellent evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Music therapy can improve functional communication, repetition, and naming in patients with post-stroke aphasia, but did not significantly improve comprehension. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42021251526.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817477

RESUMO

One-electron reduction of 2,7-tBu2-pyrene-4,5,9,10-tetraone (1) with potassium afforded two monoradicals 1K(cryp) and 1K(18c6), a radical tetramer [1K(15c5)]4 and a radical polymer (1K)2n. Using 1K(cryp) and 1K(18c6), we demonstrated large spin density modulation of an organic radical anion in the solid state by electrostatic attraction, without alternation of the molecular skeletons.

14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 42: 101183, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805809

RESUMO

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) followed by surgery are two standard strategies in treating locally advanced esophageal cancer (EC). We aim to compare NCRT and NCT in the management of locally advanced EC patients. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and conferences were systematically searched for clinical trials published up to September 2021. Pairwise comparisons and Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to compare overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) by reporting the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% credible intervals (CrIs). The study was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020170619). Findings: 25 trials with 4563 EC patients met inclusion criteria. NCRT improved OS (HR: 0·72, 95%CrI: 0·63-0·82) and DFS (HR: 0·72, 95%CrI: 0·63-0·81) compared to surgery alone. NCRT improved OS (HR: 0·83, 95%CrI: 0·69-0·99) and DFS (HR: 0·83, 95%CI: 0·69-0·99) compared to NCT. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that both NCRT (HR: 0·77, 95%CrI: 0·65-0·90) and NCT (HR: 0·81, 95%CrI: 0·67-0·99) improved OS than surgery in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. No significant differences were observed between NCRT and NCT regarding OS (HR: 0·95, 95%CrI: 0·75-1·19) and DFS (HR: 0·90, 95%CrI: 0·50-1·62) in ESCC. The short-term outcomes were similar between NCRT and NCT. The three treatment strategies were comparable in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) subpopulations. Interpretation: The study corroborated current guidelines in addressing the importance of analysing EC according to histopathological types. The analysis suggested that in locally advanced ESCC patients, both NCRT and NCT improved OS as compared to surgery alone, whereas no clear evidence supported the optimal strategies between NCRT and NCT. More RCTs comparing different therapeutic strategies in EAC patients are warranted. Funding: Köln Fortune Program, University of Cologne.

15.
Appl Opt ; 60(32): 10024-10034, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807105

RESUMO

This study proposes a method for camera calibration using the properties of conic asymptotes, which are combined with the projective invariance, images of the asymptotes, and image of the absolute points to obtain the vanishing line. Constraints for the image of the absolute conic are obtained from a set of orthogonal vanishing points, the homography, and images of the circular points. The proposed calibration algorithm is compared with several other research methods, and its effectiveness and robustness are verified within a certain error range from the results of simulated and real experiments for different eccentricities without loss of generality.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: NRAS plays a pivotal role in progression of various kinds of somatic malignancies; however, the correlation between NRAS and lung adenocarcinoma is less known. We aim to analyze the prognostic value of NRAS expression in lung adenocarcinoma, and explore the relationship between NRAS and tumor immune microenvironment. METHODS: We obtained the transcriptome profiles and clinical data of LUAD from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and three Genome Expression Omnibus datasets. Specimens from 325 patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma were collected for immunohistochemical assays of NRAS, PD-L1, PD-1 and TIM-3. Then, we performed gene set enrichment analysis to investigate cancer-related and immune-related signaling pathways. TIMER algorithms were performed to evaluate tumor immune infiltrating cells and immune-related biomarkers. RESULTS: Compared with adjacent non-tumor tissue, NRAS expression was significantly upregulated in LUAD tissue. NRAS expression was significantly correlated with more advanced stage and positive lymph nodes. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox analysis suggested that high NRAS expression led to a poor prognosis, and could be an independent prognostic factor in LUAD patients. Besides, NRAS expression was positively correlated with CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils, and negatively correlated with B cells and CD4+ T cells. The expression level of NRAS was positively correlated with PD-L1, PD-1, and TIM-3 both at RNA and protein level. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, we found NRAS is a novel prognostic biomarker in LUAD. Besides, the expression level of NRAS may influence the prognosis of LUAD via various kinds of cancer-related pathways and remodeling TIM.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(45): 11050-11060, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747622

RESUMO

Porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs) were first reported in 2009 and have quickly attracted much attention because of their exceptionally ultrahigh specific surface area (5800 m2·g-1). Uniquely, PAFs are constructed from carbon-carbon-bond-linked aromatic-based building units, which render PAFs extremely stable in various environments. At present, PAFs have been applied in many fields, such as adsorption, catalysis, ion exchange, electrochemistry, and so on. However, for such a unique material, its application in the biological fields is still rarely explored. Therefore, this Perspective introduces the reported application of PAFs in biological fields, for instance, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, artificial enzymes, drug delivery, and extraction of bioactive substances. Major challenges and opportunities for future research on PAFs in biology and biomedicine are identified in diagnostic platforms, novel drug carriers/antidotes, and novel artificial enzymes.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 151376, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740666

RESUMO

The aims of this article were to study the effect of Fenton pretreatment and bacterial inoculation on cellulose-degrading genes and fungal communities during rice straw composting. The rice straw was pretreated by Fenton reactions and functional bacterial agents were then inoculated during the cooling phase of composting. Three treatment groups were carried out, the control (CK), Fenton pretreatment (FeW) and Fenton pretreatment and bacterial inoculation (FeWI). The results indicated that Fenton pretreatment and bacterial inoculation changed the fungal communities composition and increased fungal diversity, leading to changes in the cellulose-degrading genes. In addition, a network analysis showed that in the FeWI treatment, the fungi from modules 1, 5 and 8 were core hosts of the cellulose-degrading genes driving the cellulosic degradation. Moreover, Fenton pretreatment and bacterial inoculation changed the core module fungal communities and strengthened the correlation between the core fungi and the cellulose-degrading genes, thereby promoting cellulosic degradation. Based on redundancy and structural equation model analyses, the NH4+-N, TOC, pH and Shannon index were important factors influencing the variations in the cellulose-degrading genes. This study provides a foundation for cellulosic degradation during cellulosic waste composting.

20.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(11): 1348-1365, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750572

RESUMO

Rapid advances in nanopore technologies for sequencing single long DNA and RNA molecules have led to substantial improvements in accuracy, read length and throughput. These breakthroughs have required extensive development of experimental and bioinformatics methods to fully exploit nanopore long reads for investigations of genomes, transcriptomes, epigenomes and epitranscriptomes. Nanopore sequencing is being applied in genome assembly, full-length transcript detection and base modification detection and in more specialized areas, such as rapid clinical diagnoses and outbreak surveillance. Many opportunities remain for improving data quality and analytical approaches through the development of new nanopores, base-calling methods and experimental protocols tailored to particular applications.

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