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1.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04032, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299774

RESUMO

*Joint senior authorship. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have observed the adverse effects of ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) on heart failure (HF). However, evidence regarding the impacts of specific PM2.5 components remains scarce. METHODS: We included 58 129 patients hospitalised for HF between 2013 and 2017 in 11 cities of Shanxi, China from inpatient discharge database. We evaluated exposure to PM2.5 and its components ((sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC)), along with meteorological factors using bilinear interpolation at each patients' residential address. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to assess the associations of these components with in-hospital case fatality, hospital expenses, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Increase equivalents to the interquartile range (IQR) in OM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.26) and BC (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.26) were linked to in-hospital case fatality. Per IQR increments in PM2.5, SO42-, NO3-, OM, and BC were associated with cost increases of 420.62 (95% CI = 285.75, 555.49), 221.83 (95% CI = 96.95, 346.71), 214.93 (95% CI = 68.66, 361.21), 300.06 (95% CI = 176.96, 423.16), and 303.09 (95% CI = 180.76, 425.42) CNY. Increases of 1 IQR in PM2.5, SO42-, OM, and BC were associated with increases in length of hospital stay of 0.10 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.19), 0.09 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.17), 0.10 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.17), and 0.16 (95% CI = 0.08, 0.23) days. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ambient SO42-, OM, and BC might be significant risk factors for HF, emphasising the importance of formulating customised guidelines for the chemical constituents of PM and controlling the emissions of the most dangerous components.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Tempo de Internação , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
2.
Infect Dis Model ; 8(4): 1088-1096, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37745754

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the potential causal impact of Enterovirus A71 (EV71) vaccination program on the reduction of EV71-infected hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Zhejiang Province. Methods: We utilized the longitudinal surveillance dataset of HFMD and EV71 vaccination in Zhejiang Province during 2010-2019. We estimated vaccine efficacy using a Bayesian structured time series (BSTS) model, and employed a negative control outcome (NCO) model to detect unmeasured confounding and reveal potential causal association. Results: We estimated that 20,132 EV71 cases (95% CI: 16,733, 23,532) were prevented by vaccination program during 2017-2019, corresponding to a reduction of 29% (95% CI: 24%, 34%). The effectiveness of vaccination increased annually, with reductions of 11% (95% CI: 6%, 16%) in 2017 and 66% (95% CI: 61%, 71%) in 2019. Children under 5 years old obtained greater benefits compared to those over 5 years. Cities with higher vaccination coverage experienced a sharper EV71 reduction compared to those with lower coverage. The NCO model detected no confounding factors in the association between vaccination and EV71 cases reduction. Conclusions: This study suggested a potential causal effect of the EV71 vaccination, highlighting the importance of achieving higher vaccine coverage to control the HFMD.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 95(2): 523-533, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37545239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported the associations between inflammation, brain volume, and cognition separately. It is reasonable to assume peripheral inflammation may contribute to cognitive decline through brain volume atrophy. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between peripheral inflammation, brain volume, and cognition among adults, and to investigate whether brain volume atrophy mediates the inflammation-cognition relationshipMethods:We retrieved 20,381 participants with available data on peripheral inflammation, brain volume, and cognition from the UK Biobank cohort. Cognitive function was assessed by performance on cognitive tasks probing various cognitive domains. Brain volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multivariable linear models were used to investigate the associations between three peripheral inflammatory indexes (C-reactive protein, systemic immune-inflammatory index, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio), brain volume, and cognition. Mediation analyses were conducted to assess the potential mediating effect of brain volume atrophy. All results were corrected for multiple comparisons using the false-discovery rate (FDR). RESULTS: Peripheral inflammation was inversely associated with grey matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV), and cognition after adjusting for potential covariates. For instance, CRP was associated with the GMV of left parahippocampal gyrus (ß= -0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.06 to -0.04, pFDR =1.07×10-16) and general cognitive factor (ß= -0.03, 95% CI: -0. -0.04 to -0.01, pFDR = 0.001). Brain volume atrophy mediated the inflammation-cognitive decline relationship, accounting for 15-29% of the overall impact. CONCLUSION: In this cohort study, peripheral inflammation was associated with brain volume atrophy and cognitive decline. Brain atrophy may mediate the inflammation-cognitive decline relationship.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Encefalite , Humanos , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Cognição , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Atrofia/patologia , Encefalite/patologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160726, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed the relationship between cold spells and morbidity and mortality due to respiratory diseases, while the detrimental effects of cold spells on the length of hospital stay and hospitalization expenses remain largely unknown. METHODS: We collected hospitalization data for respiratory diseases in 11 cities of Shanxi, China during 2017-2019. In each case, exposure to meteorological variables and air pollution was estimated by the bilinear interpolation approach and inverse distance weighting method, respectively, and then averaged at the city level. Cold spells were defined as the daily mean temperature below the 10th, 7.5th, or 5th percentiles for at least 2 to 5 consecutive days. We applied distributed lag non-linear models combined with generalized additive models to assess cumulative effects and harvesting effects. RESULTS: There were significant associations between cold spells and hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, and hospital expenses for respiratory diseases. Compared with the non-cold spell period, the overall (lag 0-21) cumulative risk of hospitalization for total respiratory diseases was 1.232 (95 % CI: 1.090, 1.394) on cold spell days, and the increased length of hospital stay and hospitalization expenses were 112.793 (95 % CI: 10.755, 214.830) days and 127.568 (95 % CI: 40.513, 214.624) thousand Chinese yuan. The overall cumulative risks of cold spells on total respiratory diseases and pneumonia were statistically significant. We further observed harvesting effects in the associations between cold spells and hospital admission, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization expenses for respiratory diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative cold-spell exposure for up to three weeks is associated with hospitalization, length of hospital stay, and hospital expenses for respiratory diseases. The observed harmful effects of cold spells on respiratory diseases can be partly attributable to harvesting effects.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Transtornos Respiratórios , Doenças Respiratórias , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Temperatura Baixa , Hospitalização , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Hospitais
5.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(35): 779-782, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284603

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: Numerous epidemiological studies have documented the association between ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality and morbidity of respiratory diseases, however, research on the effect of NO2 on the length of hospital stay (LOS) and hospitalization expenditure is limited. What is added by this report?: This study collected the respiratory hospitalization, hospital expenditure, and LOS for respiratory diseases from 2017-2019 in Shanxi, China, and comprehensively evaluated the association between ambient NO2 exposure and respiratory hospitalization, expenditure, and LOS. What are the implications for public health practice?: This study provides evidence on the association between ambient NO2 and respiratory burden, suggesting that continuously reducing the NO2 concentrations could prevent respiratory disease-associated hospital admissions and decrease the relative burden in Shanxi Province and other similar regions.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113082, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases, however, its effect on length of hospital stays (LOS) and cost for these diagnoses remain unclear. METHODS: We collected hospital admission information for respiratory diseases from all 11 cities in the Shanxi Province of China during 2017-2019. We assessed individual-level exposure by using an inverse distance weighting approach based on geocoded residential addresses. A generalized additive model was built to delineate city-specific effects of SO2 on hospitalization, hospital expenditure, and length of hospital stay for respiratory diseases. The overall effects were obtained by random-effects meta-analysis. We further estimated the respiratory burden attributable to SO2 by comparing different reference concentrations. RESULTS: We observed significant effects of SO2 exposure on respiratory diseases. At the provincial level, each 10 µg/m3 increase in SO2 on lag03 was associated with a 0.63% (95% CI: 0.14-0.11) increase in hospital admission, an increase of 4.56 days (95% CI: 1.16-7.95) of hospital stay, and 3647.97 renminbi (RMB, Chinese money) (95% CI: 1091.05-6204.90) in hospital cost. We estimated about 6.13 (95% CI: 1.33-11.10) thousand hospital admissions, 65.77 million RMB (95% CI: 19.67-111.87) in hospital expenditure, and 82.13 (95% CI: 20.87-143.40) thousand days of hospital stay could have potentially been avoided had the daily SO2 concentrations been reduced to WHO's reference concentration (40 µg/m3). Variable values in correspondence with this reference concentration could reduce the hospital cost and LOS of each case by 52.67 RMB (95% CI: 15.75-89.59) and 0.07 days (95% CI: 0.02-0.117). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that short-term ambient SO2 exposure is an important risk factor of respiratory diseases, indicating that continually tightening policies to reduce SO2 levels could effectively reduce respiratory disease burden in Shanxi Province.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Gastos em Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
7.
Environ Res ; 173: 255-261, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change may lead to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and pose public health challenges to human health and the already overloaded healthcare system. It is therefore important to review current knowledge and identify further directions in China, the largest developing country in the world. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between climate variability and infectious disease transmission in China in the new millennium. Literature was identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: climatic variables [temperature, precipitation, rainfall, humidity, etc.] and infectious disease [viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases]. RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles published from January 1, 2000 to May 30, 2018 were included in the final analysis, including bacterial diarrhea, dengue, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, HFRS, HFMD, Schistosomiasis. Each 1 °C rise may lead to 3.6%-14.8% increase in the incidence of bacillary dysentery disease in south China. A 1 °C rise was corresponded to an increase of 1.8%-5.9% in the weekly notified HFMD cases in west China. Each 1 °C rise of temperature, 1% rise in relative humidity and one hour rise in sunshine led to an increase of 0.90%, 3.99% and 0.68% in the monthly malaria cases, respectively. Climate change with the increased temperature and irregular patterns of rainfall may affect the pathogen reproduction rate, their spread and geographical distribution, change human behavior and influence the ecology of vectors, and increase the rate of disease transmission in different regions of China. CONCLUSION: Exploring relevant adaptation strategies and the health burden of climate change will assist public health authorities to develop an early warning system and protect China's population health, especially in the new 1.5 °C scenario of the newly released IPCC special report.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmissíveis , Dengue , Exposição Ambiental , China , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Temperatura
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