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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171852, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518818

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbial catabolism of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is still lacking. Here, we newly isolated a bacterial strain identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 with high efficiency of DBP degradation. The degradation ratios of DBP at 100-1000 mg/L by this strain reached 80-99 % within 72 h without a lag phase. A rare DBP-degradation pathway containing two monobutyl phthalate-catabolism steps was proposed based on intermediates identified by HPLC-TOF-MS/MS. In combination with genomic and transcriptomic analyses, we identified 66 key genes involved in DBP biodegradation and revealed the genetic basis for a new complete catabolic pathway from DBP to Succinyl-CoA or Acetyl-CoA in the genus Pseudomonas for the first time. Notably, we found that a series of homologous genes in Pht and Pca clusters were simultaneously activated under DBP exposure and some key intermediate degradation related gene clusters including Pht, Pca, Xyl, Ben, and Cat exhibited a favorable coexisting pattern, which contributed the high-efficient DBP degradation ability and strong adaptability to this strain. Overall, these results broaden the knowledge of the catabolic diversity of DBP in microorganisms and enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying DBP biodegradation.

2.
Chemosphere ; 352: 141508, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387658

RESUMO

Recycled PET (rPET) is gaining popularity for use in the production of new food contact materials (FCMs) under the context of circular economy. However, the limited information on contaminants in rPET from China and concerns about their potential risk are major obstacles to their use in FCM in China. Fifty-five non-volatile compounds were tentatively identified in 126 batches of hot-washed rPET flakes aimed for food packaging applications in China. Although the 55 substances are not necessarily migratable and may not end up in the contacting media, their presence indicates a need for proper management and control across the value chain. For this reason, the 55 substances prioritized on the basis of level of concerns and in-silico genotoxicity profiler. Among them, dimethoxyethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were classified as level V substances, and Michler's ketone and 4-nitrophenol were both categorized as level V substances and had the genotoxic structure alert, while 2,4,5-trimethylaniline was specified with genotoxic structure alert. The above substances have high priority and may pose a potential risk to human health, therefore special attention should be paid to their migration from rPET. Aside from providing valuable information on non-volatile contaminants present in hot-washed rPET flakes coming from China, this article proposed a prioritization workflow that can be of great help to identify priority substances deserving special attention across the value chain.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reciclagem
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 467: 133663, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325095

RESUMO

Incorporating spent coffee grounds into single-use drinking straws for enhanced biodegradability also raises safety concerns due to increased chemical complexity. Here, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in coffee ground straws (CGS), polylactic acid straws (PLAS), and polypropylene straws (PPS) were characterized using headspace - solid-phase microextraction and migration assays, by which 430 and 153 VOCs of 10 chemical categories were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry, respectively. Further, the VOCs were assessed for potential genetic toxicity by quantitative structure-activity relationship profiling and estimated daily intake (EDI) calculation, revealing that the VOCs identified in the CGS generally triggered the most structural alerts of genetic toxicity, and the EDIs of 37.9% of which exceeded the threshold of 0.15 µg person-1 d-1, also outnumbering that of the PLAS and PPS. Finally, 14 VOCs were prioritized due to their definite hazards, and generally higher EDIs or detection frequencies in the CGS. Meanwhile, the probability of producing safer CGS was also illustrated. Moreover, it was uncovered by chemical space that the VOCs with higher risk potentials tended to gather in the region defined by the molecular descriptor related to electronegativity or octanol/water partition coefficient. Our results provided valuable references to improve the chemical safety of the CGS, to promote consumer health, and to advance the sustainable development of food contact materials.


Assuntos
Café , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Octanóis , Polipropilenos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37831931

RESUMO

The objective was to establish a robust and reliable approach for the characterisation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in food contact paperboard. This was achieved through the utilisation of headspace solid-phase microextraction in tandem with comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC × GC-QTOF-MS). The experimental parameters were optimised, involving the use of a DVB/C-WR/PDMS fibre at a temperature of 80 °C for a duration of 30 min. A total of 344 VOCs comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, esters, alkanes and aromatic compounds, were tentatively identified in the samples. Twelve compounds believed to be from biogenic sources had a high odour impact making them major contributors to potential taint from the paperboard samples. Significant attention should be devoted to five compounds namely, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2-pentyl-furan, furfural, 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol due to their potential adverse impact on the organoleptic qualities of packaged food items and their potential toxicity.Abbreviations: C-WR: carbon wide range; DVB: divinylbenzene; GC-MS: gas chromatography - mass spectrometry; GCxGC-QTOF-MS: comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight - mass spectrometry; HS-SPME: headspace - solid phase microextraction; LOD: limit of detection; LOQ: limit of quantification; OAV: odor activity values; PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane; RI: retention index; TTC: threshold of toxicological concern; VOC: volatile organic compound.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Aldeídos/análise
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37410927

RESUMO

Plastic packaging waste, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has increased significantly in recent decades, arousing a considerable and serious public concern regarding the environment, economy, and policy. Plastic recycling is a useful tool to mitigate this issue. Here, a feasible study was performed to investigate the potential of a novel method for identifying virgin and recycled PET. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was combined with various chemometrics, as a simple and reliable method that achieved a high discrimination rate for 105 batches of virgin PET (v-PET) and recycled PET (r-PET) based on 202 non-volatile organic compounds (NVOCs). Making use of orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) together with non-parametric tests, 26 marker compounds (i.e. 12 intentionally added substances (IAS) and 14 non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) as well as 31 marker compounds (i.e. 11 IAS and 20 NIAS) obtained from positive and combination of positive and negative ionization modes of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, respectively, were successfully identified. Moreover, 100% accuracy was obtained using a decision tree (DT). Cross-discrimination based on misclassified samples using various chemometrics allowed the prediction accuracy to be improved and to identify a large sample set, thus greatly enhancing the application scope of this method. The possible origins of these detected compounds can be the plastic itself, as well as contamination from food, medicine, pesticides, industry-related substances, and degradation and polymerization products. As many of these compounds are toxic, especially those pesticide related, this indicates an urgent requirement for closed loop recycling. Overall, this analytical method provides a quick, accurate, and robust way to distinguish virgin from recycled PET and thus addresses the issue of potential virgin PET adulteration thereby detecting fraud in the area of PET recycling.


Assuntos
Quimiometria , Polietilenotereftalatos , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Plásticos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
6.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 16(3): 209-218, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37102322

RESUMO

Ceramic products are among the most frequently used food contact materials. Health risks associated with ceramic tableware usually arise from the migration of heavy metals. In this study, 767 pieces of ceramic tableware of different shapes and types were collected across China, and the migration levels of 18 elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Migration tests were conducted according to the Chinese National Food Safety Standard - Ceramic Ware (GB 4806.4) with microwaveable and non-microwavable samples under different conditions. The food consumption of consumers via different shapes of ceramic tableware was obtained through a self-reported web-based survey, and the estimated dietary intakes of the studied elements were calculated accordingly. The exposure assessment showed that certain metals leached from the ceramic tableware at levels of concern. In addition, the applicability of the migration experiment conditions for microwaveable ceramic ware in GB 4806.4 needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Medição de Risco , Cerâmica/química , China
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693199

RESUMO

Due to recently introduced 'so-called' bio- and plant-based friendly food contact materials and articles (FCM/FCA), some neglected safety issues need to be raised. In this review, potential chemical contaminants from FCM/FCA made from or containing wood and bamboo are presented. Sources, migration, and analytical issues in determining contaminants including intentionally and non-intentionally added substances (IAS and NIAS, respectively) are reviewed. Most of the contaminants are components from melamine-formaldehyde-resin (MFR), paints and coatings, preservatives, and bleaching agents. Tableware made of MFR containing bamboo fibres as a filler are not always suitable for use as tableware since harmful amounts of melamine and formaldehyde can migrate from the tableware into food and even accelerate the degradation of certain polymers with which they are mixed. In addition, in the EU bamboo in plastic FCM is not authorized under Regulation (EU) 10/2011. Paints and coatings used to provide surface coverage for bamboo and wooden articles also pose a risk of migration of heavy metals. Limits on preservatives in wood FCM are covered by legislation in many countries, nevertheless their contamination should not be ignored. Some wood species are considered 'toxic' or contain 'toxic' constituents that should not be used in contact with food, which are worth considering for legislation. IAS analyses in bamboo and wooden FCM is generally not a problem, but has proven to be more challenging for NIAS. Due to a complex mixture of substances contained in plant-based materials, there is a need to improve databases for non-target screening of such chemicals.


Assuntos
Clareadores , Madeira , Alimentos , Formaldeído , Bases de Dados Factuais , Polímeros , Contaminação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538705

RESUMO

Plastic take-out food containers may release microplastics (MPs) into food and pose a potential risk to food safety and human health. Here, after being subjected to hot water treatment, MPs released from three types of plastic food containers (polypropylene, PP; polyethylene, PE; expanded polystyrene, EPS) were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the size of released MPs ranged from 0.8-38 µm and over 96% MPs were smaller than 10 µm. Various MPs concentrations were found from the three types of containers, that is, 1.90 × 104, 1.01 × 105, and 2.82 × 106 particles/L on average from PP, PE, and EPS, respectively. Moreover, based on thermal and morphology analysis, we discovered that both relaxations of the polymer chains in the rubbery state and defects caused by processing techniques might contribute to the release of MPs. Thus, such release can be reduced by increasing the thermal stability of the materials and mitigating the defects generated during production.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Plásticos/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 445: 130407, 2023 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444813

RESUMO

A comparison was performed on various methods detecting the volatile contaminants (VCs) in recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET) flakes, the results demonstrated that head-space solid phase micro-extraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph-tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-QTOF-MS) was a sensitive, effective, accurate method, and successfully applied to analyze 57 rPET flakes collected from different recycling plants in China. A total of 212 VCs were tentatively identified, and the possible source were associated with plastic, food, and cosmetics. 45 VCs are classified as high-priority compounds with toxicity level IV or V and may pose a risk to human health. Combined chemometrics for further analysis revealed that significant differences among these three geographical recycling regions. 6, 7, and 6 volatile markers were chosen based on VIP values and S-plot among plant1 plant 2 and plant 3, respectively. The markers differed significantly between recycled rPET samples in three geographical recycling regions based on chemometrics analysis. The initial classification rate and cross-validation accuracy were 100% on the identified VCs. These significant differences demonstrate that a systematic study is needed to obtain a comprehensive data on the contamination of rPET for food contact applications in China.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Quimiometria , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Etilenos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129583, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872450

RESUMO

A non-targeted method was developed for screening the semi-volatile compounds of different mechanically recycled PET intended for food contact materials. The data was further analyzed by multiple chemometrics methods to obtain the difference level, and the potential influence factors were investigated. The results showed that total dissolution with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was more effective than other reported methods. Based on the difference level, 97 compounds were characterized into 4 levels. 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone originating from organic solvent was recognized as level IV and could be determined as the primary difference indicator. The contaminant is mainly attributed to the residuum derived from non-food consumer products. The specific types of contaminants and process parameters of the recycling, such as moisture content, properties of rPET, and temperature, were the potential key factors affecting the presence of semi-volatile compounds of mechanically recycled rPET.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Quimiometria , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Reciclagem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129116, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569370

RESUMO

The use of non-decontaminated recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in food packages arouses consumer safety concerns, and thus is a major obstacle hindering PET bottle-to-bottle recycling in many developing regions. Herein, machine learning (ML) algorithms were employed for the discrimination of 127 batches of virgin PET and recycled PET (rPET) samples based on 1247 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tentatively identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. 100% prediction accuracy was achieved for PET discrimination using random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. The features of VOCs bearing high variable contributions to the RF prediction performance characterized by mean decrease Gini and variable importance were summarized as high occurrence rate, dominant appearance and distinct instrument response. Further, RF and SVM were employed for PET discrimination using the simplified input datasets composed of 62 VOCs with the highest contributions to the RF prediction performance derived by the AUCRF algorithm, by which over 99% prediction accuracy was achieved. Our results demonstrated ML algorithms were reliable and powerful to address PET adulteration and were beneficial to boost food-contact applications of rPET bottles.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Etilenos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Ácidos Ftálicos , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127165, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844336

RESUMO

A growing attention is attracted to the use of recycled plastics as food contact materials, and its chemical safety research and discrimination approach are indispensable. In current study, ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) were used to provide spectral and mass fingerprinting for polyethylene (PE). Coupling with chemometrics, two methods were developed to discriminate recycled and virgin PE. UV-Vis combined with chemometrics could be a more accessible, simpler and faster approach. 237-331 nm in UV spectrum was regarded as marker region selected by orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and the accuracy of both calibration and validation set could reach 100% in linear discrimination analysis (LDA) based on this region. Besides, 2314 ions were detected by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and processed by MS-DIAL. 48 candidate chemicals were identified, including ketone, esters, carboxylic acid, alcohols and phenols, amine, nitriles, aldehydes and others. Possible origins of these compounds could be classified as plastic, food, drug, cosmetics and pesticide related. Many of these compounds are highly toxic, especially pesticide related, indicating that recycling in closed loop or sorting by the recycled plastic articles is very necessary if the recycled PE is going to be used as food contact material.


Assuntos
Quimiometria , Polietileno , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477493

RESUMO

Chloropropanols such as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) have drawn increasing attention due to their release from food contact paper and their potential carcinogenic effects. In this study, the effects were investigated of water extraction conditions on release of chloropropanols from food contact paper, and the extraction efficiencies of chloropropanols by water extract and migration method were compared. Cold water was found to be more severe than hot water for extraction of chloropropanols, with the highest water extraction value obtained at 23°C. Two hours of extraction was sufficient as the chloropropanols can be fully extracted from food contact paper within a short period of time. Increase of temperature in the range of 10°C-60°C had little impact on release of chloropropanols, however, the extraction of chloropropanols decreased when high temperatures (80°C or above) were applied due to volatilisation losses. Hence, attention should be paid when choosing extract conditions representing the worst-case scenario. The water extraction value using EN 645 method gives higher results compared to migration test described in GB 31604.1 and GB 5009.156, suggesting that the water extract method was probably more severe. For migration test, aqueous-based simulants were found to be more conservative than oil-based simulants, suggesting the conventional experiment conditions applicable for compliance test of chloropropanols migration can be simplified and optimised.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Papel , alfa-Cloridrina/análogos & derivados , alfa-Cloridrina/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298214

RESUMO

Mineral oil hydrocarbon (MOH) contamination of various foods in the past few decades has raised much concern due to its potential adverse health effects. Since infant formulas (IF) is the major food source for infants, it is necessary to understand MOH contamination level in IF and consequent potential food safety risks. Data on the contamination of IF by mineral oil are lacking in China. On the other hand, the analysis of MOH in food is difficult. There is no harmonised standard analytical method for testing MOHs in IF. GC-FID/MS was chosen as the analytical tool being more convenient for surveys at a national level. Fifty-one IFs comprising dairy milk-based IFs (n = 39) and goat milk-based IFs (n = 12), including different stages (Stage 1, 2 and 3), package type (metal cans and paper boxes) were collected in China market in 2018 for this survey. 17 of 51 IFs were found positive, but trace levels MOAH were found (≤0.7 mg/kg). For the positive samples, all the MOSH and MOAH hump fell into the C16-C25 fraction. MOH humps were found in all the 12 goat milk-based IFs, even 4 samples are reported with quantifiable values which are higher than the method defined LOQ. The highest quantifiable MOH contamination level of goat milk-based IFs were MOSH = 3.5 mg/kg and MOAH = 0.7 mg/kg. Further root cause analysis of contamination is highly recommended to control the MOH contamination for goat milk-based IFs.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Óleo Mineral/análise , Animais , Bovinos , China , Embalagem de Alimentos , Cabras , Humanos , Lactente , Leite/química
15.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671835

RESUMO

In this study, a target analytical approach using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed to simultaneously determine six isothiazolinones containing 2-Methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one (MI), 5-Chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), 2-Octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolinone (OIT), Dichlorooctylisothiazolinone (DCOIT), and 2-methyl-1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (MBIT) in water-based adhesive used for food contact materials. The main factors affecting extraction efficiency such as extraction method, extraction time, extraction solvent, and solid-liquid ratio have been evaluated by using real adhesive samples. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of targeted isothiazolinones. This method was demonstrated as an effective and reliable technique for detecting multiple isothiazolinones with satisfactory recoveries (81.5~107.3%), and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were obtained at a low level. This method was validated and applied to the determination of six isothiazolinones in commercial water-based adhesives. The present results revealed that these adhesives contained a combination of isothiazolinones (BIT, MI, CMI, and MBIT) with the concentration ranging from 2.27 to 123.5 mg/kg. To our knowledge, it is the first time it has been reported that MBIT was detected in water-based adhesives used for food contact materials, which requires a further investigation for its migration to food and the risk to human health.


Assuntos
Adesivos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiazóis/análise , Água/química , Calibragem , Limite de Detecção , Tiazóis/química
16.
Talanta ; 202: 285-296, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171184

RESUMO

Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography (APGC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and electron ionization mass spectrometry together with commercial library search are two complementary techniques for non-target screening of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Optimization was first conducted to achieve easier search of correspondent peaks between the two systems. Analytical strategy for the determination of volatile and semi-volatile compound with different identification confidence levels was then proposed and applied to food contact grade polypropylene (PP) samples. Identification was found to be much easier and less time-consuming especially when correspondent peak was found in the two systems with the help of library search, exact mass of precursor and fragment ions as well as Kovats Index (KI). The behavior of APGC-QTOF-MS was also further investigated. Apart from the M+. ion and the well-known adduct [M+H]+ others such as [M-3H + O]+, [M-3H+2O]+ and [M-H+3O]+ were also observed for n-alkanes. Besides, new reaction products were found, formed by diol compounds (1-Monostearoylglycerol, 2-Monostearoylglycerol and NX 8000K) and silanediol dimethyl, which would be a transformation product of the silicone base septum or the methyl 5% phenyl polysiloxane based column. These new compounds were only detected in APGC-MS-QTOF as EI-GC-MS was not enough sensitive for this purpose.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(41): 7866-7873, 2016 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27661088

RESUMO

The effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the degradation of Irgafos 168 and the migration of its two degradation products, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, from polypropylene (PP) were investigated. A blown film machine was used to extrude PP films containing Irgafos 168, the films were stored in the dark for 45 days, two UV treatments and sunlight exposure were applied to the films, and GC-MS was used for degradation and migration studies. Extrusion, storage, UV treatments, and sunlight exposure significantly affected concentrations of Irgafos 168 and the degradation products. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was the major degradation product produced by UV irradiation, but tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate was the major degradation product produced by extrusion, storage, and sunlight exposure. The degradation products have no or little health risk, because migration study and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) analysis show that experimental maximum migration of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate are only 2 and 53% of the theoretical maximum migration amounts, respectively.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636863

RESUMO

Three nanocopper/low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composite films were tested in food simulants (3% acetic acid and 10% ethanol) and real food matrices (rice vinegar, bottled water and Chinese liquor) to explore the behaviours of copper migration using ICP-OES and GFAAS. The effects of exposure time, temperature, nanocopper concentration and contact media on the release of copper from nanocopper/LDPE composite films were studied. It was shown that the migration of copper into 10% ethanol was much less than that into 3% acetic acid at the same conditions. With the increase of nanocopper concentration, exposure time and temperature, the release of copper increased. Copper migration does not appear to be significant in the case of bottled water and Chinese liquor compared with rice vinegar with a maximum value of 0.54 µg mL-1 for the CF-0.25# bags at 70°C for 2 h. The presence and morphology of copper nanoparticles in the films and the topographical changes of the films were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In this manner, copper nanoparticles of different morphologies, sizes and distribution were found, and samples with higher nanocopper concentration had a more irregular topography. In the case of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), no chemical bonds formed between copper nanoparticles and LDPE. Copper nanoparticles were just as physically dispersed in LDPE.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polietileno/química
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24666013

RESUMO

An analytical method based on ICP-MS was developed for the determination of Ti in food simulants (3% (w/v) aqueous acetic acid and 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol). The method was used to determine the migration of Ti from nano-TiO2-PE films used for food packaging into food simulants under different temperature and migration time conditions. The maximum migration amounts into 3% (w/v) aqueous acetic acid were 1.4 ± 0.02, 6.3 ± 0.5 and 12.1 ± 0.2 µg kg(-1) at 25, 70 and 100°C, respectively, while into 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, the maximum migration amounts were 0.5 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.03 and 2.1 ± 0.1 µg kg(-1) at 25, 70 and 100°C, respectively. Increasing the additive content in the film promoted migration of nanoparticles. The results indicated that the migration of nanoparticles might occur via dissolution from the surface and cut edges of the solid phase (film) into the liquid phase (food simulant).


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Titânio/análise , Ácido Acético , Etanol , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocompostos/química , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietileno , Titânio/toxicidade , Água
20.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 26(1): 109-10, 116, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16495190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine organochlorine pesticide residue in 9 Chinese herbs. METHODS: The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the herbs with mixed solvents of n-hexane and acetone by a solid-phase extraction cartridge Florisil. Capillary gas chromatography was used to separate the samples. RESULTS: Good linearities were obtained for 11 organochlorine pesticides. The average recoveries at two concentration levels ranged from 79.9% to 89.0%,and from 86.3% to 104.8%, with relative standard deviations of 1.8% to 7.1%, respectively and detection limit of 2 g/kg. The residues of the organic pesticides exceeded national standard in Pogostemon cablin and Panax notoginseng. CONCLUSION: Capillary gas chromatography combined with electron capture detection provides a practical means for detecting organic pesticide residue in Chinese herbal medicines, and the limits of pesticide residues should be formulated in Chinese pharmacopoeia.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa
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