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1.
Respir Med ; : 107611, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benralizumab is indicated as add-on therapy in patients with uncontrolled, severe eosinophilic asthma; it has not yet been evaluated in a large Asian population with asthma in a clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of benralizumab in patients with severe asthma in Asia. METHODS: MIRACLE (NCT03186209) was a randomized, Phase 3 study in China, South Korea, and the Philippines. Patients aged 12-75 years with severe asthma receiving medium-to-high-dose inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ß2-agonists, stratified (2:1) by baseline blood eosinophil count (bEOS) (≥300/µL; <300/µL), were randomized (1:1) to benralizumab 30 mg or placebo. Endpoints included annual asthma exacerbation rate (AAER; primary endpoint), change from baseline at Week 48 in pre-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (pre-BD FEV1) and total asthma symptom score (TASS). Safety was evaluated ≤ Week 56. RESULTS: Of 695 patients randomized, 473 had baseline bEOS ≥300/µL (benralizumab n = 236; placebo n = 237). In this population, benralizumab significantly reduced AAER by 74% (rate ratio 0.26 [95% CI 0.19, 0.36], p < 0.0001) and significantly improved pre-BD FEV1 (least squares difference [LSD] 0.25 L [95% CI 0.17, 0.34], p < 0.0001) and TASS (LSD -0.25 [-0.45, -0.05], p = 0.0126) versus placebo. In patients with baseline bEOS <300/µL, there were numerical improvements in AAER, pre-BD FEV1, and TASS with benralizumab versus placebo. The frequency of adverse events was similar for benralizumab (76%) and placebo (80%) in the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: MIRACLE data reinforces the efficacy and safety of benralizumab for severe eosinophilic asthma in an Asian population, consistent with the global Phase 3 results.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 71: 102582, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618202

RESUMO

Background: GST-HG171 is a potent, broad-spectrum, orally bioavailable small-molecule 3C like protease inhibitor that has demonstrated greater potency and efficacy compared to Nirmatrelvir in pre-clinical studies. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally administered GST-HG171 plus Ritonavir in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected with emerging XBB and non-XBB variants. Methods: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial was conducted in 47 sites in China among adult patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 with symptoms onset ≤72 h. Eligible patients were randomised 1:1 to receive GST-HG171 (150 mg) plus Ritonavir (100 mg) or corresponding placebo tablets twice daily for 5 days, with stratification factors including the risk level of disease progression and vaccination status. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to sustained recovery of clinical symptoms within 28 days, defined as a score of 0 for 11 COVID-19-related target symptoms for 2 consecutive days, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05656443) and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2200067088). Findings: Between Dec 19, 2022, and May 4, 2023, 1525 patients were screened. Among 1246 patients who underwent randomisation, most completed basic (21.2%) or booster (74.9%) COVID-19 immunization, and most had a low risk of disease progression at baseline. 610 of 617 who received GST-HG171 plus Ritonavir and 603 of 610 who received placebo were included in the mITT population. Patients who received GST-HG171 plus Ritonavir showed shortened median time to sustained recovery of clinical symptoms compared to the placebo group (13.0 days [95.45% confidence interval 12.0-15.0] vs. 15.0 days [14.0-15.0], P = 0.031). Consistent results were observed in both SARS-CoV-2 XBB (45.7%, 481/1053 of mITT population) and non-XBB variants (54.3%, 572/1053 of mITT population) subgroups. Incidence of adverse events was similar in the GST-HG171 plus Ritonavir (320/617, 51.9%) and placebo group (298/610, 48.9%). The most common adverse events in both placebo and treatment groups were hypertriglyceridaemia (10.0% vs. 14.7%). No deaths occurred. Interpretation: Treatment with GST-HG171 plus Ritonavir has demonstrated benefits in symptom recovery and viral clearance among low-risk vaccinated adult patients with COVID-19, without apparent safety concerns. As most patients were treated within 2 days after symptom onset in our study, confirming the potential benefits of symptom recovery for patients with a longer duration between symptom onset and treatment initiation will require real-world studies. Funding: Fujian Akeylink Biotechnology Co., Ltd.

3.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe influenza virus-infected patients have high systemic levels of Th1 cytokines (including IFN-γ). Intrapulmonary IFN-γ increases pulmonary IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes through the CXCR3 pathway. Virus-infected mice lacking IP-10/CXCR3 demonstrate lower pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation. AMG487, an IP-10/CXCR3 antagonist, ameliorates virus-induced lung injury in vivo through decreasing viral loads. This study examined whether AMG487 could treat H1N1 virus-induced mouse illness through reducing viral loads or decreasing the number of lymphocytes or neutrophils. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Here, we studied the above-mentioned effects and underlying mechanisms in vivo. KEY RESULTS: H1N1 virus infection caused bad overall condition and pulmonary inflammation characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils. From Day-5 to Day-10 post-virus infection, bad overall condition, pulmonary lymphocytes, and IFN-γ concentrations increased, while pulmonary H1N1 viral titres and neutrophils decreased. Both anti-IFN-γ and AMG487 alleviated virus infection-induced bad overall condition and pulmonary lymphocytic inflammation. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation was mitigated by AMG487 on Day-5 post-infection, but was not mitigated by AMG487 on Day-10 post-infection. H1N1 virus induced increases of IFN-γ, IP-10, and IFN-γ-producing lymphocytes and activation of the Jak2-Stat1 pathways in mouse lungs, which were inhibited by AMG487. Anti-IFN-γ decreased IFN-γ and IFN-γ-producing lymphocytes on Day-5 post-infection. AMG487 but not anti-IFN-γ decreased viral titres in mouse lung homogenates or BALF. Higher virus load did not increase pulmonary inflammation and IFN-γ concentrations when mice were treated with AMG487. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: AMG487 may ameliorate H1N1 virus-induced pulmonary inflammation through decreasing IFN-γ-producing lymphocytes rather than reducing viral loads or neutrophils.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 9(1): 74, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528022

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection disrupts the epithelial barrier and triggers airway inflammation. The envelope (E) protein, a core virulence structural component of coronaviruses, may play a role in this process. Pathogens could interfere with transepithelial Cl- transport via impairment of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which modulates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. However, the pathological effects of SARS-CoV-2 E protein on airway epithelial barrier function, Cl- transport and the robust inflammatory response remain to be elucidated. Here, we have demonstrated that E protein down-regulated the expression of tight junctional proteins, leading to the disruption of the airway epithelial barrier. In addition, E protein triggered the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4 and downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, resulting in an increased intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) via up-regulating phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) expression in airway epithelial cells. This elevated [Cl-]i contributed to the heightened airway inflammation through promoting the phosphorylation of serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, blockade of SGK1 or PDE4 alleviated the robust inflammatory response induced by E protein. Overall, these findings provide novel insights into the pathogenic role of SARS-CoV-2 E protein in airway epithelial damage and the ongoing airway inflammation during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 9(4): 1075-1088, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553607

RESUMO

Although vaccines are available for SARS-CoV-2, antiviral drugs such as nirmatrelvir are still needed, particularly for individuals in whom vaccines are less effective, such as the immunocompromised, to prevent severe COVID-19. Here we report an α-ketoamide-based peptidomimetic inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), designated RAY1216. Enzyme inhibition kinetic analysis shows that RAY1216 has an inhibition constant of 8.4 nM and suggests that it dissociates about 12 times slower from Mpro compared with nirmatrelvir. The crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro:RAY1216 complex shows that RAY1216 covalently binds to the catalytic Cys145 through the α-ketoamide group. In vitro and using human ACE2 transgenic mouse models, RAY1216 shows antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 variants comparable to those of nirmatrelvir. It also shows improved pharmacokinetics in mice and rats, suggesting that RAY1216 could be used without ritonavir, which is co-administered with nirmatrelvir. RAY1216 has been approved as a single-component drug named 'leritrelvir' for COVID-19 treatment in China.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Cinética , Lactamas , Nitrilas , Camundongos Transgênicos
6.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(4): 1201-1211, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457660

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the second-most contagious killer after COVID-19. The emergence of drug-resistant TB has caused a great need to identify and develop new anti-TB drugs with novel targets. Indole propionic acid (IPA), a structural analog of tryptophan (Trp), is active against M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo. It has been verified that IPA exerts its antimicrobial effect by mimicking Trp as an allosteric inhibitor of TrpE, which is the first enzyme in the Trp synthesis pathway of M. tuberculosis. However, other Trp structural analogs, such as indolmycin, also target tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS), which has two functions in bacteria: synthesis of tryptophanyl-AMP by catalyzing ATP + Trp and producing Trp-tRNATrp by transferring Trp to tRNATrp. So, we speculate that IPA may also target TrpRS. In this study, we found that IPA can dock into the Trp binding pocket of M. tuberculosis TrpRS (TrpRSMtb), which was further confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay. The biochemical analysis proved that TrpRS can catalyze the reaction between IPA and ATP to generate pyrophosphate (PPi) without Trp as a substrate. Overexpression of wild-type trpS in M. tuberculosis increased the MIC of IPA to 32-fold, and knock-down trpS in Mycolicibacterium smegmatis made it more sensitive to IPA. The supplementation of Trp in the medium abrogated the inhibition of M. tuberculosis by IPA. We demonstrated that IPA can interfere with the function of TrpRS by mimicking Trp, thereby impeding protein synthesis and exerting its anti-TB effect.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Propionatos , Triptofano-tRNA Ligase , Tuberculose , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Triptofano-tRNA Ligase/genética , Triptofano-tRNA Ligase/química , Triptofano-tRNA Ligase/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência de Triptofano/metabolismo , Indóis/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina
7.
J Thorac Dis ; 16(2): 1313-1323, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505014

RESUMO

Background: The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly transmissible but causes less severe disease compared to other variants. However, its association with sepsis incidence and outcomes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Omicron-associated sepsis, as per the Sepsis 3.0 definition, in hospitalized patients, and to explore its relationship with clinical characteristics and prognosis. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included adults hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection across six tertiary hospitals in Guangzhou, China from November 2022 to January 2023. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and its components were calculated at hospital admission to identify sepsis. Outcomes assessed were need for intensive care unit (ICU) transfer and mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves evaluated the predictive value of sepsis versus other biomarkers for outcomes. Results: A total of 299 patients (mean age: 70.1±14.4 years, 42.14% female) with SOFA score were enrolled. Among them, 152 were categorized as non-serious cases while the others were assigned as the serious group. The proportion of male patients, unvaccinated patients, patients with comorbidity such as diabetes, chronic cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease was significantly higher in the serious than non-serious group. The median SOFA score of all enrolled patients was 1 (interquartile range, 0-18). In our study, 147 patients (64.19%) were identified as having sepsis upon hospital admission, with the majority of these septic patients (113, representing 76.87%) being in the serious group, the respiratory, coagulation, cardiovascular, central nervous, and renal organ SOFA scores were all significantly higher in the serious compared to the non-serious group. Among septic patients, 20 out of 49 (40.81%) had septic shock as indicated by lactate measurement within 24 hours of admission, and the majority of septic patients were in the serious group (17/20, 76.87%). Sepsis was present in 118 out of 269 (43.9%) patients in the general ward, and among those with sepsis, 34 out of 118 (28.8%) later required ICU care during hospitalization. By contrast, none of the patients without sepsis required ICU care. Moreover, the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with than without sepsis. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of patients infected with Omicron present with sepsis upon hospital admission, which is associated with a poorer prognosis. Therefore, early recognition of viral sepsis by evaluation of the SOFA score in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients is crucial.

8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onradivir (ZSP1273) is a novel anti-influenza A virus inhibitor. Preclinical studies show that onradivir can inhibit influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 replication and increase the survival rate of infected animals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of three onradivir dosing regimens versus placebo in outpatients with acute uncomplicated influenza A virus infection. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 20 clinical sites in China. Eligible participants were adults (18-65 years) with an influenza-like illness screened by rapid antigen testing at the first clinical visit, had the presence of a fever (axillary temperature ≥38·0°C), and had the presence of at least one moderate systemic and one respiratory symptom within 48 h of symptom onset. Patients were excluded if they were pregnant, allergic to onradivir, or had received any influenza antiviral medication within 7 days before enrolment. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) into four groups by an interactive web response system: onradivir 200 mg twice per day group, onradivir 400 mg twice per day group, onradivir 600 mg once per day group, and a matching placebo group. A 5-day oral treatment course was initiated within 48 h after symptoms onset. The primary outcome was the time to alleviate influenza symptoms in the modified intention-to-treat population. Safety was a secondary outcome. We evaluated the patients' self-assessed severity of seven influenza symptoms on a 4-point ordinal scale, and the treatment-emergent adverse events in all patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04024137. FINDINGS: Between Dec 7, 2019, and May 18, 2020, a total of 205 patients were screened; of whom, 172 (84%) were randomly assigned to receive onradivir (n=43 in the 200 mg twice per day group; n=43 in the 400 mg twice per day group; and n=43 in the 600 mg once per day group), or placebo (n=42). Median age was 22 years (IQR 20-26). All three onradivir groups showed decreased median time to alleviate influenza symptoms (46·92 h [IQR 24·00-81·38] in the 200 mg twice per day group, 54·87 h [23·67-110·62] in the 400 mg twice per day group, and 40·05 h [17·70-65·82] in the 600 mg once per day) compared with the placebo group (62·87 h [36·40-113·25]). The median difference between the onradivir 600 mg once per day group and the placebo group was -22·82 h (p=0·0330). The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse event was diarrhoea (71 [42%] of 171), ranging from 33-65% of the patients in onradivir-treated groups compared with 10% in the placebo group; no serious adverse events were observed. INTERPRETATION: Onradivir showed a safety profile comparable to placebo, as well as higher efficacy than placebo in ameliorating influenza symptoms and lowering the viral load in adult patients with uncomplicated influenza infection, especially the onradivir 600 mg once per day regimen. FUNDING: National Multidisciplinary Innovation Team Project of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation, Guangzhou Science and Technology Planning Project, Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory, Macao Science and Technology Development Fund, and Guangdong Raynovent Biotech.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(734): eadi3360, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354225

RESUMO

Adult lung resident stem/progenitor cells, including P63+ progenitor cells, have demonstrated the capacity for regeneration of lung epithelium in preclinical models. Here, we report a clinical trial of intrapulmonary P63+ progenitor cell transplantation in 28 participants with stage II to IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Autologous P63+ progenitor cells were isolated from the airway basal layer of participants in the intervention group via bronchoscopic brushing, cultured for 3 to 5 weeks, and then transplanted back into the lungs via bronchoscopy at 0.7 × 106 to 5.2 × 106 cells per kilogram of body weight. Twenty patients were evaluable at the end of the study (intervention group, n = 17; control group, n = 3). No grade 3 to 5 adverse events (AEs) or serious AEs occurred. Although bronchoscopy-associated AEs were recorded in participants in the intervention group, other AEs were not substantial different between groups. Twenty-four weeks after transplantation, participants in the intervention group displayed improvement in gas transfer capacity [diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) change from baseline: +18.2%], whereas the control group experienced a decrease (DLCO change from baseline: -17.4%; P = 0.008). Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed >30-meter increase in walking distance within 6 minutes. Transcriptomic analysis of progenitor cells isolated from responding and nonresponding individuals in the intervention group showed that higher expression of P63 was associated with treatment efficacy. In conclusion, transplantation of cultured P63+ lung progenitor cells was safe and might represent a potential therapeutic strategy for COPD.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Transplante Autólogo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
11.
J Med Virol ; 96(1): e29417, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258345

RESUMO

The EG.5.1 variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been prevalent since mid-July 2023 in the United States and China. The variant BA.2.86 has become a major concern because it is 34 mutations away from the parental variant BA.2 and >30 mutations from XBB.1.5. There is an urgent need to evaluate whether the immunity of the population and current vaccines are protective against EG.5.1 and BA.2.86. Based on a cohort of two breakthrough-infected groups, the levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against different subvariants were measured using pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. XBB.1.5, EG.5.1, and BA.2.86 are comparably immune-evasive from neutralization by the plasma of individuals recovered from BA.5 infection (BA.5-convalescent) or XBB.1.9.2/XBB.1.5 infection following BA.5 infection (BA.5-XBB-convalescent). NAb levels against EG.5.1 and BA.2.86 subvariants remained >120 geometric mean titers (GMTs) in BA.5-XBB-convalescent individuals 2 months postinfection but were <40 GMTs in BA.5-convalescent individuals. Furthermore, the XBB-targeting messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine RQ3033 induced higher levels of NAbs against XBB.1.5, EG.5.1, and BA.2.86 than against BA.5-XBB infection. The results suggest that BA.2.86 and EG.5.1 are unlikely to cause more severe concerns than the currently circulating XBB subvariants and that the XBB.1.5-targeting mRNA vaccine tested has promising protection against EG.5.1 and BA.2.86.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Plasma , Humanos , China , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2/genética
12.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 14, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered a plausible contributor to the onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mechanistic studies are needed to augment the causality of epidemiologic findings. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a model PM2.5, causes COPD-like pathophysiologic alterations, consequently leading to the development of specific disease phenotypes. Sprague Dawley rats, representing healthy lungs, were randomly assigned to inhale filtered clean air or DEP at a steady-state concentration of 1.03 mg/m3 (mass concentration), 4 h per day, consecutively for 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively. Pulmonary inflammation, morphologies and function were examined. RESULTS: Black carbon (a component of DEP) loading in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in rats following DEP exposures of different durations, indicating that DEP deposited and accumulated in the peripheral lung. Total wall areas (WAt) of small airways, but not of large airways, were significantly increased following DEP exposures, compared to those following filtered air exposures. Consistently, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in peripheral lung was elevated following DEP exposures. Fibrosis areas surrounding the small airways and content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue increased significantly following 4-week and 8-week DEP exposure as compared to the filtered air controls. In addition, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretions were evident in small airways following 4-week and 8-week DEP exposures. Lung resistance and total lung capacity were significantly increased following DEP exposures. Serum levels of two oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA and 8-OHdG) were significantly increased. A dramatical recruitment of eosinophils (14.0-fold increase over the control) and macrophages (3.2-fold increase) to the submucosa area of small airways was observed following DEP exposures. CONCLUSIONS: DEP exposures over the courses of 2 to 8 weeks induced COPD-like pathophysiology in rats, with characteristic small airway remodeling, mucus hypersecretion, and eosinophilic inflammation. The results provide insights on the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which PM2.5 exposures cause COPD especially the eosinophilic phenotype.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Ratos , Animais , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente
13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 67: 102359, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38188690

RESUMO

Background: Leritrelvir is a novel α-ketoamide based peptidomimetic inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 main protease. A preclinical study has demonstrated leritrelvir poses similar antiviral activities towards different SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with nirmatrelvir. A phase 2 clinical trial has shown a comparable antiviral efficacy and safety between leritrelvir with and without ritonavir co-administration. This trial aims to test efficacy and safety of leritrelvir monotherapy in adults with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Methods: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre phase 3 trial at 29 clinical sites in China. Enrolled patients were from 18 to 75 years old, diagnosed with mild or moderate COVID-19 and not requiring hospitalization. Patients had a positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test (NAT) and at least one of the COVID-19 symptoms within 48 h before randomization, and the interval between the first positive SARS-CoV-2 NAT and randomization was ≤120 h (5 days). Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a 5-day course of either oral leritrelvir 400 mg TID or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time from the first dose to sustained clinical recovery of all 11 symptoms (stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, shortness of breath or dyspnea, cough, muscle or body aches, headache, chills, fever ≥37 °C, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea). The safety endpoint was the incidence of adverse events (AE). Primary and safety analyses were performed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05620160. Findings: Between Nov 12 and Dec 30, 2022 when the zero COVID policy was abolished nationwide, a total of 1359 patients underwent randomization, 680 were assigned to leritrelvir group and 679 to placebo group. The median time to sustained clinical recovery in leritrelvir group was significantly shorter (251.02 h [IQR 188.95-428.68 h]) than that of Placebo (271.33 h [IQR 219.00-529.63 h], P = 0.0022, hazard ratio [HR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.35). Further analysis of subgroups for the median time to sustained clinical recovery revealed that (1) subgroup with positive viral nucleic acid tested ≤72 h had a 33.9 h difference in leritrelvir group than that of placebo; (2) the subgroup with baseline viral load >8 log 10 Copies/mL in leritrelvir group had 51.3 h difference than that of placebo. Leritrelvir reduced viral load by 0.82 log10 on day 4 compared to placebo. No participants in either group progressed to severe COVID-19 by day 29. Adverse events were reported in two groups: leritrelvir 315 (46.46%) compared with placebo 292 (43.52%). Treatment-relevant AEs were similar 218 (32.15%) in the leritrelvir group and 186 (27.72%) in placebo. Two cases of COVID-19 pneumonia were reported in placebo group, and one case in leritrelvir group, none of them were considered by the investigators to be leritrelvir related. The most frequently reported AEs (occurring in ≥5% of participants in at least one group) were laboratory finding: hypertriglyceridemia (leritrelvir 79 [11.7%] vs. placebo 70 [10.4%]) and hyperlipidemia (60 [8.8%] vs. 52 [7.7%]); all of them were nonserious. Interpretation: Leritrelvir monotherapy has good efficacy for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and without serious safety concerns. Funding: This study was funded by the National Multidisciplinary Innovation Team Project of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation, Guangzhou Science and Technology Planning Project and R&D Program of Guangzhou Laboratory.

14.
Respir Med ; 222: 107527, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically important deterioration (CID) is a composite endpoint used to holistically assess the complex progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tiotropium improves lung function and reduces the rate of COPD exacerbations in patients with COPD of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate). However, whether tiotropium reduces CID risk in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD remains unclear. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of the 24-month Tie-COPD study comparing 18 µg tiotropium with placebo in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. CID was defined as a decrease of ≥100 mL in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s, an increase of ≥2 unit in COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score, or moderate-to-severe exacerbation. The time to the first occurrence of one of these events was recorded as the time to the first CID. Subgroup analyses were conducted among patients stratified by CAT score, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score, and GOLD stage at baseline. RESULTS: Of the 841 randomized patients, 771 were included in the full analysis set. Overall, 643 patients (83.4 %) experienced at least one CID event. Tiotropium significantly reduced the CID risk and delayed the time to first CID compared with placebo (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.58, 95 % confidence interval = 0.49-0.68, P < 0.001). Significant reductions in CID risk were also observed in various subgroups, including patients with a CAT score <10, mMRC score <2, and mild COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Tiotropium reduced CID risk in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, even in patients with fewer respiratory symptoms or mild disease, which highlights tiotropium's effectiveness in treating COPD patients with mild disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Tie-COPD, NCT01455129).


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Med ; 5(1): 32-41.e5, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent outbreaks of avian influenza and ongoing virus reassortment have drawn focus on spill-over infections. The increase in human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus and its high fatality rate posed a potential threat, necessitating the search for a more effective treatment. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical data and specimens were collected from five H5N6 patients after admission. All patients received antiviral treatment of either sequential monotherapy of oseltamivir and baloxavir or the two drugs in combination. Severity of illness; viral load in sputum, urine, and blood; and cytokine levels in serum and sputum were serially analyzed. FINDINGS: All patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and viral sepsis within 1 week after disease onset. When delayed oseltamivir showed poor effects, baloxavir was administered and rapidly decreased viral load. In addition, levels of IL-18, M-CSF, IL-6, and HGF in sputum and Mig and IL-18 in serum that reflected ARDS and sepsis deterioration, respectively, were also reduced with baloxavir usage. However, three patients eventually died from exacerbation of underlying disease and secondary bacterial infection. Nonsurvivors had more severe extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and insufficient H5N6 virus-specific antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: For critical human cases of H5N6 infection, baloxavir demonstrated effects on viral load and pulmonary/extrapulmonary cytokines, even though treatment was delayed. Baloxavir could be regarded as a first-line treatment to limit continued viral propagation, with potential future application in avian influenza human infections and poultry workers exhibiting influenza-like illness. FUNDING: This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81761128014).


Assuntos
Dibenzotiepinas , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Morfolinas , Piridonas , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Sepse , Triazinas , Animais , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-18/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
16.
EBioMedicine ; 99: 104903, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of previous vaccination on protective immunity, duration, and immune imprinting in the context of BA.5-XBB.1.9.1 reinfection remains unknown. METHODS: Based on a 2-year longitudinal cohort from vaccination, BA.5 infection and XBB reinfection, several immune effectors, including neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), virus-specific T cell immunity were measured to investigate the impact of previous vaccination on host immunity induced by BA.5 breakthrough infection and BA.5-XBB.1.9.1 reinfection. FINDINGS: In absence of BA.5 Nabs, plasma collected 3 months after receiving three doses of inactivated vaccine (I-I-I) showed high ADCC that protected hACE2-K18 mice from fatality and significantly reduced viral load in the lungs and brain upon BA.5 challenge, compared to plasma collected 12 months after I-I-I. Nabs against XBB.1.9.1 induced by BA.5 breakthrough infection were low at day 14 and decreased to a GMT of 10 at 4 months and 28% (9/32) had GMT ≤4, among whom 67% (6/9) were reinfected with XBB.1.9.1 within 1 month. However, 63% (20/32) were not reinfected with XBB.1.9.1 at 5 months post BA.5 infection. Interestingly, XBB.1.9.1 reinfection increased Nabs against XBB.1.9.1 by 24.5-fold at 14 days post-reinfection, which was much higher than that against BA.5 (7.3-fold) and WT (4.5-fold), indicating an immune imprinting shifting from WT to XBB antigenic side. INTERPRETATION: Overall, I-I-I can provide protection against BA.5 infection and elicit rapid immune response upon BA.5 infection. Furthermore, BA.5 breakthrough infection effectively protects against XBB.1.9.1 lasting more than 5 months, and XBB.1.9.1 reinfection results in immune imprinting shifting from WT antigen induced by previous vaccination to the new XBB.1.9.1 antigen. These findings strongly suggest that future vaccines should target variant strain antigens, replacing prototype strain antigens. FUNDING: This study was supported by R&D Program of Guangzhou National Laboratory (SRPG23-005), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2022YFC2604104, 2019YFC0810900), S&T Program of Guangzhou Laboratory (SRPG22-006), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (81971485, 82271801, 81970038), Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory (EKPG21-30-3), Zhongnanshan Medical Foundation of Guangdong Province (ZNSA-2020013), and State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease (J19112006202304).


Assuntos
Infecções Irruptivas , Reinfecção , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Encéfalo , Anticorpos Antivirais
17.
Virol J ; 20(1): 277, 2023 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38017515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a randomized trial, Lianhuaqingwen (LHQW) capsule was effective for accelerating symptom recovery among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the lack of blinding and limited sample sizes decreased the level of clinical evidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of LHQW capsule in adults with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial in adults with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 (17 sites from China, Thailand, Philippine and Vietnam). Patients received standard-of-care alone or plus LHQW capsules (4 capsules, thrice daily) for 14 days. The primary endpoint was the median time to sustained clinical improvement or resolution of nine major symptoms. RESULTS: The full-analysis set consisted of 410 patients in LHQW capsules and 405 in placebo group. LHQW significantly shortened the primary endpoint in the full-analysis set (4.0 vs. 6.7 days, hazards ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.39-1.90). LHQW capsules shortened the median time to sustained clinical improvement or resolution of stuffy or runny nose (2.8 vs. 3.7 days), sore throat (2.0 vs. 2.6 days), cough (3.2 vs. 4.9 days), feeling hot or feverish (1.0 vs. 1.3 days), low energy or tiredness (1.3 vs. 1.9 days), and myalgia (1.5 vs. 2.0 days). The duration to sustained clinical improvement or resolution of shortness of breath, headache, and chills or shivering did not differ significantly between the two groups. Safety was comparable between the two groups. No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: LHQW capsules promote recovery of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 via accelerating symptom resolution and were well tolerated. Trial registration ChiCTR2200056727 .


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Adulto , Humanos , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(6): e0280923, 2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37831477

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) play a key role in the treatment regimens against tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. However, there are significant differences in the sensitivities of different mycobacteria to FQs. In this study, we proved that this is associated with the polymorphism at amino acid 17 of quinolone resistance-determining region of Gyrase A by gene editing. This is the first study using CRISPR-associated recombination for gene editing in Mycobacterium abscessus to underscore the contribution of the amino acid substitutions in GyrA to FQ susceptibilities in mycobacteria.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Aminoácidos , DNA Girase/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética
19.
Food Funct ; 14(21): 9841-9856, 2023 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37850547

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and characterized by emphysema, small airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion. Citrus peels have been widely used as food spices and in traditional Chinese medicine for chronic lung disease. Given that citrus peels are known for containing antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, we hypothesize that citrus peel intake can suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory response to air pollution exposure, thereby alleviating COPD-like pathologies. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of citrus peel extract, namely Guang Chenpi (GC), in preventing the development of COPD induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and its potential mechanism. DEP-induced COPD-like lung pathologies, inflammatory responses and oxidative stress with or without GC treatment were examined in vivo and in vitro. Our in vivo study showed that GC was effective in decreasing inflammatory cell counts and inflammatory mediator (IL-17A and TNF-α) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pretreatment with GC extract also significantly decreased oxidative stress in the serum and lung tissue of DEP-induced COPD rats. Furthermore, GC pretreatment effectively reduced goblet cell hyperplasia (PAS positive cells) and fibrosis of the small airways, decreased macrophage infiltration as well as carbon loading in the peripheral lungs, and facilitated the resolution of emphysema and small airway remodeling in DEP-induced COPD rats. An in vitro free radical scavenging assay revealed robust antioxidant potential of GC in scavenging DPPH free radicals. Moreover, GC demonstrated potent capacities in reducing ROS production and enhancing SOD activity in BEAS-2B cells stimulated by DEPs. GC treatment significantly attenuated the increased level of IL-8 and MUC5AC from DEP-treated BEAS-2B cells. Mechanistically, GC treatment upregulated the protein level of Nrf-2 and could function via MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways by suppressing the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and p65. Citrus peel extract is effective in decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses of the peripheral lungs to DEP exposure. These protective effects further contributed to the resolution of COPD-like pathologies.


Assuntos
Citrus , Enfisema , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Ratos , Animais , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Citrus/metabolismo , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Enfisema/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6762, 2023 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875475

RESUMO

A pan-sarbecovirus or pan-betacoronavirus vaccine that can prevent current and potential future beta-coronavirus infections is important for fighting possible future pandemics. Here, we report a mucosal vaccine that cross-protects small animal models from sarbecoviruses including SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. The vaccine comprises a live-but-defective SARS-CoV-2 virus that is envelope deficient and has the orf8 segment replaced by interferon-beta, hence named Interferon Beta Integrated SARS-CoV-2 (IBIS) vaccine. Nasal vaccination with IBIS protected mice from lethal homotypic SARS-CoV-2 infection and hamsters from co-housing-mediated transmission of homotypic virus. Moreover, IBIS provided complete protection against heterotypic sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants, and SARS-CoV-1 in both mice and hamsters. Besides inducing a strong lung CD8 + T cell response, IBIS specifically heightened the activation of mucosal virus-specific CD4 + T cells compared to the interferon-null vaccine. The direct production of interferon by IBIS also suppressed virus co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 in human cells, reducing the risk of genetic recombination when using as live vaccines. Altogether, IBIS is a next-generation pan-sarbecovirus vaccine and warrants further clinical investigations.


Assuntos
Interferons , Coronavírus Relacionado à Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Cricetinae , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Interferon beta , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Atenuadas , Modelos Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
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