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medRxiv ; 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746260


Background: The prevalence of co-occurring heavy alcohol consumption and obesity is increasing in the United States. Despite neurobiological overlap in the regulation of alcohol consumption and eating behavior, alcohol- and body mass index (BMI)-related phenotypes show no or minimal genetic correlation. We hypothesized that the lack of genetic correlation is due to mixed effect directions of variants shared by AUD and BMI. Methods: We applied MiXeR, to investigate shared genetic architecture between AUD and BMI in individuals of European ancestry. We used conjunctional false discovery rate (conjFDR) analysis to detect loci associated with both phenotypes and their directional effect, Functional Mapping and Annotation (FUMA) to identify lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) samples to examine gene expression enrichment across tissue types, and BrainXcan to evaluate the shared associations of AUD and BMI with brain image-derived phenotypes. Results: MiXeR analysis indicated polygenic overlap of 80.9% between AUD and BMI, despite a genetic correlation (r g ) of -.03. ConjFDR analysis yielded 56 lead SNPs with the same effect direction and 76 with the opposite direction. Of the 132 shared lead SNPs, 53 were novel for both AUD and BMI. GTEx analyses identified significant overexpression in the frontal cortex (BA9), hypothalamus, cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (BA24), hippocampus, and amygdala. Amygdala and caudate nucleus gray matter volumes were significantly associated with both AUD and BMI in BrainXcan analyses. Conclusions: More than half of variants significantly associated with AUD and BMI had opposite directions of effect for the traits, supporting our hypothesis that this is the basis for their lack of genetic correlation. Follow-up analyses identified brain regions implicated in executive functioning, reward, homeostasis, and food intake regulation. Together, these findings clarify the extensive polygenic overlap between AUD and BMI and elucidate several overlapping neurobiological mechanisms.

Plants (Basel) ; 13(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732430


Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that damage the structure and composition of cell walls. Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) have been advocated to significantly improve plant stress tolerance. The metabolic mechanism by which AOS induces salt tolerance in rice cell walls remains unclear. Here, we report the impact of AOS foliar application on the cell wall composition of rice seedlings using the salt-tolerant rice variety FL478 and the salt-sensitive variety IR29. Data revealed that salt stress decreased biomass, stem basal width, stem breaking strength, and lodging resistance; however, it increased cell wall thickness. In leaves, exogenous AOS up-regulated the expression level of OSCESA8, increased abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroids (BR) content, and increased ß-galacturonic activity, polygalacturonase activity, xylanase activity, laccase activity, biomass, and cellulose content. Moreover, AOS down-regulated the expression levels of OSMYB46 and OSIRX10 and decreased cell wall hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin content to maintain cell wall stability under salt stress. In stems, AOS increased phenylalamine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities, while decreasing cellulase, laccase, and ß-glucanase activities. Furthermore, AOS improved the biomass and stem basal width and also enhanced the cellulose, pectin, and lignin content of the stem, As a result, increased resistance to stem breakage strength and alleviated salt stress-induced damage, thus enhancing the lodging resistance. Under salt stress, AOS regulates phytohormones and modifies cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin metabolism to maintain cell wall structure and improve stem resistance to lodging. This study aims to alleviate salt stress damage to rice cell walls, enhance resistance to lodging, and improve salt tolerance in rice by exogenous application of AOS.

Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729344


INTRODUCTION: The CHA2DS2-VASc score, used to assess the risk of left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) formation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), has limited predictive value. Moreover, transesophageal echocardiography imaging, the gold standard diagnostic method to identify thrombi, is semi-invasive. Consequently, there is a need for alternative and noninvasive diagnostic methods for LAAT risk assessment. METHODS: Deep proteomic analysis was conducted in plasma samples from 8 patients with nonvalvular AF, divided into thrombus and control groups (4 patients in each group) based on the presence or absence of LAAT. Biomarkers associated with LAAT were validated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a cohort of 179 patients with available clinical, transthoracic, and transesophageal echocardiography data. Predictive models were developed to assess the improvement in LAAT identification. RESULTS: The LAAT group had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores, larger LA diameter, and lower LAA flow velocities. Deep proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially expressed proteins, including myosin light chain 4, prenylcysteine oxidase 1 (PCYOX1), and decorin as potential diagnostic biomarkers of LAAT. The model showed that PCYOX1 and decorin provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.970 for LAAT prediction compared with 0.672 in a model including the CHA2DS2-VASc score and LAA cauliflower morphology. The incremental value of proteomic biomarkers for LAAT in patients with nonvalvular AF was further confirmed with the net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement indices. CONCLUSIONS: Protein levels of PCYOX1 and decorin improve the predictive performance for LAAT in patients with nonvalvular AF.

Chin J Integr Med ; 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733455


OBJECTIVE: To explore the rapid antidepressant potential and the underlying mechanism of Chaihu Shugan San (CSS) in female mice. METHODS: Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS was used to determine the content of main components in CSS to determine its stability. Female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control (saline), vehicle (saline), CSS (4 g/kg) and ketamine (30 mg/kg) groups. Mice were subjected to irregular stress stimulation for 4 weeks to establish the chronic mild stress (CMS) model, then received a single administration of drugs. Two hours later, the behavioral tests were performed, including open field test, tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), novelty suppression feeding test (NSF), and sucrose preference test (SPT). Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) subtypes [N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1), NR2A, NR2B], synaptic proteins [synapsin1 and post synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)], and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Moreover, the rapid antidepressant effect of CSS was tested by pharmacological technologies and optogenetic interventions that activated glutamate receptors, NMDA. RESULTS: Compared with the vehicle group, a single administration of CSS (4 g/kg) reversed all behavioral defects in TST, FST, SPT and NSF caused by CMS (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CSS also significantly decreased the expressions of NMDA subtypes (NR1, NR2A, NR2B) at 2 h in hippocampus of mice (all P<0.01). In addition, similar to ketamine, CSS increased levels of synaptic proteins and BDNF (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, the rapid antidepressant effects of CSS were blocked by transient activation of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus (all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Rapid antidepressant effects of CSS by improving behavioral deficits in female CMS mice depended on rapid suppression of NMDA receptors and activation of synaptic proteins.

Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(19): 14186-14193, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713092


Cost-effective and readily accessible 3d transition metals (TMs) have been considered as promising candidates for alkane activation while 3d TMs especially the early TMs are usually not very reactive with light alkanes. In this study, the reactivity of Vn+ and VnO+ (n = 1-9) cluster cations towards ethane under thermal collision conditions has been investigated using mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations. Among Vn+ (n = 1-9) clusters, only V3-5+ can react with C2H6 to generate dehydrogenation products and the reaction rate constants are below 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In contrast, the reaction rate constants for all VnO+ (n = 1-9) with C2H6 significantly increase by about 2-4 orders of magnitude. Theoretical analysis evidences that the addition of ligand O affects the charge distribution of the metal centers, resulting in a significant increase in the cluster reactivity. The analysis of frontier orbitals indicates that the agostic interaction determines the size-dependent reactivity of VnO+ cluster cations. This study provides a novel approach for improving the reactivity of early 3d TMs.

World J Mens Health ; 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772541


PURPOSE: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Gut microbiota plays an important role in various diseases. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of intestinal flora dysregulation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) on erectile function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into the normal diet (ND) and HFD groups. After 24 weeks, a measurement of erectile function was performed. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing of stool samples. Then, we established fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) rat models by transplanting fecal microbiota from rats of ND group and HFD group to two new groups of rats respectively. After 24 weeks, erectile function of the rats was evaluated and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed, and serum samples were collected for the untargeted metabolomics detection. RESULTS: The erectile function of rats and the species diversity of intestinal microbiota in the HFD group was significantly lower, and the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota community structure were also significantly different between the two groups. The erectile function of rats in the HFD-FMT group was significantly lower than that of rats in the ND-FMT group. The characteristics of the intestinal microbiota community structure were significantly different. In the HFD-FMT group, 27 metabolites were significantly different and they were mainly involved in the several inflammation-related pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal microbiota disorders induced by HFD can damage the intestinal barrier of rats, change the serum metabolic profile, induce low-grade inflammation and apoptosis in the corpus cavernosum of the penis, and lead to ED.

Small ; : e2400867, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770993


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is receiving extensive attention as an antimicrobial strategy that does not cause drug resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Herein, hierarchical Ag-ZnIn2S4 (Ag-ZIS) core-shell nanowires are synthesized by in situ Metal-Organic Framework derived method for efficient PDT of Candida albicans (C. albicans). The core-shell structure enables spatial synergy strategy to regulate the charge transfer pathway under visible light excitation, in which the Ag nanowires are like the highway for the photogenerated electrons. The enhanced charge carrier separation efficiency greatly increased the chances for the generation of ROS. As expected, the optimized Ag-ZIS nanowires exhibit excellent performance for inactivation of C. albicans under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm, 15 min), and the effective sterilization concentration is as high as 107CFU mL-1. Moreover, in vivo infection experiments suggested that the PDT effect of Ag-ZIS nanowires on the mouse wound healing is better than that of the clinical Ketoconazole drug. The PDT antifungal mechanism of Ag-ZIS nanowires is also investigated, and superoxide anion is found to be the predominant active species to causes C. albicans damage. This work provides a new perspective for designing novel interface structures to regulate charge transfer to achieve efficient PDT antifungal therapy.

Front Public Health ; 12: 1365089, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751578


Background: Families of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) face tremendous stressors in the process of coping with the disease, which threatens the health of families of children with CHD. Studies have shown that nursing interventions focusing on family stress management can improve parents' ability to cope with illness and promote family health. At present, there is no measuring tool for family stressors of CHD. Methods: The items of the scale were generated through qualitative interviews and a literature review. Initial items were evaluated by seven experts to determine content validity. Factor analysis and reliability testing were conducted with a convenience sample of 670 family members. The criterion-related validity of the scale was calculated using scores on the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Results: The CHD Children's Family Stressor Scale consisted of six dimensions and 41 items. In the exploratory factor analysis, the cumulative explained variance of the six factors was 61.085%. In the confirmatory factor analysis, the six factors in the EFA were well validated, indicating that the model fits well. The correlation coefficient between CHD Children's Family Stressor Scale and SAS was r = 0.504 (p < 0.001), which indicated that the criterion-related validity of the scale was good. In the reliability test, Cronbach's α coefficients of six sub-scales were 0.774-0.940, and the scale-level Cronbach's α coefficient value was 0.945. Conclusion: The study indicates that the CHD Children's Family Stressor Scale is valid and reliable, and it is recommended for use in clinical practice to assess CHD children's family stressors.

Cardiopatias Congênitas , Psicometria , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Criança , Adulto , Adaptação Psicológica , Análise Fatorial , Família/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11083, 2024 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745087


The diagnostic accuracy of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) is limited by subjectivity in result interpretation and the false positive results from certain similar anatomic structures. We aimed to establish a new model combining quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound, PI-RADSv2, clinical parameters to optimize the PI-RADSv2-based model. The analysis was conducted based on a data set of 151 patients from 2019 to 2022, multiple regression analysis showed that prostate specific antigen density, age, PI-RADSv2, quantitative parameters (rush time, wash-out area under the curve) were independent predictors. Based on these predictors, we established a new predictive model, the AUCs of the model were 0.910 and 0.879 in training and validation cohort, which were higher than those of PI-RADSv2-based model (0.865 and 0.821 in training and validation cohort). Net Reclassification Index analysis indicated that the new predictive model improved the classification of patients. Decision curve analysis showed that in most risk probabilities, the new predictive model improved the clinical utility of PI-RADSv2-based model. Generally, this new predictive model showed that quantitative parameters from contrast enhanced ultrasound could help to improve the diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 based model in detecting csPCa.

Meios de Contraste , Nomogramas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Ultrassonografia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11299, 2024 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760436


The relationship between the Systemic Inflammatory Response Index (SIRI) and the Fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the independent relationship between FAR and SIRI in people with osteoporotic fractures (OPF). A cross-sectional study was conducted using retrospective data from 3431 hospitalized OPF patients. The exposure variable in this study was the baseline FAR, while the outcome variable was the SIRI. Covariates, including age, gender, BMI, and other clinical and laboratory factors, were adjusted. Cross-correlation analysis and linear regression models were applied. The generalized additive model (GAM) investigated non-linear relationships. Adjusted analysis revealed an independent negative association between FAR and SIRI in OPF patients (ß = - 0.114, p = 0.00064, 95% CI - 0.180, - 0.049). A substantial U-shaped association between FAR and SIRI was shown using GAM analysis (p < 0.001). FAR and SIRI indicated a negative association for FAR below 6.344% and a positive correlation for FAR over 6.344%. The results of our study revealed a U-shaped relationship between SIRI and FAR. The lowest conceivable FAR for a bone-loose inflammatory disease might be 6.344%, suggesting that this has particular significance for the medical diagnosis and therapy of persons with OPF. Consequently, the term "inflammatory trough" is proposed. These results offer fresh perspectives on controlling inflammation in individuals with OPF and preventing inflammatory osteoporosis.

Fibrinogênio , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Humanos , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/análise , Masculino , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inflamação/sangue , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albumina Sérica/análise
Mol Psychiatry ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580809


Cannabis use disorder (CanUD) has increased with the legalization of the use of cannabis. Around 20% of individuals using cannabis develop CanUD, and the number of users has grown with increasing ease of access. CanUD and other substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated phenotypically and genetically. We leveraged new CanUD genomics data to undertake genetically-informed analyses with unprecedented power, to investigate the genetic architecture and causal relationships between CanUD and lifetime cannabis use with risk for developing SUDs and substance use traits. Analyses included calculating local and global genetic correlations, genomic structural equation modeling (genomicSEM), and Mendelian Randomization (MR). Results from the genetic correlation and genomicSEM analyses demonstrated that CanUD and cannabis use differ in their relationships with SUDs and substance use traits. We found significant causal effects of CanUD influencing all the analyzed traits: opioid use disorder (OUD) (Inverse variant weighted, IVW ß = 0.925 ± 0.082), problematic alcohol use (PAU) (IVW ß = 0.443 ± 0.030), drinks per week (DPW) (IVW ß = 0.182 ± 0.025), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) (IVW ß = 0.183 ± 0.052), cigarettes per day (IVW ß = 0.150 ± 0.045), current versus former smokers (IVW ß = 0.178 ± 0.052), and smoking initiation (IVW ß = 0.405 ± 0.042). We also found evidence of bidirectionality showing that OUD, PAU, smoking initiation, smoking cessation, and DPW all increase risk of developing CanUD. For cannabis use, bidirectional relationships were inferred with PAU, smoking initiation, and DPW; cannabis use was also associated with a higher risk of developing OUD (IVW ß = 0.785 ± 0.266). GenomicSEM confirmed that CanUD and cannabis use load onto different genetic factors. We conclude that CanUD and cannabis use can increase the risk of developing other SUDs. This has substantial public health implications; the move towards legalization of cannabis use may be expected to increase other kinds of problematic substance use. These harmful outcomes are in addition to the medical harms associated directly with CanUD.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 25(4): 499-509, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572608


Background: Salpingitis obstructive infertility (SOI) refers to infertility caused by abnormal conditions such as tubal adhesion and blockage caused by acute and chronic salpingitis. SOI has a serious impact on women's physical and mental health and family harmony, and it is a clinical problem that needs to be solved urgently.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential pharmacological mechanisms of the Yinjia tablets (Yin Jia Pian, YJP) on tubal inflammation.

Methods: Networks of YJP-associated targets and tubal inflammation-related genes were constructed through the STRING database. Potential targets and pathway enrichment analysis related to the therapeutic efficacy of YJP were identified using Cytoscape and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (metascape). E. coli was used to establish a rat model of tubal inflammation and to validate the predictions of network pharmacology and the therapeutic efficacy of YJP. H&E staining was used to observe the pathological changes in fallopian tubes. TEM observation of the ultrastructure of the fallopian tubes. ELISA was used to detect the changes of IL-6 and TNF-α in fallopian tubes. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ESR1. The changes of Bcl-2, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, MEK, p-MEK, EGFR, and p-EGFR were detected by western blot.

Results: Through database analysis, it was found that YJP shared 105 identical targets with the disease. Network pharmacology analysis showed that IL-6, TNF, and EGFR belong to the top 5 core proteins associated with salpingitis, and EGFR/MEK/ERK may be the main pathway involved. The E. coli-induced disease rat model of fallopian tube tissue showed damage, mitochondrial disruption, and increased levels of the inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α. Tubal inflammatory infertility rats have increased expression of Bcl-2, p-ERK1/2, p-MEK, and p-EGFR, and decreased expression of ESR1. In vivo, experiments showed that YJP improved damage of tissue, inhibited shedding of tubal cilia, and suppressed the inflammatory response of the body. Furthermore, YJP inhibited EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling, inhibited the apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and upregulated ESR1.

Conclusion: This study revealed that YJP Reducing tubal inflammation and promoting tissue repair may be associated with inhibition of the EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.


Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Infertilidade , Salpingite , Humanos , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Salpingite/complicações , Salpingite/metabolismo , Salpingite/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Farmacologia em Rede , Infertilidade/complicações , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
Clin Rheumatol ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625643


OBJECTIVES: Gout is characterized by hyperuricemia and recurrent inflammatory episodes caused by intra-articular crystal deposition of monosodium urate (MSU). There is a clear relationship between gout and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence indicates that perforin plays a role in regulating glucose homeostasis and provides protection in diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis models. However, the impact of perforin on immune inflammation in gout remains unclear. METHODS: We induced acute gout models in both wild-type (WT) mice and Prf1null mice by administering intra-articular injections of MSU crystals. We compared the ankle joint swelling and the histological score between the two groups. Furthermore, we investigated underlying mechanisms through in vitro co-culture experiments involving CD8 T cells and macrophages. RESULTS: In this study, Prf1null mice showed significantly more pronounced ankle swelling with increased inflammatory cell infiltrations compared with WT mice 24 h after local MSU injection. Moreover, MSU-induced Prf1null mice exhibited increased accumulation of CD8 T cells but not NK cells. Perforin-deficient CD8 T cells displayed reduced cytotoxicity towards bone marrow-derived M0 and M1 macrophages and promoted TNF-α secretion from macrophage. CONCLUSIONS: Perforin from CD8 T cells limits joint inflammation in mice with acute gout by downregulating macrophage-mediated inflammation. Key Points • Perforin deficiency increased swelling in the ankle joints of mice upon MSU injection. • Perforin deficiency is associated with increased immune cell recruitment and severe joint damage in gout. • Perforin regulated CD8 T cell accumulation in gout and promoted CD8 T cell cytotoxicity towards M0 and M1 macrophages. • CD8 T cell-derived perforin regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of macrophage.

Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639160


This study presents a novel approach for developing generic metabolic Raman calibration models for in-line cell culture analysis using glucose and lactate stock solution titration in an aqueous phase and data augmentation techniques. First, a successful set-up of the titration method was achieved by adding glucose or lactate solution at several different constant rates into the aqueous phase of a bench-top bioreactor. Subsequently, the in-line glucose and lactate concentration were calculated and interpolated based on the rate of glucose and lactate addition, enabling data augmentation and enhancing the robustness of the metabolic calibration model. Nine different combinations of spectra pretreatment, wavenumber range selection, and number of latent variables were evaluated and optimized using aqueous titration data as training set and a historical cell culture data set as validation and prediction set. Finally, Raman spectroscopy data collected from 11 historical cell culture batches (spanning four culture modes and scales ranging from 3 to 200 L) were utilized to predict the corresponding glucose and lactate values. The results demonstrated a high prediction accuracy, with an average root mean square errors of prediction of 0.65 g/L for glucose, and 0.48 g/L for lactate. This innovative method establishes a generic metabolic calibration model, and its applicability can be extended to other metabolites, reducing the cost of deploying real-time cell culture monitoring using Raman spectroscopy in bioprocesses.

Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 3016-3026, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629562


Sweet sorghum has a large biomass and strong cadmium (Cd) absorption capacity, which has the potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. In order to study the Cd phytoremediation effect of sweet sorghum assisted with citric acid on the typical parent materials in southern China, a field experiment was carried out in two typical parent material farmland areas (neutral purple mud field and jute sand mud field) with Cd pollution in Hunan Province. The results showed that:① Citric acid had no inhibitory effect on the growth of sweet sorghum. After the application of citric acid, the aboveground biomass of sweet sorghum at the maturity stage increased by 10.1%-24.7%. ② Both sweet sorghum planting and citric acid application reduced the soil pH value, and the application of citric acid further reduced the soil pH value at each growth stage of sweet sorghum; this decrease was greater in the neutral purple mud field, which decreased by 0.24-0.72 units. ③ Both sweet sorghum planting and citric acid application reduced the total amount of soil Cd, and the decreases in the neutral purple mud field and jute sand mud field were 23.8%-52.2% and 17.1%-31.8%, respectively. The acid-extractable percentage of soil Cd in both places increased by 38.6%-147.7% and 4.8%-22.7%, respectively. ④ The application of citric acid could significantly increase the Cd content in various tissues of sweet sorghum. The Cd content in the aboveground part of the plant in the neutral purple mud field was higher than that in the jute sand mud field, and the Cd content in stems and leaves was 0.25-1.90 mg·kg-1 and 0.21-0.64 mg·kg-1, respectively. ⑤ After applying citric acid, the Cd extraction amount of sweet sorghum in neutral purple mud soil in the mature stage reached 47.56 g·hm-2. In summary, citric acid could enhance the efficiency of sweet sorghum in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil, and the effect was better in neutral purple mud fields. This technology has the potential for remediation coupled with agro-production for heavy metal-contaminated farmland.

Poluentes do Solo , Sorghum , Cádmio/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo , Areia , Ácido Cítrico , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Grão Comestível/química
Bioconjug Chem ; 35(5): 604-615, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661725


Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T cell) therapy has become a promising treatment option for B-cell hematological tumors. However, few optional target antigens and disease relapse due to loss of target antigens limit the broad clinical applicability of CAR-T cells. Here, we conjugated an antibody (Ab) fusion protein, consisting of an Ab domain and a SpyCatcher domain, with the FITC-SpyTag (FITC-ST) peptide to form a bispecific safety switch module using a site-specific conjugation system. We applied the safety switch module to target CD19, PDL1, or Her2-expressing tumor cells by constructing FMC63 (anti-CD19), antiPDL1, or ZHER (anti-Her2)-FITC-ST, respectively. Those switch modules significantly improved the cytotoxic effects of anti-FITC CAR-T cells on tumor cells. Additionally, we obtained the purified CD8+ T cells by optimizing a shorter version of the CD8-binding aptamer to generate anti-FITC CD8-CAR-T cells, which combined with the CD4-FITC-ST switch module (anti-CD4) to eliminate the CD4-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Overall, we established a novel safety switch module by site-specific conjugation to enhance the antitumor function of universal CAR-T cells, thereby expanding the application scope of CAR-T therapy and improving its safety and efficacy.

Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Humanos , Animais , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Camundongos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia
medRxiv ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645055


Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. There has been substantial progress in identifying genetic variants underlying AUD. However, there are few whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies of AUD. We analyzed WES of 4,530 samples from the Yale-Penn cohort and 469,835 samples from the UK Biobank (UKB). After quality control, 1,420 AUD cases and 619 controls of European ancestry (EUR) and 1,142 cases and 608 controls of African ancestry (AFR) from Yale-Penn were retained for subsequent analyses. WES data from 415,617 EUR samples (12,861 cases), 6,142 AFR samples (130 cases) and 4,607 South Asian (SAS) samples (130 cases) from UKB were also analyzed. Single-variant association analysis identified the well-known functional variant rs1229984 in ADH1B ( P =4.88×10 -31 ) and several other common variants in ADH1C . Gene-based tests identified ADH1B ( P =1.00×10 -31 ), ADH1C ( P =5.23×10 -7 ), CNST ( P =1.19×10 -6 ), and IFIT5 (3.74×10 -6 ). This study extends our understanding of the genetic basis of AUD.

Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9182, 2024 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649422


In order to obtain high yield pomelo peel pectin with better physicochemical properties, four pectin extraction methods, including hot acid extraction (HAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction, and enzymatic assisted extraction (EAE) were compared. MAE led to the highest pectin yield (20.43%), and the lowest pectin recovery was found for EAE (11.94%). The physicochemical properties of pomelo peel pectin obtained by different methods were also significantly different. Pectin samples obtained by MAE had the highest methoxyl content (8.35%), galacturonic acid content (71.36%), and showed a higher apparent viscosity, thermal and emulsion stability. The pectin extracted by EAE showed the highest total phenolic content (12.86%) and lowest particle size (843.69 nm), showing higher DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities than other extract methods. The pectin extracted by HAE had the highest particle size (966.12 nm) and degree of esterification (55.67%). However, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that no significant difference occurred among the different methods in the chemical structure of the extracted pectin. This study provides a theoretical basis for the industrial production of pomelo peel pectin.

Citrus , Ácidos Hexurônicos , Pectinas , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Citrus/química , Viscosidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Micro-Ondas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fenômenos Químicos , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Esterificação