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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127709, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763738

RESUMO

The microbiological, microstructural, and physicochemical impact of aqueous ozone mixing (AOM) on semi-dried buckwheat noodles (SBWN) was elucidated in this study. Microbiological measurements declared that AOM reduced the initial total plate count (TPC) of SBWN significantly (P < 0.05) with a prolonged shelf-life of 2 ~ 5 days. Meanwhile, AOM reduced the cooking loss and water absorption along with the enhancement of hardness and tension force. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the protein network of surface and cross section became continuous and compact, and wrapped starch granules more effectively. Moreover, an obvious increase in the intensity of the high molecular protein bands was observed in the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. Furthermore, the sodium dodecyl sulfate extractable protein (SDSEP) under non-reducing condition obviously decreased, and then the SDSEP under reducing condition changed insignificantly (P > 0.05). These results indicated that AOM mainly promoted the protein cross-linking of SBWN by disulfide bond (SS) cross-links.

2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010357

RESUMO

RATIONAL & OBJECTIVE: ß-blockers are recommended for heart failure (HF) patients but their benefit in the dialysis population is uncertain. ß-blockers are heterogeneous including with respect to their removal by hemodialysis. We sought to evaluate whether ß-blocker use and their dialyzability characteristics were associated with early mortality among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with HF who transitioned to dialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adults patients with CKD (age ≥ 18 years) and HF who initiated either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis during 1/1/2007-6/30/2016 within an integrated health system were included. EXPOSURES: Patients were considered treated with ß-blockers if they had a quantity of drug dispensed covering the dialysis transition date. OUTCOMES: All-cause mortality within 6 months and 1 year, or hospitalization within 6 months after transition to maintenance dialysis ANALYTIC APPROACH: Inverse probability of treatment weights using the propensity scores was used to balance covariates between treatment groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis and logistic regression were used to investigate the association between ß-blocker use and study outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3,503 patients were included in the study. There were 2,115 (60.4%) patients on ß-blockers at transition. Compared to non-users, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality within 6 months was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.65-0.94) among users of any ß-blocker, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53-0.88) among users of metoprolol at transition. There were no observed differences in all-cause or cardiovascular-related hospitalization. LIMITATIONS: The observational nature of our study could not fully account for residual confounding. CONCLUSION: ß-blockers were associated with a lower rate of mortality among incident hemodialysis patients with HF. Similar associations were not observed for hospitalizations within the first 6 months following transition to dialysis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism of viral infection as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We used Mac-1-/- and gp91phox-/- transgene animal models to investigate the mechanisms by which poly I:C, a mimic of virus double-stranded RNA, induces PD neurodegeneration. METHOD: Poly I:C was stereotaxically injected into the substantia nigra (SN) of wild-type (WT), Mac-1-knockout (Mac-1-/-) and gp91 phox-knockout (gp91 phox-/-) mice (10 µg/µl), and nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration, α-synuclein accumulation and neuroinflammation were evaluated. RESULT: Dopaminergic neurons in the nigra and striatum were markedly reduced in WT mice after administration of poly I:C together with abundant microglial activation in the SN, and the expression of α-synuclein was also elevated. However, these pathological changes were greatly dampened in Mac-1-/- and gp91 phox-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that viral infection could result in the activation of microglia as well as NADPH oxidase, which may lead to neuron loss and the development of Parkinson's-like symptoms. Mac-1 is a key receptor during this process.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046627

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that stressors may trigger the onset of acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) events within hours to days, but there has been limited research around sociopolitical events such as presidential elections. Among adults ≥18 y of age in Kaiser Permanente Southern California, hospitalization rates for acute CVD were compared in the time period immediately prior to and following the 2016 presidential election date. Hospitalization for CVD was defined as an inpatient or emergency department discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated comparing CVD rates in the 2 d following the 2016 election to rates in the same 2 d of the prior week. In a secondary analysis, AMI and stroke were analyzed separately. The rate of CVD events in the 2 d after the 2016 presidential election (573.14 per 100,000 person-years [PY]) compared to the rate in the window prior to the 2016 election (353.75 per 100,000 PY) was 1.62 times higher (95% CI 1.17, 2.25). Results were similar across sex, age, and race/ethnicity groups. The RRs were similar for AMI (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.00, 2.76) and stroke (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.03, 2.44) separately. Transiently heightened cardiovascular risk around the 2016 election may be attributable to sociopolitical stress. Further research is needed to understand the intersection between major sociopolitical events, perceived stress, and acute CVD events.

5.
Updates Surg ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048340

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) are common treatments for patients with acute cholecystitis. However, the safety and efficacy of emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC) after PTGBD in patients with acute cholecystitis remain unclear. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched through October 2019. The quality of the included nonrandomized studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS). The meta-analysis was performed using STATA version 14.2. A random-effects model was used to calculate the outcomes. A total of fifteen studies involving 1780 patients with acute cholecystitis were included in the meta-analysis. DLC after PTGBD was associated with a shorter operative time (SMD - 0.51; 95% CI - 0.89 to - 0.13; P = 0.008), a lower conversion rate (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.69; P = 0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (SMD - 0.59; 95% CI - 0.96 to - 0.22; P = 0.002) and longer time of total hospital stay compared to ELC (SMD 0.91; 95% CI 0.57-1.24; P < 0.001). There was no difference in the postoperative complications (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.48-0.97; P = 0.035), biliary leakage (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.34-1.22; P = 0.175) or mortality (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.39-2.80; P = 0.933). Compared to ELC, DLC after PTGBD had the advantages of a shorter operative time, a lower conversion rate and less intraoperative blood loss.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086013

RESUMO

Multimodal imaging-guided therapy holds great potential for precise theranostics of cancer metastasis. However, imaging agents enabling the convergence of complementary modalities with therapeutic functions to achieve perfect theranostics have been less exploited. This study reports the construction of a multifunctional nanoagent (FIP-99mTc) that comprises Fe3O4 for magnetic resonance imaging, radioactive 99mTc for single-photon-emission computed tomography, and IR-1061 to serve for the second near-infrared fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, and photothermal therapy treatment of cancer metastasis. The nanoagent possessed superior multimodal imaging capability with high sensitivity and resolution attributing to the complement of all the imaging modalities. Moreover, the nanoagent showed ideal photothermal conversion ability to effectively kill tumor cells at low concentration and power laser irradiation. In the in vivo study, FIP-99mTc confirmed the fast accumulation and clear delineation of metastatic lymph nodes within 1 h after administration. Attributing to the efficient uptake and photothermal conversion, FIP-99mTc could raise the temperature of metastatic lymph nodes to 54 °C within 10 min laser irradiation, so as to facilitate tumor cell ablation. More importantly, FIP-99mTc not only played an active role in suppressing cancer growth in metastatic lymph nodes with high efficiency but also could effectively prevent further lung metastasis after resection of the primary tumor. This study proposes a simple but effective theranostic approach toward lymph node metastasis.

7.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087824

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in lung cancer, we investigated the potential role of miR-324-3p in lung cancer via the ALX4/NCAM1/MAPK axis. The expression of miR-324-3p and ALX4 was detected in clinical samples, and their interaction confirmed by miRNA-targeted luciferase reporter assay. The mechanisms involved in the miR-324-3p-ALX4 interaction in lung cancer cell biological processes were analyzed through gain- and loss-of function approaches. In addition, cultured lung cancer cells were treated with the p38MAPK pathway activator P79350 in order to explore the role of this pathway in the abovementioned axis. Further, a tumor xenograft model in nude mice was constructed to confirm the in vitro findings. miR-324-3p was highly expressed in lung cancer tissues and cells, and inhibited the expression of ALX4 in A549 cells. After confirming the targeted inhibition of ALX4 by miR-324-3p, we showed that this interaction upregulated the expression of NCAM1 and activated the MAPK pathway. The inhibition of miR-324-3p could suppress lung cancer cell invasion, migration, and autophagy, and retarded the growth of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Downregulation of ALX4 or NCAM1 overexpression reversed these favorable effects of decreased miR-324-3p. Our study demonstrated the promotive effect of miR-324-3p on the development and progression of lung cancer, thus suggesting a new target for treatment of this devastating disease.

8.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089381

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a myocardial necrosis disease caused by continuous ischemia and hypoxia. Abnormal expression of aldolase A (ALDOA) has been reported in cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure and other cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. The present study aims to explore the effects of ALDOA on hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R)-induced oxidative stress, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. ALDOA was expressed at a low level in blood samples from MI patients and H/R-induced H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of ALDOA suppressed H/R-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Using co-immunoprecipitation and protein blots, we demonstrated that ALDOA modulates the Notch 1-Jagged 1 signalling pathway by upregulating VEGF. Taken together, our data reveal that ALDOA protects cardiomyocytes from H/R-induced oxidative stress through the VEGF/Notch 1/Jagged 1 axis, and should be investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of MI in future.

9.
Haematologica ; Online ahead of print2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054136

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and is characterized by a remarkable heterogeneity with diverse variants that can be identified histologically and molecularly. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have identified the germinal center B-cell (GCB-) and activated B-cell (ABC-) subtypes. Standard chemo-immunotherapy remains standard front line therapy, curing approximately two thirds of patients. Patients with refractory disease or those who relapse after salvage treatment have an overall poor prognosis highlighting the need for novel therapeutic strategies. Transducin ß-like protein 1 (TBL1) is an exchange adaptor protein encoded by the TBL1X gene and known to function as a master regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway by binding to ß-CATENIN and promoting its downstream transcriptional program. Here, we show that, unlike normal B-cells, DLBCL cells express abundant levels of TBL1 and its overexpression correlates with poor clinical outcome regardless of DLBCL molecular subtype. Genetic deletion of TBL1 and pharmacological approach using tegavivint, a first-in-class small molecule targeting TBL1 (Iterion Therapeutics), promotes DLBCL cell death in vitro and in vivo. Through an integrated genomic, biochemical, and pharmacologic analyses, we characterized a novel, ß-CATENIN independent, post-transcriptional oncogenic function of TBL1 in DLBCL where TBL1 modulates the stability of key oncogenic proteins such as PLK1, MYC, and the autophagy regulatory protein BECLIN-1 through its interaction with a SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) protein supercomplex. Collectively, our data provide the rationale for targeting TBL1 as a novel therapeutic strategy in DLBCL.

10.
JCI Insight ; 5(20)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055426

RESUMO

High-fat feeding (HFF) leads to gut dysbiosis through unclear mechanisms. We hypothesize that bile acids secreted in response to high-fat diets (HFDs) may act on intestinal Paneth cells, leading to gut dysbiosis. We found that HFF resulted in widespread taxonomic shifts in the bacteria of the ileal mucosa, characterized by depletion of Lactobacillus and enrichment of Akkermansia muciniphila, Clostridium XIVa, Ruminococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae, which were prevented by the bile acid binder cholestyramine. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies showed that G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) expressed in Paneth cells was upregulated in the rats fed HFD or normal chow supplemented with cholic acid. This was accompanied by decreased lysozyme+ Paneth cells and α-defensin 5 and 6 and increased expression of XBP-1. Pretreatment with ER stress inhibitor 4PBA or with cholestyramine prevented these changes. Ileal explants incubated with deoxycholic acid or cholic acid caused a decrease in α-defensin 5 and 6 and an increase in XBP-1, which was prevented by TGR5 antibody or 4PBA. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration to our knowledge that TGR5 is expressed in Paneth cells. HFF resulted in increased bile acid secretion and upregulation of TGR5 expression in Paneth cells. Bile acid toxicity in Paneth cells contributes to gut dysbiosis induced by HFF.

11.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057513

RESUMO

Peptides extracted from Xuanwei ham (XHP) can prevent free radical-induced diseases. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify bioactive peptides from Xuanwei hams that rescue the oxidative stress damage induced by alcohol in HHL-5 hepatocytes. Alcohol-treated HHL-5 human hepatocytes were utilized as the alcohol-induced hepatocyte damage model to evaluate the effects of XHP on amounts of aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The result showed that XHP could significantly reduce ALT, AST and MDA, the major biomarkers of liver damage. The crude XHP was separated by size exclusion chromatography, followed by the evaluation of respective activities. Then, the most active components were further separated by RP-HPLC, and their activities were evaluated according to the above method. The peptide was identified as a hexapeptide with the sequence of Asn-Pro-Pro-Lys-Phe-Asp (NPPKFD) through LC-MS/MS. Further, the molecular mechanisms by which NPPKFD prevents alcohol-induced oxidative stress damage were revealed. Results showed that the hexapeptide could downregulate CYP2E1 expression, reduce generation of ROS and enhance oxidant defense systems via the activation of NrF2/HO-1 pathway. The findings suggest that Xuanwei ham can be used as a new source of bioactive peptides for protection from alcohol-induced liver damage.

12.
Life Sci ; : 118579, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058913

RESUMO

Bacteria can induce significant alteration in the cell transcriptome and develop many strategies to modify immune signaling for its survival. In recent years, a new class of regulatory RNAs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), has been demonstrated to play an essential role in host gene expression. Growing literature indicate that lncRNAs function as positive or negative effectors on antibacterial immunity. On the one hand, the host regulates immune-related genes at epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels by lncRNAs, thereby protecting itself from pathogen invasion. On the other hand, bacteria can manipulate the host signaling pathways by regulating the host lncRNAs to escape immune clearance. In addition, some bacteria even produce lncRNAs, which are involved in the pathogenic process of pathogens. Some dysregulated lncRNAs during bacterial infections can be used as a potential diagnostic marker for infection. Understanding of gene expression regulation through lncRNAs helps illustrate bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs and current advances of lncRNAs in different bacterial infections and look forward to the future research orientation.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065551

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 has been announced by the World Health Organization as a worldwide public health emergency. The aim of this study was to distinguish between severe and non-severe patients in early diagnosis. The results showed that the mortality of COVID-19 patients increased accompanied by age. Host factors CRP, IL-1ß, hs-CRP, IL-8, and IL-6 levels in severe pneumonia patients were higher than in non-severe patients. CD3, CD8, and CD45 counts were decreased in COVID-19 patients. The results of this study suggest that the K-values of CD45 might be useful in distinguishing between severe and non-severe cases. The cut-off value for CD45 was -94.33. The K-values for CD45 in non-severe case were above the cut-off values, indicating a 100% prediction success rate for severe and non-severe cases following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results confirmed that immune system dysfunction is a potential cause of mortality following COVID-19 infection, particularly for the elderly. CD45 deficiency dysfunction the naïve and memory T lymphocytes which may affects the long-term effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. K-values of CD45 might be useful in distinguishing between severe and non-severe cases in the early infection. May be CD45 could increase the diagnostic sensitivity.

14.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; : e12422, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A family history of psychiatric disorders is one of the strongest risk factors for schizophrenia. The characteristics of patients with a family history of psychiatric disorders have not been systematically evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter study (26 centers, 2425 cases) was performed in a Chinese population to examine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of schizophrenia patients with a family history of psychotic disorders in comparison with those of patients with sporadic schizophrenia. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of patients had a family history of mental disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ≥4 hospitalizations (OR = 1.78, P = .004), tobacco dependence (OR = 1.48, P = .006), alcohol dependence (OR = 1.74, P = .013), and physical illness (OR = 1.89, P = .001) were independently and significantly associated with a family history of mental disease. CONCLUSION: Patients with a family history of mental disorders present different demographics and clinical features than patients without a family history of psychiatric disorders.

15.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097962

RESUMO

Photosynthesis and plant architecture are important factors influencing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we identified the high-tillering and dwarf 12 (htd12) mutant and analyzed the effects of the HTD12 mutation on these important factors. HTD12 encodes a 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO) belonging to the NnrU protein family, as revealed by positional mapping and transformation experiments. Sequence analysis showed that a single nucleotide transition from guanine (G) to adenine (A) in the 3' acceptor site between the 1 st intron and 2 nd exon of HTD12 alters its mRNA splicing in htd12 plants, resulting in a 49-amino acid deletion that affects carotenoid biosynthesis and photosynthesis in this mutant. In addition, compared to the wild type, htd12 had significantly lower levels of ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol (epi-5DS), a native strigolactone (SL), in both roots and root exudates, resulting in an obvious increase in tiller number and decrease in plant height. These findings indicate that HTD12, the rice homolog of Z-ISO, regulates chloroplast development and photosynthesis by functioning in carotenoid biosynthesis and modulates plant architecture by affecting SL levels.

16.
Int J Biol Markers ; : 1724600820967124, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding, highly stable RNAs, have been reported to have diagnostic value for variety types of cancers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic value of circulating miR-145 for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using systemic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in five databases until 20 February 2020 to identify diagnostic trials of miR-145 in the diagnosis of NSCLC. The quality of included studies was assessed by the QUADAS-2 tool with Review Manager 5.3, and the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was plotted by STATA 13.1 software. RESULTS: A total of 1394 patients from 11 data sets in trials (published in nine studies) were recruited. The area under the curve of the SROC was 0.83. According to the meta regression, the specimen selection was considered the source of heterogeneity, the SROC in serum (0.90 (95% CI 0.87, 0.92), the sensitivity was 0.84 (95% CI 0.79, 0.89), and the specificity was 0.80 (95% CI 0.71, 0.89)) was obviously higher than that in plasma (SROC=0.75). CONCLUSION: Serum miR-145 might be served as a potentially useful biomarker for NSCLC diagnosis. However, due to the existing limited-quality research, more large-scale and multicenter studies are required for further verification.

17.
Fitoterapia ; 147: 104755, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069835

RESUMO

Hypersubones D-H (1-5), five new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) type metabolites with intriguing adamantane and homo-adamantane skeletons, were characterized from aerial parts of Hypericum subsessile. Compounds 1-2 were elucidated to share an adamantane core with 28,29-expoxide moiety, while 3-5 were homo-adamantane type PPAPs sharing a1,2-dioxepane ring system. Their structures were determined on the basis of comprehensive NMR and MS spectroscopic data.The anti-adipogenesis activities of these isolates were evaluated through employing 3T3-L1 cells as an in vitro system using oil red O staining, and compounds 1, 2 and 5 were able to significant inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, which implied that these compounds possessed anti-adipogenic activity.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070260

RESUMO

Combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy improves the therapeutic outcome for first-line (1L) patients with advance nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two cohorts of a phase 1b study (NCT02937116) aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sintilimab, a PD-1 inhibitor, plus chemotherapy in 1L patients with nonsquamous and squamous NSCLC (nsqNSCLC/sqNSCLC); and to identify potential biomarkers for treatment response. Treatment-naïve patients with nsqNSCLC were enrolled and intravenously given sintilimab (200 mg), pemetrexed (500 mg/m2), and cisplatin (75 mg/m2), every 3 weeks (Q3W) for 4 cycles in cohort D. Treatment-naïve patients with sqNSCLC were enrolled and intravenously given sintilimab (200 mg), gemcitabine (1250 mg/m2), and cisplatin (75 mg/m2), Q3W, for 6 cycles in cohort E. The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the treatment. The additional objective was to explore biomarkers for the treatment efficacy. Twenty-one patients with nsqNSCLC, and 20 patients with sqNSCLC were enrolled in cohort D and cohort E, respectively. By the data cutoff (April 17, 2019), 8 (38.1%) patients in cohort D and 17 (85.0%) patients in cohort E experienced grade 3-4 adverse events. The median follow-up duration was 16.4 months (14.8-23.0) in cohort D and 15.9 months (11.7-17.7) in cohort E. The objective response rate was 68.4% (95% CI 43.4%, 87.4%) in cohort D and 64.7% (95% CI 38.3%, 85.8%) in cohort E. Neither PD-L1 expression nor tumor mutation burden value was significantly associated with an improved treatment response. Sintilimab plus chemotherapy exhibited manageable toxicity and an encouraging antitumor activity in patients with nsqNSCLC and sqNSCLC.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 644, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical features and CT findings of clinically cured coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with viral RNA positive anal swab results after discharge. METHODS: Forty-two patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Yongzhou Central Hospital, Hunan, China, between January 20, 2020, and March 2, 2020, were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using anal swab viral RT-PCR. In this report, we present the clinical characteristics and chest CT features of six patients with positive anal swab results and compare the clinical, laboratory, and CT findings between the positive and negative groups. RESULTS: The anal swab positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in discharged patients was 14.3% (6/42). All six patients were male. In the positive group, 40% of the patients (2/5) had a positive stool occult blood test (OBT), but none had diarrhea. The median duration of fever and major symptoms (except fever) in the positive patients was shorter than that of the negative patients (1 day vs. 6 days, 4.5 days vs. 10.5 days, respectively). The incidence of asymptomatic cases in the positive group (33.3%) was also higher than that of the negative group (5.6%). There were no significant differences in the CT manifestation or evolution of the pulmonary lesions between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our case series, patients with viral RNA positive anal swabs did not exhibit gastrointestinal symptoms, and their main symptoms disappeared early. They had similar CT features to the negative patients, which may be easier to be ignored. A positive OBT may indicate gastrointestinal damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , RNA Viral/análise , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canal Anal/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Febre , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 258, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was associated with cognitive impairments and some Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathological changes. However, it is largely unknown whether BaP exposure participates in the disease progression of AD. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of BaP exposure on AD progression and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: BaP or vehicle was administered to 4-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1) mice and wildtype (WT) mice for 2 months. Learning and memory ability and exploratory behaviors were evaluated 1 month after the initiation/termination of BaP exposure. AD-like pathological and biochemical alterations were examined 1 month after 2-month BaP exposure. Levels of soluble beta-amyloid (Aß) oligomers and the number of Aß plaques in the cortex and the hippocampus were quantified. Gene expression profiling was used to evaluate alternation of genes/pathways associated with AD onset and progression. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to demonstrate neuronal loss and neuroinflammation in the cortex and the hippocampus. Treatment of primary neuron-glia cultures with aged Aß (a mixture of monomers, oligomers, and fibrils) and/or BaP was used to investigate mechanisms by which BaP enhanced Aß-induced neurodegeneration. RESULTS: BaP exposure induced progressive decline in spatial learning/memory and exploratory behaviors in APP/PS1 mice and WT mice, and APP/PS1 mice showed severer behavioral deficits than WT mice. Moreover, BaP exposure promoted neuronal loss, Aß burden and Aß plaque formation in APP/PS1 mice, but not in WT mice. Gene expression profiling showed most robust alteration in genes and pathways related to inflammation and immunoregulatory process, Aß secretion and degradation, and synaptic formation in WT and APP/PS1 mice after BaP exposure. Consistently, the cortex and the hippocampus of WT and APP/PS1 mice displayed activation of microglia and astroglia and upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and NADPH oxidase (three widely used neuroinflammatory markers) after BaP exposure. Furthermore, BaP exposure aggravated neurodegeneration induced by aged Aß peptide in primary neuron-glia cultures through enhancing NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that chronic exposure to environmental pollutant BaP induced, accelerated, and exacerbated the progression of AD, in which elevated neuroinflammation and NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative insults were key pathogenic events.

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