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1.
Am J Med Sci ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Broncholithiasis is a rare disease defined as the presence of calcified material (broncholith) within the tracheobronchial tree. We described our experience in broncholithiasis to provide a more effective clinical basis for the management of this condition. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with broncholithiasis at Xiangya Hospital in China from May 2009 to November 2019. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were enrolled in this study with a median age of 57 years. Cough (57.1%) was the most common symptom of broncholithiasis, followed by hemoptysis (23.8%). Tuberculosis was the most common comorbidity (38%), while 21 patients (30.0%) did not exhibit underlying diseases. Broncholiths within the bronchus led to airway dilation (19.0%), obstructive atelectasis (46.0%), and pneumonia (30.2%). The condition of most patients improved after undergoing endoscopic removal (76.5%) of the broncholiths. The condition of three patients (100%) improved after the surgical removal of the broncholiths. Of the 38 patients (60.3%) who failed to receive removal of broncholiths, 16 received anti-infection treatment, and the other 22 received observation. Most patients (50.0%) who were treated with anti-infectives showed an improvement, whereas the condition of 33.3% of patients who did not receive treatment worsened. CONCLUSION: Broncholithiasis is a benign bronchial disease that can cause complications. Endoscopic removal of broncholiths is considered as initial therapy and surgical removal is suggested as a second-line treatment. Treatment with anti-infectives is required for patients who fail to receive removal of broncholiths.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the thyroid uptake rate by correcting the background and analyse its clinical significance. METHODS: The study included 161 patients with hyperthyroidism. The thyroid uptake rate was calculated by drawing a 100 pixels ROI (Region of Interest) background, above and below the thyroid and correcting the thyroid ROI for background counting. At the same time, the clinical baseline characteristic parameters such as age and thyroid volume etc. of patients with hyperthyroidism were collected. The consistency of 9mTcO4uptake rate before treatment and 131I-uptake rate after treatment, and the correlation between uptake rate of thyroid and baseline characteristic parameters were also analysed. RESULTS: The uptake rate of 99mTcO4 was found positively correlated with 3 h-RAIU, 24 h-RAIU, 3 h/24 h conversion rate, thyroid volume, 131I activity FT3 and FT4, and showed negative correlation with age, effective half-life. (P<0.05). The uptake rate of 131I was found positively correlated with 3 h-RAIU, 24 h-RAIU, 3 h/24 h conversion rate, thyroid volume, 131I activity, FT3, FT4. (P<0.05). In patients with positive thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb), a significant positive correlation between uptake rate of 99mTcO4 and 131I (P<0.05) was observed. There was a high consistency between pre-treatment uptake rate of 99mTcO4 and post-treatment uptake rate of 131I (P = 0.009; W = 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: The corrected thyroid uptake rate is remarkably correlated with clinical characteristic parameters of patients, which can be used to comprehensively evaluate the comprehensive condition of patients with hyperthyroidism.

3.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110594, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507739

RESUMO

Diabetes and its related metabolic disorders are worldwide public health issues. Many studies have shown that changes in the structure and composition of the intestinal flora are closely related to the host's physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we aim to explore the effect of Liubao tea (LBT) extract on hyperglycemic mice with metabolic disorders and intestinal flora dysbiosis and to further study its regulatory effect on insulin resistance and its potential regulatory mechanism. Our results show that LBT had a good hypoglycemic effect and could significantly alleviate the metabolic disorder evoked by hyperglycemia. The gut microbial sequencing showed that LBT treatment increased the diversity of intestinal flora, increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria, and reduced the abundance of harmful or conditional pathogenic bacteria, as well as significantly altered 39 of the top 50 OTUs with abundance. Besides, LBT could activate the PI3K-Akt-PPARs-GLUT2 cascade signaling pathway to improve metabolic disorders, thereby alleviating insulin resistance. These results suggest that LBT has excellent potential to become a natural functional food for the prevention of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance.

4.
Food Funct ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515716

RESUMO

The current study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of peptides isolated from Jinhua ham (JHP) against alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and the mechanisms by which JHP prevents against ALD. The tangential flow filtration (TFF) combined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate the JHP. Then the hepatoprotective activity of peptides was evaluated through experiments in mice. The primary structure of the peptide with the strongest liver protective activity was Lys-Arg-Gln-Lys-Tyr-Asp (KRQKYD) and the peptide was derived from the myosin of Jinhua ham, which were both identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the mechanism of KRQKYD prevention against ALD was attributed to the fact that KRQKYD increases the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut and decreases the abundance of Proteobacteria (especially Escherichia_Shigella). The LPS-mediated liver inflammatory cascade was reduced by protecting the intestinal barrier, increasing the tight connection of intestinal epithelial cells and reducing the level of LPS in the portal venous circulation. KRQKYD could inhibit the production of ROS by upregulating the expression of the NRF2/HO-1 antioxidant defense system and by reducing oxidative stress injury in liver cells. This study can provide a theoretical foundation for the application of JHP in the protection of liver from ALD.

5.
Ergonomics ; : 1-32, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503399

RESUMO

The biodynamic response of 12 subjects to single-axis vertical and multi-axis vertical, lateral and roll excitations was studied to advance understanding of the biodynamics. Different from using single-input and single-output (SISO) method, the apparent masses with multiple inputs were estimated by multi-input and single-output (MISO) method, whose advantage was discussed. By studying the relationship between resonance frequencies and excitation magnitudes, the primary resonance frequencies of vertical apparent masses on seat pan and backrest and fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent masses from vertical acceleration on seat pan had a negative correlation with the weighted root-sum-of-square (r.s.s.) value of excitation magnitudes. Weighting factors of lateral and vertical magnitudes in r.s.s value were comparable and were much larger than that of roll magnitude. However, the nonlinearity in the apparent mass was more significant or significant only under low r.s.s. value. MISO method appeared more suitable for estimating apparent masses with multiple inputs than SISO method.Practitioner Summary: This paper experimentally studies the dependence of the resonance frequencies in the apparent masses of seated human body on the vibration magnitudes to advance understanding of the biodynamics. The sensitivities of resonance frequencies to lateral and vertical magnitudes are comparable, and much higher than that to roll magnitude.

6.
Exp Eye Res ; 212: 108758, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506801

RESUMO

Myopia is the most common cause of a visual refractive error worldwide. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-linked signaling pathways contribute to the regulation of myopia development, and increases in cAMP accumulation promote myopia progression. To pinpoint the underlying mechanisms by which cAMP modulates myopia progression, we performed scleral transcriptome sequencing analysis in form-deprived mice, a well-established model of myopia development. Form deprivation significantly inhibited the expression levels of genes in the cAMP catabolic pathway. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis validated that the gene expression level of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), a cAMP hydrolase, was downregulated in form-deprived mouse eyes. Under visually unobstructed conditions, loss of PDE4B function in Pde4b-knockout mice increased the myopic shift in refraction, -3.661 ± 1.071 diopters, more than that in the Pde4b-wildtype littermates (P < 0.05). This suggests that downregulation and inhibition of PDE4B gives rise to myopia. In guinea pigs, subconjunctival injection of rolipram, a selective inhibitor of PDE4, led to myopia in normal eyes, and it also enhanced form-deprivation myopia (FDM). Subconjunctival injection of dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a cAMP analog, induced only a myopic shift in the normal visually unobstructed eyes, but it did not enhance FDM. As myopia developed, axial elongation occurred during scleral remodeling that was correlated with changes in collagen fibril thickness and distribution. The median collagen fibril diameter in the FDM + rolipram group, 55.09 ± 1.83 nm, was thinner than in the FDM + vehicle group, 59.33 ± 2.06 nm (P = 0.011). Thus, inhibition of PDE4 activity with rolipram thinned the collagen fibril diameter relative to the vehicle treatment in form-deprived eyes. Rolipram also inhibited increases in collagen synthesis induced by TGF-ß2 in cultured human scleral fibroblasts. The current results further support a role for PDE enzymes such as PDE4B in the regulation of normal refractive development and myopia because either loss or inhibition of PDE4B function increased myopia and FDM development through declines in the scleral collagen fibril diameter.

7.
J Mol Graph Model ; 109: 108030, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509094

RESUMO

Cell division cycle 25B (CDC25B) was responsible for regulating the various stages of cell division in the cell cycle. R492L was one of the common types of CDC25B mutants. Researches showed that compared to CDC25BWT, CDC25BR492L mutant had a ∼100-fold reduction in the rate constant for forming phosphatase intermediate (k2). However, the molecular basis of how the CDC25BR492L mutant influenced the process of binding between CDC25B and CDK2/CyclinA was not yet known. Therefore, the optimizations of three-dimensional structure of the CDC25BWT-CDK2/CyclinA system and the CDC25BR492L-CDK2/CyclinA system were constructed by ZDOCK and RDOCK, and five methods were employed to verify the reasonability of the docking structure. Then the molecular dynamics simulations on the two systems were performed to explore the reason why CDC25BR492L mutant caused the weak interactions between CDC25BR492L and CDK2/CyclinA, respectively. The remote docking site (Arg488-Tyr497) and the second active site (Lys538-Arg544) of CDC25B were observed to have high fluctuations in the CDC25BR492L-CDK2/CyclinA system with post-analysis, where the high fluctuation of these two regions resulted in weak interactions between CD25B and CDK2. In addition, Asp38-Glu42 and Asp206-Asp210 of CDK2 showed the slightly descending fluctuation, and CDK2 revealed an enhanced the self-interaction, which made CDK2 keep a relatively stable state in the CDC25BR492L-CDK2/CyclinA system. Finally, Leu492 of CDC25B was speculated to be the key residue, which had great effects on the binding between CDC25BR492L and CDK2 in the CDC25BR492L-CDK2/CyclinA system. Consequently, overall analyses appeared in this study ultimately offered a helpful understanding of the weak interactions between CDC25BR492L and CDK2.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GLS-010 (zimberelimab) is a novel, fully human, anti-programmed death-1 monoclonal antibody that shows promising efficacy and safety in advanced solid tumors. This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GLS-010 (zimberelimab) in Chinese patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (r/r-cHL). METHODS: This phase II, single-arm, open-label, multicenter clinical trial was conducted at 24 centers in China and enrolled patients with r/r-cHL after two or more lines of therapy. The patients were administered intravenous GLS-010 (zimberelimab) (240 mg, once every 2 weeks) until progression, death, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. The primary end-point was the objective response rate assessed by an independent radiology review committee (IRC). This study was registered (NCT03655483). RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were enrolled between August 2018 and August 2019. The median follow-up was 15.8 months. Seventy-seven patients (90.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 82.3-95.9) had an IRC-assessed objective response. The complete response rate was 32.9% (n = 28). The 12-month progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 78% (95% CI 67.5-85.6) and 99% (95% CI 91.9-99.8), respectively. Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were observed in 92.9% of participants. Grade III or IV TRAEs occurred in 24 (28.2%) of the 85 participants. The most common grade III or IV TRAEs were abnormal hepatic function (5.9%), hyperuricemia (4.7%), decreased neutrophil count (3.5%), and increased weight (3.5%). Only one grade V AE, gastrointestinal infection, occurred. CONCLUSIONS: GLS-010 (zimberelimab) appears to be effective and safe for the treatment of Chinese patients with r/r-cHL. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm these clinical benefits.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 7908-7913, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383509

RESUMO

Surface coating is commonly employed by industries to improve the cycling and thermal stability of high-nickel (Ni) transition metal (TM) layered cathodes for their practical use in lithium-ion batteries. Niobium (Nb) coating or substitution has been shown to be effective in stabilizing LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) cathodes; in addition, the electrochemical performance of the final products varies depending on the postprocessing. In this follow-up study, we use in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to investigate the kinetic processes and the involved structural evolution in Nb-coated NMC811 upon heat treatment. Quantitative structure analysis reveals thermally driven concurrent changes in the bulk and surface, in particular, the phase evolution of the coating layer and Nb/TM interdiffusion that facilitates penetration of Nb into the bulk and particle growth at the increased temperatures. Findings from this study highlight the new opportunities for the intended control of the structure and surface properties of high-Ni cathodes through surface coating in conjunction with postprocessing.

10.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14738, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common persistent arrhythmia, and its complications include cerebral embolism, arterial embolism and heart failure. Some studies have found that homocysteine (HCY) is a new risk factor for AF. Currently, there is no meta-analysis to explore whether HCY is related to AF. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between HCY and AF, in order to draw the attention of clinicians to HCY. METHODS: To assess the association between HCY and AF, we conducted a meta-analysis of the literature on this topic to assess the strength of the evidence RESULTS: The serum or plasma HCY levels was significantly associated with AF (WMD = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.03; P < 0.001). In the analysis, there was a medium degree of heterogeneity (I2 = 73%, P < 0.01). Sensitivity analysis showed that the main results remained unchanged after omitting any single study or converting the random effects model (REM) to fixed effects model (FEM). Subgroup analyses indicated age, body mass index, race, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol maybe causes of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between HCY and AF and the role of HCY in AF patients should not be ignored in clinical.

11.
NMR Biomed ; : e4598, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396597

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a promising tool for transcranial neurosurgery planning and monitoring. However, the ultrasound dose during ARFI is quite high due to the high intensity required and the repetitive ultrasound sonication. To reduce the ultrasound deposition and prevent unwanted neurological effects, undersampling in k-space data acquisition is adopted in the current study. Three reconstruction methods, keyhole, k-space hybrid and temporal differences (TED) compressed sensing, the latter two of which were initially proposed for MR thermometry, were applied to the in vivo transcranial focus localization based on MR-ARFI data in a retrospective way. The accuracies of the three methods were compared with the results from the fully sampled data as reference. The results showed that the keyhole method tended to smooth the displacement map and underestimate the peak displacement. The K-space hybrid method was better at recovering the displacement map and was robust to the undersampling pattern, while the TED method was more time efficient under a higher image resolution. For an image of a lower resolution, the K-space hybrid and TED methods were comparable in terms of accuracy when a high undersampling rate was applied. The results reported here facilitate the choice of appropriate undersampled reconstruction methods in transcranial focal localization based on MR-ARFI.

12.
Cancer Lett ; 520: 307-320, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390764

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is incurable and the second most common hematologic malignancy in plasma cells. Multiple myeloma stem cell-like cells (MMSCs), a rare population of MM cells, are believed to be the major cause of drug resistance and high recurrence rates in patients with MM. Therefore, developing novel strategies to eradicate MMSCs may favor myeloma treatment. In this study, based on the drug repositioning strategy, we found that albendazole (ABZ), a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, selectively suppresses the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo and decreases number of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive MMSCs in MM. Furthermore, RNA-seq of MM cells after ABZ treatment revealed that inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway is a key mediator of ABZ against MM. Moreover, we demonstrated that ABZ can resensitize cells resistant to bortezomib and overcome MMSCs-induced bortezomib resistance by decreasing ALDH1+ MMSCs numbers. Our findings provide preclinical evidence for utilizing the previously known pharmacologically active drug albendazole for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

13.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 181-187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450346

RESUMO

Prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system is a critical innate immune defense in invertebrates. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in shrimp hemolymph remain ill-defined. Our previous studies showed that Penaeus vannamei hemocyanin (HMC) and α2-macroglobulin (α2M), two key regulators of proPO-activating system in plasma, might interact with each other, indicating that this interaction could be implicated in controlling PO activity. Herein, we further confirmed that HMC specifically bind to α2M using Pull down and Far-Western blot analyses. Further studies demonstrated that HMC could directly interact with the receptor binding domain of α2M. In addition, HMC and α2M followed similar expression pattern upon Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, suggesting the interaction of HMC and α2M might have a role in immune response. Finally, we found that α2M, as a broad-spectrum proteinase inhibitor, suppressed the serum PO activity in vitro, while hemocyanin could partially restore this inhibitory effect. In sum, the present data indicate that HMC interacts with α2M and therefore modulates the PO activity. This finding contributes to better understanding of stable state maintenance of PO activity in shrimp.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27056, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449496

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chromobox homolog 8 (CBX8) plays an important role in the occurrence and development of various tumors, and is closely related to the prognosis of patients with cancer. However, the occurrence, development, and prognostic value of CBX8 in cervical cancer have not been reported yet.In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CBX8 in cervical cancer tissues and the corresponding normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. Furthermore, the relationship between CBX8 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, clinicopathological characteristics, and prognosis of cervical cancer were explored, and the prognostic value of CBX8 in cervical cancer was clarified.In this study, the results of immunohistochemistry using tissue chips obtained from patients with cervical cancer showed that CBX8 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissues, and its expression was proportional to the international federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO) stage. Disease-free and overall survival of patients with high CBX8 expression in cervical cancer were significantly shorter than those of patients with low CBX8 expression. Thus, CBX8 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for patients with cervical cancer. In addition, CBX8 and PD-L1 co-expression model could better predict the prognosis of patients with cervical cancer, and its area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was similar to that of FIGO stage.CBX8 may be an independent prognostic factor for cervical cancer. Moreover, the CBX8 and PD-L1 co-expression model could predict the postoperative survival of patients with cervical cancer objectively and reliably, which will aid clinicians to shunt patients with cervical cancer based on the risk of death, develop a reasonable treatment plan, and provide personalized prognosis.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/biossíntese , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 281: 114479, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343647

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhubarb is a natural herbal medicine widely used clinically with numerous pharmacological activities including anti-cancer. Specifically, several studies reported that free anthraquinones from Rhubarb suppressed the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Nonetheless, recent studies revealed that Rhubarb caused hepatotoxicity in vivo, confirming its "two-way" effect on the liver. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of Rhubarb in the in vivo treatment of liver cancer should be further elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the presence of hepatoprotection or hepatotoxicity of Rhubarb in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 190-250 g were enrolled. The rats were induced hepatocarcinogenesis using diethylnitrosamine (0.002 g/rat) until 17 weeks. Starting at week 11, Rhubarb granules (4 g/kg and 8 g/kg) were intragastrically administered daily for 7 weeks. All rats were euthanized at week 20 and the livers were analyzed via non-targeted metabolomics analysis. We established hepatic glucose 6 phosphate (6PG) levels and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities to assess the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). And the liver injuries of rats were analyzed via histological changes, hepatic function, as well as hepatic protein levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Furthermore, polydatin (0.1 g/kg/d) as a specific inhibitor of G6PD was used to treat rats. Notably, their histological changes, hepatic function, hepatic 6PG levels, hepatic G6PD activities, PCNA levels, and PKM2 levels were recorded. RESULTS: Non-targeted metabolomics revealed that Rhubarb regulated the PPP in the liver of Rhubarb-DEN-treated rats. Besides, Rhubarb activated the oxidative branch of the PPP by activating G6PD (a rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative PPP) in the liver of Rhubarb-DEN-treated rats. Meanwhile, Rhubarb promoted DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Moreover, polydatin attenuated the promoting effect of Rhubarb on DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Rhubarb promoted DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by activating the PPP, indicating that the efficacy and safety of Rhubarb in the treatment of liver cancer deserve to be deliberated.

16.
Tissue Cell ; 72: 101596, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333229

RESUMO

The role of autophagy in the transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) to treat spinal cord injury (SCI) and neurogenic bladder was investigated in this study. NSCs derived from human iPSCs were identified by and immunofluorescence assay. To clarify the role of autophagy, iPSCs were treated with either an autophagy inducer (rapamycin), or an autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine). Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8), western blot and flow cytometry were used to detect the effect of autophagy on the viability and differentiation of iPSCs. Sixty Wistar rats were selected to establish the SCI model and treated with iPSCs-derived NSCs transplantation. The effect of autophagy on the bladder function of rats with different treatments was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score, bladder function score, bladder weight measurement, Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining, and Masson staining. The results of in vitro experiment showed that rapamycin enhanced the cell activity of iPSCs, increased the number of nestin positive cells, up-regulated Beclin-1 and LC3BI/II expressions, and down-regulated p62 expression. And the results of in vivo experiment showed that rapamycin improved exercise ability and bladder function, partially restored bladder weight, and significantly reduced bladder tissue damage in SCI rats. However, chloroquine showed the opposite results. The differentiation of iPSCs into NSCs could be promoted by induced autophagy, while neurogenic bladder of SCI was restored by autophagy activation.

17.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14196, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a gastrointestinal symptom with high incidence rate and large number of patients. It is becoming one of the urgent medical problems. Poor intestinal motility is one of the important causes of constipation. Current drug treatments for constipation are associated with many side effects; thus, it is necessary to study more effective treatment methods and potential mechanism. METHODS: A zebrafish model of intestinal motility obstruction was established by loperamide hydrochloride to evaluate the effect of probiotic, food ingredients, and combination on intestinal peristalsis according to intestinal peristalsis frequency counts. The gastrointestinal survival ability of the best probiotics was evaluated by surface hydrophobicity, self-aggregation, acid and bile salt tolerance, and gastrointestinal transit tolerance. Interactions between probiotics and food ingredients were studied in vivo and in vitro. The expression of 5-HT was detected by ELISA and fluorescence immunoassay, and 5-HT related genes were detected by RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS: We obtained the probiotics, food ingredients, and combination that effectively promoted intestinal peristalsis, X11 and YRL577, P. persica and KGM, KGM + X11, respectively. Both KGM and P. persica promoted colonization of probiotics in vivo. KGM + X11 could effectively promote the increase in 5-HT synthesis in zebrafish via up-regulating gene expression of TPH-1, TPH-2, and 5-HTR and down-regulating gene expression of SERT. The specific in-depth mechanism needs further study. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: The combinations of KGM with X11 effectively promoted intestinal peristalsis. We provide a theoretical basis for new modalities that can promote intestinal peristalsis and alleviate constipation.

18.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363282

RESUMO

With the emergence of AI-powered recommender systems and their extensive use in the video streaming service, questions and concerns also arise. Why can recommended video content continuously capture users' attention? What is the impact of long-term exposure to personalized video content on one's behaviors and brain functions? To address these questions, we designed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with personally recommended videos and generally recommended ones. To examine how large-scale networks were modulated by personalized video content, graph theory analysis was applied to investigate the interaction between seven networks, including the ventral and dorsal attention networks (VAN, DAN), frontal-parietal network (FPN), salience network (SN), and three subnetworks of default mode network (dorsal medial prefrontal (dMPFC), Core, and medial temporal lobe (MTL)). Our results showed that viewing nonpersonalized video content mainly enhanced the connectivity in the DAN-FPN-Core pathway, whereas viewing personalized ones increased not only the connectivity in this pathway but also the DAN-VAN-dMPFC pathway. In addition, both personalized and nonpersonalized short videos decreased the couplings between SN and VAN as well as between two DMN subsystems, Core and MTL. Collectively, these findings uncovered distinct patterns of network interactions in response to short videos and provided insights into potential neural mechanisms by which human behaviors are biased by personally recommended content.

19.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the strong correlation between elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hypertension, their bi-directional and temporal relationship are currently unclear. Our study aimed to explore the bi-directional and temporal association between elevated ALT (ALT > 40 U/L) and hypertension. METHODS: Measurements of alanine aminotransferase and blood pressure were obtained twice from 2013 to 2017 in 3314 Chinese adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Bi-directional and cross-lagged panel analyses were performed to dissect the temporal relationship between elevated ALT and hypertension. RESULTS: Longitudinally, we found that baseline elevated ALT was strongly correlated with incident hypertension (odds ratios = 2.16, P = .001), and baseline hypertension was also significantly associated with incident elevated ALT (odds ratios = 1.64, P = .026). The cross-lagged path coefficients from baseline ALT to follow-up blood pressure were significantly greater than that from baseline blood pressure to follow-up ALT (ß: 0.043 vs. 0.026, P < .05 for systolic blood pressure and ß: 0.052 vs. 0.024, P < .05 for diastolic blood pressure). CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence for the bi-directional association of elevated ALT and hypertension among Chinese adults, and elevated ALT probably antedates the development of hypertension.

20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 271: 118416, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364557

RESUMO

This present work evaluated the effect of heat fluidization, microwave roasting and baking treatment of highland barley (HB) on the molecular, structural, thermal and antioxidant characteristics of ß-glucan. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that heat fluidization exhibited the greatest disruption effect on endosperm cell walls, resulting in the highest extractability (3.35 ± 0.06 g/100 g flour) and purity (92.67 ± 0.73%) of ß-glucan. After HB thermal processing, the molecular weight and polydispersity index of ß-glucan were respectively reduced by 3.68%-90.35% and 26.45%-39.83%, and its microscopic molecular morphology transformed from large sphere aggregate to alveolate gel network structure. Meanwhile, the structural elucidation by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy revealed that thermal processing induced the scission of polymeric chain and formation of lattice-type microgels without changing the primary functional groups of ß-glucan. Furthermore, thermogravimetry and antioxidant results indicated the thermal stability and antioxidant activity of ß-glucan were enhanced by thermal processing.

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