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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130055, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303333

RESUMO

Biodegradable mulch film potentially offers an encouraging alternative to conventional (petroleum-based) plastic films. Since biodegradable films are more susceptible to rapid degradation, more microplastics (MPs) are likely to be generated than conventional films within the same time frame, probably leading to more severe MPs pollution and associated effects. However, the effect of biodegradable mulch film residues and associated MPs pollution on plant-soil health remains uncertainty. Here, we evaluated the potential effect of bio-MPs pollution on soil carbon (C) and nutrient (i.e., N and P) cycling, soil biology (microorganisms and mesofauna), and plant health, as these are crucial to agroecosystem functioning and the delivery of key ecosystem services. Unlike the inert (and therefore recalcitrant) C contained within petroleum-based MPs, at least 80% of the C from bio-MPs is converted to CO2, with up to 20% immobilized in living microbial biomass (i.e., < 0.05 t C ha-1). Although biodegradable films are unlikely to be important in promoting soil C storage, they may accelerate microbial biomass turnover in the short term, as well as CO2 production. Compared to conventional MPs, bio-MPs degradation is more pronounced, thereby inducing greater alterations in microbial diversity and community composition. This may further alter N2O and CH4 emissions, and ultimately resulting in unpredictable consequences for global climate warming. The extent to which this may occur, however, has yet to be shown in either laboratory or field studies. In addition, bio-MPs have a large chance of forming nanoplastics, potentially causing a stronger toxic effect on plants relative to conventional MPs. Consequently, this would influence plant health, crop productivity, and food safety, leading to potential health risks. It is unclear, however, if these are direct effects on key plant processes (e.g. signaling, cell expansion) or indirect effects (e.g. nutrient deficiency or acidification). Overall, the question as to whether biodegradable mulch films offer a promising alternative to solve the conventional plastic legacy in soil over the long term remains unclear.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Solo , Solo/química , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Dióxido de Carbono , Incerteza
2.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104746, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36210013

RESUMO

The peptides repertoire presented to CD8+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is referred to as the MHC I-associated peptidome (MIP), which regulates thymus development, peripheral survival and function during lifetime of CD8+ T cells. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by pancreatic ß cells destruction mediated primarily by autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an important animal model of T1D. Here, we deeply analyzed the MIP derived from NOD mice thymus and pancreas, and demonstrated that the thymus MIP source proteins partially shared with the MIP source proteins derived from NOD mice pancreas and ß cell line. One H-2Kd restricted peptide SLC35B126-34 which was shared by MIP derived from both NOD mice pancreatic tissues and islet ß-cell line, but absent in MIP from NOD thymus tissues, showed ability to stimulate IFN-γ secretion and proliferation of NOD mice splenic CD8+ T cells. The global view of the MHC I-associated self-peptides repertoire in the thymus and pancreas of NOD mice may serve as a biological reference to identify potential autoantigens targeted by autoreactive CD8+ T cells in T1D. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD031966. SIGNIFICANCE: The peptides repertoire presented to CD8+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is referred to as the MHC I-associated peptidome (MIP). The MIP presented by thymic antigen presenting cells (APCs) is crucial for shaping CD8+ T cell repertoire and self-tolerance, while the MIP presented by peripheral tissues and organs is not only involved in maintaining periphery CD8+ T cell survival and homeostasis, but also mediates immune surveillance and autoimmune responses of CD8+ T cells under pathological conditions. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic ß cells, mediated primarily by autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is one of important animal models of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes that shares several key features with human T1D. The global view of the MHC I-associated self-peptides repertoire in the thymus and pancreas of NOD mice may serve as a good biological reference to identify potential autoantigens targeted by autoreactive CD8+ T cells in T1D. It has great significance for further clarifying the immune recognition and effect mechanism of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of T1D, and then developing antigen-specific immune intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Proteômica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Pâncreas/patologia , Autoantígenos , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134482, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252380

RESUMO

Hormone residues in food and drinking water endanger human health, therefore, on-site analysis techniques of superior performance are important for monitoring this risk. In this study, an ultra-sensitive photothermal lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for quantification of 17ß-estradiol (E2) has been developed. Anti-E2 antibody modified black phosphorus-Au (BP-Au) nanocomposite was developed as a photothermal contrast signal probe and the temperature at test-zone was recorded with an infrared camera. Under the irradiation of 808 nm laser at test-zone, it gave temperatures negatively related to the concentrations of E2 in samples. Under optimal detecting conditions, the developed photothermal LFIA exhibited a limit of detection of 50 pg mL-1, over 100-fold more sensitive than visual LFIA, and a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude. This method has been successfully applied to water, milk, and milk powder samples.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Leite , Humanos , Animais , Limite de Detecção , Imunoensaio/métodos , Estradiol/análise , Leite/química , Fósforo/análise , Anticorpos , Ouro/química
4.
Cytokine ; 161: 156052, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IL-38, a recently discovered cytokine of IL-1 family, exerts immunoregulatory activities in multi-type inflammatory diseases. However, its expression level and underlying clinical importance for IL-38 in respiratory bacterial infections remain unknown. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with bacterial pneumonia and twenty age- and gender- matched healthy individuals were enrolled in the study to determine serum IL-38 concentrations by ELISA. Then, the correlation between serum IL-38 levels and clinical features were analyzed and ROC curve was used to evaluate the potential diagnostic value for bacterial infections. In vitro, LPS-stimulated human respiratory epithelial cell model was employed to explore immunomodulatory mechanism of IL-38 in pulmonary infections. RESULTS: Elevated serum levels of IL-38 were determined in patients with bacterial pneumonia when compared with healthy controls. In addition, serum IL-38 levels were negatively correlated with clinical inflammation parameters, including WBC count, CRP, PCT and proinflammatory IL-6 and IL-8. In vitro, we demonstrated that recombinant IL-38 was able to remarkably inhibit expression of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß and TNF-α as well as adhesion molecule ICAM-1, which were partially mediated by attenuated activation of STAT3 and NF-κB signal cascades in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, we identified the diagnostic efficiency of IL-38 in discriminating patients with bacterial pneumonia from healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates higher serum IL-38 levels in patients with bacterial pneumonia are involved in anti-inflammatory activities in respiratory infections revealing a critical role of IL-38 in attenuating excessive pulmonary inflammation against exogenous pathogens. More importantly, IL-38 exhibited a potential novel biomarker for bacterial pneumonia. Thus, our data may provide useful insights for both clinical and basic research for bacterial pneumonia diagnosis.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana , Pneumonia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Citocinas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucinas
5.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 1612348, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419843

RESUMO

The clinical application of cisplatin is limited by its adverse events, of which nephrotoxicity is the most commonly observed. In a cisplatin-induced pathological response, oxidative stress is one of the upstream reactions which inflicts different degrees of damages to the intracellular material components. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also one of the early signaling molecules that subsequently undergo a series of pathological reactions, such as apoptosis and necrosis. This review summarizes the mechanism of intracellular ROS generation induced by cisplatin, mainly from the consumption of endogenous antioxidants, destruction of antioxidant enzymes, induction of mitochondrial crosstalk between the endoplasmic reticulum by ROS and Ca2+, and destruction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system in the endoplasmic reticulum, all of which result in excessive accumulation of intracellular ROS and oxidative stress. In addition, studies demonstrated that natural antioxidants can protect against the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, by reducing or even eliminating excess free radicals and also affecting other nonredox pathways. Therefore, this review on the one hand provides theoretical support for the research and clinical application of natural antioxidants and on the other hand provides a new entry point for the detailed mechanism of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, which may lay a solid foundation for the future clinical use of cisplatin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cisplatino , Humanos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Apoptose
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113931, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411620

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis is a chronic inflammatory process with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a multifunctional protein, was reported to protect against liver injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion and high-fat diet. However, the effect of PRDX6 on hepatic fibrosis remains unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 4-8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. Here, we found that PRDX6 was mainly expressed in hepatocytes and significantly upregulated in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. To clarify the impact of PRDX6 in hepatic fibrosis, we constructed a PRDX6 knockout (PRDX6-/-) rat model by using CRISPR/Cas9 method. We found that PRDX6 deficiency accelerated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Furthermore, we found that PRDX6 knockout promoted α-SMA expression in normal and fibrotic conditions, especially in hepatic fibrosis. PRDX6 knockout significantly upregulated Col1α1 and Col3α1 in fibrotic tissues. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we identified mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a suppressor for hepatic fibrosis and NF-κB pathway, as an interacting protein of PRDX6. PRDX6 promoted MANF secretion by binding to the C-terminus of MANF, which did not depend on its peroxidase and PLA2 activities. Similarly, MANF increased PRDX6 protein level and promoted its secretion. Additionally, PRDX6 knockout increased p65 level either in cytoplasm or nuclei in HSCs under fibrotic condition. In conclusion, PRDX6 is an effective inhibitor for hepatic fibrosis through a non-enzymic dependent interacting with MANF, which will offer a potential target for hepatic fibrosis therapy.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado , Peroxirredoxina VI , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Peroxirredoxina VI/genética , Peroxirredoxina VI/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fibrose , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo
7.
Anal Chem ; 94(46): 16237-16245, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346897

RESUMO

Herein, an innovative fluorescent sensor was courageously empoldered for precise and ultrasensitive detection and imaging of target miRNA-21 through the agency of a dextrous target-motivated polymerization/nicking DNA nanomachineries based on a hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HB-RCA)-assisted multiposition strand displacement reaction (SDR) signal amplification approach. Impressively, the ingenious technique not only realized target recycling via polymerization/nicking DNA nanomachineries but also involved HB-RCA amplification induced by the released transformation target as the repeated signal amplification. Most importantly, HB-RCA was firstly exploited to remarkably increase the local concentration and collision efficiency of the templates and primers, which could simultaneously generate multiple repeated DNA sequences as initiators to supply substantial banding positions for SDR, removing the massive fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET) DNA duplexes from the repeated DNA sequences to remarkably avert the self-quenching of the fluorescence signal due to self-aggregation caused by the winding of the HB-RCA products, thereby leading to a conspicuously improved signal amplification multiplier. As proof of concept, an ingenious technique effectively and accurately distinguished target miRNA-21 even with a tiny change in cells compared to the conventional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approach. Moreover, the proposed fluorescent method apparently discriminated drug-manipulative miRNA expression level abnormities. Therefore, the proposed cascade nucleic acid amplification strategy could provide an epigamic avenue for ultrasensitive imaging of diverse biomarkers, which help researchers to better study the tumor mechanism, thereby unambiguously increasing cancer cure rates and reducing the risk of recurrence.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , MicroRNAs , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , DNA/genética , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 413, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum infection is an important public health problem, imposing heavy social and economic burdens in 78 countries worldwide. However, the mechanism of transition from chronic to advanced S. japonicum infection remains largely unknown. Evidences suggested that gut microbiota plays a role in the pathogenesis of S. japonicum infection. However, the composition of the gut microbiota in patients with chronic and advanced S. japonicum infection is not well defined. In this study, we compared the composition of the intestinal flora in patients with chronic and advanced S. japonicum infection. METHODS: The feces of 24 patients with chronic S. japonicum infection and five patients with advanced S. japonicum infection from the same area were collected according to standard procedures, and 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to analyze the intestinal microbial composition of the two groups of patients. RESULTS: We found that alteration occurs in the gut microbiota between the groups of patients with chronic and advanced S. japonicum infections. Analysis of alpha and beta diversity indicated that the diversity and abundance of intestinal flora in patients with advanced S. japonicum infection were lower than those in patients with chronic S. japonicum infection. Furthermore, Prevotella 9, Subdoligranulum, Ruminococcus torques, Megamonas and Fusicatenibacter seemed to have potential to discriminate different stages of S. japonicum infection and to act as biomarkers for diagnosis. Function prediction analysis revealed that microbiota function in the chronic group was focused on translation and cell growth and death, while that in the advanced group was concentrated on elevating metabolism-related functions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that alteration in gut microbiota in different stages of S. japonicum infection plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of transition from chronic to advanced S. japonicum infection. However, further validation in the clinic is needed, and the underlying mechanism requires further study.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose Japônica , Humanos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes , Intestinos , Schistosoma japonicum/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353150

RESUMO

Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effect and efficacy of auricular point acupressure (APA) on the quality of sleep in women with breast cancer who were undergoing chemotherapy. Sample & Setting. We conducted a randomized controlled trial on 68 patients with breast cancer who reported poor sleep quality based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores (>7). Methods & Variables. Participants were randomly assigned to an APA treatment group or a control group. Patients in the APA group had magnetic pellets attached to selected auricular points and were instructed to apply pressure to these points 4×/day for three consecutive weeks. We objectively measured sleep quality using the Actiwatch Spectrum and the PSQI at the baseline and postintervention. Statistical analyses of changes in sleep data were performed using the t-test, a rank-sum test, and analyses of covariance. Results: In patients treated with APA, the PSQI total score and sleep onset latency had significantly decreased, while the total sleep time and sleep efficiency had significantly increased. Although the total PSQI score differed between groups at the baseline, ANCOVA results showed that the APA group had a significantly lower total PSQI score. Conclusion: APA could be an inexpensive and effective approach to improving sleep quality and reducing sleep disturbance in patients with breast cancer. Further research needs a larger sample size to verify our findings.

10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375461

RESUMO

This study explored the environmental determinants of different months on snail density measured in April at different types of snail habitats (marshlands, inner embankments, and hills) by considering spatial effects. Data were gathered from surveys on snails that were conducted in Hunan Province in April 2016, and information was collected on environmental variables. To investigate the environmental factors influencing snail density in various types of snail habitats, the ordinary least square model, spatial lag model, and spatial error model were all used. The environmental determinants for snail density showed different effects in the three types of snail habitats. In marshlands, snail density measured in April was associated positively with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and was associated negatively with flooding duration and annual hours of sunshine. Extreme temperatures correlated strongly to snail density measured in April (P < 0.05). In areas inside embankments, snail density measured in April increased with a decreased distance between snail habitat and the nearest river (P < 0.05). In hills, extreme heat, annual hours of sunshine, NDVI in September, and annual average land surface temperature (LST) were associated negatively with snail density measured in April, whereas index of moisture (IM) was associated positively with snail density measured in April (P < 0.05). The effects of LST and hours of sunshine on snail density measured in April varied with months of the year in the three different types of snail habitats (P < 0.05). Our study might provide a theoretical foundation for preventing snail transmission and subsequent spread of schistosomiasis.

11.
ANZ J Surg ; 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to analyse the impact of elderly age on long-term prognosis of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) after surgery. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients undergoing resection for SSM from 2004 to 2015 was collected, using data from National Cancer Institute' Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)* Stat software. Patients were divided into the non-elderly group (≤70 years) and elderly group (>70 years). Baseline characteristics and long-term survivals were compared between the two groups. A 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was used to reduce the risk of bias. The impact of the elderly age on overall survival (OS) and cause-specific mortality (CSM) was estimated by Cox-regression and competing-risk regression models. RESULTS: Among 12 536 patients with SSM after resection included into the cohort, 8664 patients were ≤70 years, and 3872 were >70 years. Patients in the elderly group had higher incidences of multiple tumours, worse tumour stage and infiltration degree, lymphatic metastasis, and larger size of primary lesions. Using PSM, 3581 pairs of patients were created. On matched analysis, the elderly group was associated with worse OS and CSM. On multivariable Cox-regression and competing-risk regression analyses, elderly age was identified as an independent risk factor of OS and CSM after adjusting for other prognostic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The elderly age of patients was independently associated with worse OS and CSM after resection of SSM when baseline and tumour characteristics were balanced. Adjuvant therapy and individualized strategy on follow-up should be made for elderly patients after resection of SSM.

12.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt A): 134792, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345097

RESUMO

This paper describes an amperometric biosensor utilizing an engineered l-glutamate oxidase for glutamate monitoring in microbial fermentation processes. We designed a general immobilization strategy that utilized a chitin-binding domain (ChBD-tag) as a biotether to further immobilize l-glutamate oxidase (GLOX) in an oriented manner on a screen-printed Prussian blue nanocube microchip (PB/SPC) with the biopolymer chitosan. The improved l-glutamate biosensor exhibited an enhanced sensitivity of 53.4 µA L mmol-1 cm-2 and a linear range from 25 µmol/L to 300 µmol/L with a detection limit of 9 µmol/L, and retained 95 % of its initial activity after two weeks of usage. In addition, the as-prepared biosensor was applied for real-time monitoring of food ingredient l-glutamate concentration during the fermentation process, which was in good agreement with that of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Above all, the l-glutamate biosensor prepared by this method had high analytical performance, and could fully realize real-time and high-efficiency monitoring in glutamate fermentation.

13.
BJOG ; 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcomes and toxicity in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with supplementary applicator guided-intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on conventional intracavitary brachytherapy (IC/IMRT). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Sichuan Cancer Hospital & Institute, Sichuan Cancer Centre, China. POPULATION: Large high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) volume (>40 ml) at the time of brachytherapy cervical cancer patients were recruited. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of 76 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (FIGO IIB-IVA) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by IC/IMRT between June 2010 and October 2016. External radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) was adminstered with cisplatin chemotherapy treatment before IC/IMRT. The IMRT plan was optimised using the ICBT plan base dose plan by an inverse dose optimisation tool which allows the use of DVH constraints on the total dose of ICBT. A seven-field gantry angle IMRT plan was devised to avoid hotspots when optimising the boost plan. The prescription dose for HR-CTV and IR-CTV were 6 and 5 Gy per fraction for five fractions, respectively. RESULTS: Mean HR-CTV was 65.8 ± 23.6 ml at the time of brachytherapy. D90 for HR-CTV and IR-CTV were 88.7 ± 3.6 Gy and 78.1 ± 2.5 Gy. D2cc for bladder, rectum, sigmoid and small intestine were 71.8 ± 3.8, 64.6 ± 4.9, 63.9 ± 5.3 and 56.7 ± 8.7 Gy, respectively. Median follow-up was 85 months (47.9-124.2 months). Five-year local recurrence-free survival rate, metastasis recurrence-free survival rate, disease-free survival rate and cancer-special survival rate were 87.6, 82.4, 70.9 and 76.3%, respectively. The grade 1 + 2 gastrointestinal and urinary late toxicities were 15.8 and 21.1%, and grade 3 late toxicities were 3.9 and 5.2%, respectively. Neither acute nor late grade 4 gastrointestinal or urinary toxicities were seen. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of ICBT with an applicator-guided supplementary IMRT boost achieved excellent local control and overall survival with low toxicity for bulky residual cervical tumour.

14.
Gigascience ; 112022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a fast-growing tree species, Chosenia arbutifolia has a unique but controversial taxonomic status in the family Salicaceae. Despite its importance as an industrial material, in ecological protection, and in landscaping, C. arbutifolia is seriously endangered in Northeast China because of artificial destruction and its low reproductive capability. RESULTS: To clarify its phylogenetic relationships with other Salicaceae species, we assembled a high-quality chromosome-level genome of C. arbutifolia using PacBio High-Fidelity reads and Hi-C sequencing data, with a total size of 338.93 Mb and contig N50 of 1.68 Mb. Repetitive sequences, which accounted for 42.34% of the assembly length, were identified. In total, 33,229 protein-coding genes and 11,474 small noncoding RNAs were predicted. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that C. arbutifolia and poplars diverged approximately 15.3 million years ago, and a large interchromosomal recombination between C. arbutifolia and other Salicaceae species was discovered. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides insights into the genome architecture and systematic evolution of C. arbutifolia, as well as comprehensive information for germplasm protection and future functional genomic studies.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Salicaceae , Animais , Filogenia , Genoma , Genômica
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 530, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rich yellow-orange to vividly deep red bark of willow (Salix spp.) branches have high ornamental and economic value. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of willow branch color remains unknown. Therefore, we performed metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses of purple, green, and red willow barks to elucidating the mechanisms regulating color development. RESULTS: Seven anthocyanins were isolated; pelargonidin, petunidin 3-O-rutinoside, and cyanin chloride were the most abundant in red bark, whereas pelargonin chloride was most abundant in purple bark. The green bark contained the highest level of malvidin; however, the malvidin level was not significantly higher than in the red bark. The purple bark contained the largest amount of canthaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment. The integrated pathways of flavonoid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, and porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism were constructed for the willow barks. Among the three barks, the expression of the structural genes ANS, ANR, and BZ1, which are involved in anthocyanin synthesis, was the highest in red bark, likely causing anthocyanin accumulation. The expression of CrtZ, which participates in the carotenoid pathway, was the highest in purple bark, likely leading to canthaxanthin accumulation. The high expression of DVR, POR, and CRD1 may be associated with green pigment synthesis in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Purple bark color is co-regulated by anthocyanins and carotenoids, whereas red bark is characterized by anthocyanin accumulation and chlorophyll degradation. The green pigment is regulated by maintaining chlorophyll synthesis. BZ1 and CrtZ are candidate genes regulating anthocyanin and canthaxanthin accumulation in red and purple barks respectively. Collectively, our results may facilitate the genetic breeding and cultivation of colorful willows with improved color and luster.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Cantaxantina , Cloretos , Cor , Melhoramento Vegetal , Carotenoides , Clorofila
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362029

RESUMO

Implant-associated infections are highly challenging to treat, particularly with the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbials. Effective preventive action is desired to be at the implant site. Surface biofunctionalization of implants through Ag-doping has demonstrated potent antibacterial results. However, it may adversely affect bone regeneration at high doses. Benefiting from the potential synergistic effects, combining Ag with other antibacterial agents can substantially decrease the required Ag concentration. To date, no study has been performed on immobilizing both Ag and Fe nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of additively manufactured porous titanium. We additively manufactured porous titanium and biofunctionalized its surface with plasma electrolytic oxidation using a Ca/P-based electrolyte containing Fe NPs, Ag NPs, and the combinations. The specimen's surface morphology featured porous TiO2 bearing Ag and Fe NPs. During immersion, Ag and Fe ions were released for up to 28 days. Antibacterial assays against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that the specimens containing Ag NPs and Ag/Fe NPs exhibit bactericidal activity. The Ag and Fe NPs worked synergistically, even when Ag was reduced by up to three times. The biofunctionalized scaffold reduced Ag and Fe NPs, improving preosteoblasts proliferation and Ca-sensing receptor activation. In conclusion, surface biofunctionalization of porous titanium with Ag and Fe NPs is a promising strategy to prevent implant-associated infections and allow bone regeneration and, therefore, should be developed for clinical application.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Nanopartículas , Titânio/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Porosidade , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
17.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363274

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) plays the role of the transmitter of information in the brain. Neurological diseases and depression are in close relationship with DA release. In this study, we developed a co-catalyst Zn0.2Cd0.8S@zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (Zn0.2Cd0.8S@ZIF-67) to improve the photocatalyst efficacy of Rhodamine B (RhB) and electrochemical sensing of DA. Results show that Zn0.2Cd0.8S@ZIF-67 exhibits optimal photocatalytic activity with the addition of 80 mg ZIF-67. The degradation percentage of RhB by Zn0.2Cd0.8S@ZIF-67 reached 98.40% when the co-catalyst was 50 mg. Radical trapping experiments show that ·O2- played a significant role in the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. The catalytic mechanism of the Zn0.2Cd0.8S@ZIF-67 was found as a Z-type photocatalysis. Finally, a DA biosensor was constructed and displayed a high response and selectivity to DA. This can be attributed to the heterojunction between Zn0.2Cd0.8S and ZIF-67, which can significantly enhance the separation of e-/h+ and improve charge transfer. These findings will play a positive role in the in-situ monitoring of neurological diseases and depression.

18.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(44): 9040-9053, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317564

RESUMO

2D nanomaterials show great potential in biomedical applications due to their unique physical and chemical surface properties. This review includes typical 2D nanomaterials used in bone tissue engineering (BTE), such as graphene oxide, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, black phosphorus, and MXenes. Moreover, the construction methods of BTE materials with 2D nanosheets are analyzed. Before designing a BTE material, it is essential to understand the relationship between the material structure and properties. Notably, 2D nanomaterials can be hybridized with biomaterials, such as polypeptides, proteins, and polysaccharides, to improve biocompatibility and host responses. The effects of the surface properties and size of 2D nanomaterials on cellular behavior, gene expression, antibacterial properties, and cytotoxicity in BTE applications are also discussed. This work provides new design ideas and directions for constructing 2D nanomaterial-based BTE scaffolds.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Engenharia Tecidual , Nanoestruturas/química , Osso e Ossos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Tecidos Suporte
19.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 1): 120556, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328286

RESUMO

Bioplastics (biodegradable plastics) potentially offer an encouraging alternative to conventional (petroleum-based) plastics. In practice, bioplastics inevitably generate a large number of bio-microplastics (bio-MPs, diameter <5 mm) during the degradation progress. However, the impact of bio-MPs on plant and soil health within agroecosystems remains incomplete. Here, a field study was conducted to investigate the effect of two shapes (fiber and powder) of pure polylactic acid (PLA) bio-MPs on oat (Avena sativa L.) and soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merr.) growth and soil health. Our results showed that PLA application at a representative soil loading rate of 0.2% (w/w) had no significant effect on soil enzyme activities, soil physicochemical properties (soil water content, pH, etc.), root characteristics, plant biomass, and crop yield. Thus, we conclude that soil quality, plant health, and ecosystem multifunctionality were not affected by PLA over one growing season (5 months) in the presence of either bio-MP shape (fiber and powder) for either crop species (oat and soybean). Overall, PLA based bio-MPs may not pose a significant threat to agroecosystem functions in the short term (days to months) in the field, thus may provide a viable environmentally benign solution to replace traditional non-biodegradable plastics in agroecosystems.

20.
iScience ; 25(12): 105531, 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437878

RESUMO

The synthesis of biofilm exopolysaccharides and rhamnolipids (RLs) are two interrelated processes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but how bacteria coordinate these two processes remains unclear. We collected a P. aeruginosa KT1115 with rugose small colony variant (RSCV) phenotype from soil, and used it to study the dynamic regulation mechanism of biofilm polysaccharide and RLs synthesis. The results showed that the overproduction of biofilm exopolysaccharides at biofilm stage ultimately contributed the surge of RLs production at RLs stage. This phenomenon was further verified by comparing PAO1 with its engineered RSCV mutant, PAO1ΔwspF. Further genomic, transcriptomic analyses and gene deletion revealed that downregulation of c-di-GMP level was the key to switch biofilm exopolysaccharides accumulation to RLs surge, by transcriptionally upregulating a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase NbdA. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of c-di-GMP in coordinating biofilm exopolysaccharides and RLs synthesis, and provides an inspiration for enhancing RLs production through regulating c-di-GMP level.

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