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1.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674840

RESUMO

A novel monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, melognine (1) possessing an unprecedented skeleton with a 6/6/5/5/6/6 hexatomic rearranged ring system was isolated from the stems of Melodinus fusiformis. The structure with absolute configuration of 1 was established by extensive spectroscopic analyses and quantum ECD calculations. Melognine showed significant cytotoxicity on human breast cancer BT549 cells with an IC50 value of 1.49 µM by MTT assay. Further mechanism of action study indicated that melognine demonstrated the ability to induce apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 and p53, and downregulation of Bcl-2 in BT549 cells.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670672

RESUMO

Learning an effective distance measurement between sample pairs plays an important role in visual analysis, where the training procedure largely relies on hard negative samples. However, hard negative samples usually account for the tiny minority in the training set, which may fail to fully describe the data distribution close to the decision boundary. In this paper, we present a deep adversarial metric learning (DAML) framework to generate synthetic hard negatives from the original negative samples, which is widely applicable to existing supervised deep metric learning algorithms. Different from existing sampling strategies which simply ignore numerous easy negatives, our DAML aim to exploit them by generating synthetic hard negatives adversarial to the learned metric as complements. We simultaneously train the feature embedding and hard negative generator in an adversarial manner, so that adequate and targeted synthetic hard negatives are created to learn more precise distance metrics. As a single transformation may not be powerful enough to describe the global input space under the attack of the hard negative generator, we further propose a deep adversarial multi-metric learning (DAMML) method by learning multiple local transformations for more complete description. We simultaneously exploit the collaborative and competitive relationships among multiple metrics, where the metrics display unity against the generator for effective distance measurement as well as compete for more training data through a metric discriminator to avoid overlapping. Extensive experimental results on five benchmark datasets show that our DAML and DAMML effectively boost the performance of existing deep metric learning approaches through adversarial learning.

3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; : 110681, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699499

RESUMO

Denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and associated microbial diversity and abundance in the marsh sediments of Chongming eastern intertidal flat, the Yangtze Estuary, were investigated using carbon-isotope tracing and molecular techniques. Co-existence of nitrate-DAMO archaea and nitrite-DAMO bacteria was evidenced, with higher biodiversity of DAMO archaea than DAMO bacteria. Abundance of DAMO archaeal mcrA gene and DAMO bacterial pmoA gene ranged from 4.2 × 103 to 3.9 × 1010 copies g-1 and from 4.5 × 105 to 6.4 × 106 copies g-1, respectively. High DAMO potential was detected, ranging from 0.6 to 46.7 nmol 13CO2 g-1 day-1 for nitrate-DAMO and from 1.3 to 39.9 nmol 13CO2 g-1 day-1 for nitrite-DAMO. In addition to playing an important role as a CH4 sink, DAMO bacteria also removed a substantial amount of reactive nitrogen (29.4 nmol N g-1 day-1) from the intertidal sediments. Overall, these results indicate the importance of DAMO bioprocess as methane and nitrate sinks in intertidal marshes.

4.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 247, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672975

RESUMO

Surface soil moisture is a key variable in the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere, and critical to meteorology, hydrology, and ecology. The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as "The third pole of the world" and "Asia's water towers", exerts huge influences on and sensitive to global climates. In this situation, longer time series of soil moisture can provide sufficient information to understand the role of the TP. This paper presents the first comprehensive dataset (2002-2015) of spatio-temporal continuous soil moisture at 0.25° resolution, based on satellite-based optical (i.e. MODIS) and microwave (ECV) products using a machine learning method named general regression neural network (GRNN). The dataset itself reveals significant information on the soil moisture and its changes over the TP, and can aid to understand the potential driven mechanisms for climate change over the TP.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652793

RESUMO

Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are the most frequent craniofacial birth defects. An orofacial cleft (OFC) occurs as a result of deviations in palatogenesis. Cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and apoptosis are crucial in palatogenesis. We hypothesized that deregulation of these processes in oral keratinocytes contributes to OFC. We performed microarray expression analysis on palatal keratinocytes from OFC and non-OFC individuals. Principal component analysis showed a clear difference in gene expression with 24% and 17% for the first and second component, respectively. In OFC cells, 228 genes were differentially expressed (p < 0.001). Gene ontology analysis showed enrichment of genes involved in ß1 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration, as well as in P-cadherin expression. A scratch assay demonstrated reduced migration of OFC keratinocytes (343.6 ± 29.62 µm) vs. non-OFC keratinocytes (503.4 ± 41.81 µm, p < 0.05). Our results indicate that adhesion and migration are deregulated in OFC keratinocytes, which might contribute to OFC pathogenesis.

6.
Neurosci Lett ; 713: 134522, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568866

RESUMO

As a kind of information deception, price deception is adopted by some online sellers as an approach to mislead the consumers into buying their products. However, when consumers have sufficient knowledge about the price information, the effect of price deception on their purchase decision making remains elusive. Therefore, behavioural and event-related potentials measures were combined to investigate this issue. Behaviourally, a higher purchase rate and reduced reaction time were observed in the truthful condition relative to the deceptive condition, suggesting that the truthful condition was more favourable to the participants. At the neural level, the truthful condition triggered an attenuated N2 and an increased LPP compared with the deceptive condition, indicating less cognitive and decisional conflict and more positive evaluation of the truthful condition. Taken together, these results revealed the negative impact of price deception on purchase decision making and its potential neural substrates.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no multicenter studies on the influence of diabetes duration on pancreatic transplant outcomes. Our study aimed to determine how type 1 diabetes duration influenced survival of pancreatic grafts. METHODS: The data of 8,139 patients who received pancreas transplants during 2006-2015 were extracted from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database. Patients were separated into two groups according to duration of diabetes: S group (diabetes ≤20 years) and L group (>20 years). RESULTS: Compared to S group, L group were older and prone to be male, to have higher body mass index, to receive pancreas after kidney transplantation (PAK), and to be White. Patient survival was not significantly different between the two groups, but pancreatic survival was better in the L group (hazard ratio 0.88; P = 0.012). Pancreatic survival of L group was better than S group in pancreas transplant alone and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). Graft survival was not significant different between the two groups in PAK. Diabetes duration was an independent predictor of graft survival in SPK patients (hazard ratio 0.86; P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes duration has no influence on patient survival. However, long duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus appears to be protective against pancreatic graft loss.

8.
Oncol Rep ; 42(6): 2426-2434, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638261

RESUMO

RAD51, is a key homologous recombination protein that repairs DNA damage and maintains gene diversity and stability. Previous studies have demonstrated that the over­expression of RAD51 is associated with chemotherapy resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy, and enhanced activity of DNA damage repair (DDR) systems contributes to resistance of adult T­cell leukemia­lymphoma (ATL) resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, targeting RAD51 is a potential strategy for the sensitization of ATL cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by inducing DNA damage. In general, cells can repair minor DNA damage through DDR; however, serious DNA damage may cause cell toxicity in cells which cannot be restored. In the present, down regulation of RAD51 by shRNA and imatinib sensitized Jurkat cells to etoposide by decreasing the activity of homologous recombination (HR). We found that the suppression of RAD51 by shRNA inhibited tumor cells proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of Jurkat cells after etoposide treatment. Importantly, downregulation of RAD51 by imatinib obviously increased the apoptosis of Jurkat cell after etoposide treatment. These results demonstrated that RAD51 may be of great value to as a novel target for the clinical treatment of adult T­cell leukemia­lymphoma (ATL), and it may improve the survival of leukemia patients.

9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the possible lobe-specific lymph node (LN) metastasis pattern of early-stage peripheral non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and define the extent of lobe-specific LN dissection for them. METHODS: We retrospectively collected clinical data of patients undergoing lobectomy or segmentectomy with systematic lymphadenectomy for clinical T1N0M0 peripheral NSCLC from January 2015 to December 2018. The LN metastasis pattern was analyzed by tumor lobe location. RESULTS: A total of 590 patients were included for analysis. The mean number of total dissected LNs was 12.3 ± 5.8 and 8.2 ± 4.1 for total dissected mediastinal LNs. The rate of mediastinal LN metastasis was 9.5%. For cases of upper lobe tumor and lower lobe tumor, 8.8% and 6.0% of them respectively metastasized to the upper LN zone (P = 0.274). However, upper lobe tumors hardly metastasized to the subcarinal (0.3%) and lower (0.3%) LN zones while for lower lobe tumors, the rate of LN metastasis was 10.2% and 5.4% respectively (both P < 0.001). However, all cases (100%) metastasizing from lower lobes to the upper LN zone had a tumor size of 2-3 cm, whereas cases with a tumor size ≤ 2 cm had no metastasis (0%). None of the tumors in the right middle lobe metastasized to the lower LN zone (0%). CONCLUSIONS: A lobe-specific LN metastasis pattern was observed in clinical stage IA peripheral NSCLC. For tumors in upper lobes (≤ 3 cm), there may be no need to dissect lower mediastinal LNs and for tumors in lower lobes (≤ 2 cm), dissecting upper mediastinal LNs may not be required.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593347

RESUMO

A highly oriented mesoporous graphitic carbon nanospring (OGCS) with graphitic layers that are perpendicular to the axis is prepared by hydrothermal treatment of epoxy resin at 500 °C and annealing at 1400 °C. Water plays an important role in not only forming the graphitic carbon nanospring with a high [002] orientation and a large amount of active edge-plane sites, but also in the generation of the mesoporous structure, which facilitate fast K-ion adsorption and diffusion. In situ and ex situ measurements confirm that OGCS undergoes K-adsorption in mesopores and then K-intercalation in the graphite layer to form KC8 with a low discharge voltage. The spring-like nanostructure can expand one-dimensionally along the axial direction to accommodate the volume variation. The OGCS electrode thus shows a much better K-storage performance than that of unoriented graphitic carbon.

11.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(5): 679-684, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612382

RESUMO

Diet has been shown to play an important role in human physiology. It is a predominant exogenous factor regulating the composition of gut microbiota, and dietary intervention holds promise for treatment of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and malnutrition. Furthermore, it was reported that diet has significant effects on physiological processes of C. elegans, including reproduction, fat storage, and aging. To reveal novel signaling pathways responsive to different diets, C. elegans and its bacterial diet were used as an interspecies model system to mimic the interaction between host and gut microbiota. Most signaling pathways identified in C. elegans are highly conserved across different species, including humans. A better understanding of these pathways can, therefore, help to develop interventions for human diseases. In this article, we summarize recent achievements on molecular mechanisms underlying the response of C. elegans to different diets and discuss their relevance to human health.

12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3501-3508, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621237

RESUMO

The effects of inoculation of rhizosphere-promoting bacteria (PGPR) on photosynthesis and physiological-ecological characteristics of apple tree seedlings under drought conditions were investigated in this study, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the application of PGPR in plant drought resistance. In the pot experiment, the rhizosphere-promoting bacterium YX2 which had both ACC deaminase activity and strong phosphorus solubilizing ability was selected as the tested strain. Apple seedlings were grown under four different irrigation levels i.e., control (CK), mild drought (LD), moderate drought (MD), and severe drought (SD) with soil moisture equivalent to 70%-80%, 55%-65%, 40%-50% and 25%-35% of field water holding capacity, respectively. Inoculation of PGPR alleviated the damaging effects of drought on growth by improving relative water content and chlorophyll content in apple tree seedlings. In addition, PGPR inoculated individuals exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll fluorescence values, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate and lower relative conductivity and lipid peroxidation. Our results suggested that PGPR-YX2 alleviated the negative effects of drought stress on the growth and net photosynthetic rate by improving the antioxidant system, water content and membrane functioning.


Assuntos
Secas , Malus , Fotossíntese , Plântula , Solo , Água
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4714, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624240

RESUMO

Cotton is an important natural fiber crop, however, its comprehensive and high-resolution gene map is lacking. Here we integrate four complementary high-throughput techniques, including Pacbio long read Iso-seq, strand-specific RNA-seq, CAGE-seq, and PolyA-seq, to systematically explore the transcription landscape across 16 tissues or different organ types in Gossypium arboreum. We devise a computational pipeline, named IGIA, to reconstruct accurate gene structures from the integrated data. Our results reveal a dynamic and diverse transcriptional map in cotton: tissue-specific gene expression, alternative usage of TSSs and polyadenylation sites, hotspot of alternative splicing, and transcriptional read-through. These regulated events affect many genes in various aspects such as gain or loss of functional RNA motifs and protein domains, fine-tuning of DNA binding activity, and co-regulation for genes in the same complex or pathway. The methods and findings provide valuable resources for further functional genomic studies such as understanding natural SNP variations for plant community.

14.
J Exp Bot ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639824

RESUMO

Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic process involved in the degradation of protein aggregates, and it plays critical roles in eukaryotes. In plants, autophagy has been well studied in stress responses. Although multiple molecular processes can induce or suppress autophagy, the mechanism of its regulation by phytohormones is poorly understood. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that play crucial roles in plant response to stresses. In present study, we investigate the role of BRs in NBR1-dependent selective autophagy in response to chilling stress in tomato. BRs and their signaling element BZR1 can induce autophagy and protein accumulation of its selective receptor NBR1 in tomato under chilling stress. Cold increased the stability of BZR1, which was promoted by BRs. Cold- and BR-induced BZR1 stability activated the transcription of several ATGs and NBR1 genes by directly binding to the promoters of those genes, which resulted in the formation of selective autophagy. Furthermore, silencing of these ATGs or NBR1 genes resulted in the decreased accumulation of several functional proteins and the increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, subsequently compromised BR-induced cold tolerance. These results strongly suggest that BRs regulate NBR1-dependent selective autophagy by BZR1-dependent manner in response to chilling stress in tomato.

15.
J Therm Biol ; 85: 102420, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657761

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to investigate that effect of duration of thermal stress on growth performance, oxidative stress indices in serum, the expression and localization of ABCG2, and mitochondria ROS production in skeletal muscle, small intestine and immune organs, and then to further reveal correlations between indicators. At 28 days of age, sixty broilers were randomly divided into the control group (25 ±â€¯2 °C; 24 h/day) and the heat stress group (36 ±â€¯2 °C; 8 h/day lasted for 1 week or 2 weeks). Fifteen broilers per group were respectively euthanized, and some samples were respectively collected from the control and the heat stress groups at the end of the 1st week or the 2nd week of heat stress. A typical heat stress response has been observed at this temperature. Compared with the control group, the birds subjected to heat stress at the end of the 1st week reduced (P < 0.05) body weight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), the activity of serum antioxidant enzyme and content of glutathione (GSH), while increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum corticosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. However, when the heat stress lasted for the end of the 2nd week, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in ADFI, ADG, FCR and serum contents of corticosterone, MDA and GSH. Regardless of duration of thermal stress, the localization of ABCG2 protein had no change. Moreover, heat stress also did not affect (P > 0.05) the IOD of the ABCG2 positive portion and the expression of the ABCG2 mRNA in the pectorales, crureus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and spleen, while significantly increased (P < 0.05) the corresponding tissues ROS production at the end of the 1st week of heat stress. In contrast, at the end of the 2nd week of heat stress, IOD of the ABCG2 positive portion and the expression of the ABCG2 mRNA in heat stress group significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the corresponding tissues ROS production had no difference (P > 0.05) compared to the control group. Collectively, duration of thermal stress affects growth performance, serum oxidative stress indices, and the expression of ABCG2 and the ROS production of broiler tissues in a time-dependent manner. There is a negative correlation between the expression of ABCG2 and the ROS production in the corresponding tissues under heat stress.

16.
J Med Food ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621475

RESUMO

This study determined the ameliorative effects of the novel microorganism, Lactobacillus plantarum CQPC02 (LP-CQPC02), fermented in soybean milk, on loperamide-induced constipation in Kunming mice. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that LP-CQPC02-fermented soybean milk (LP-CQPC02-FSM) had six types of soybean isoflavones, whereas Lactobacillus bulgaricus-fermented soybean milk (LB-FSM) and unfermented soybean milk (U-FSM) only had five types of soybean isoflavones. LP-CQPC02-FSM also contained more total and active soybean isoflavones than LB-FSM and U-FSM. Results from mouse experiments showed that the defecation factors (quantity, fecal weight and water content, gastrointestinal transit ability, and time to first black stool) in the LP-CQPC02-FSM-treated mice were better than those in the LB-FSM- and U-FSM-treated mice. The serum and small intestinal tissue experiments showed that soybean milk increased the motilin, gastrin, endothelin, acetylcholinesterase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and glutathione levels and decreased the somatostatin, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels compared with the constipated mice in the control group. The LP-CQPC02-FSM also showed better effects than those of LB-FSM and U-FSM. Further results showed that LP-CQPC02-FSM upregulated cuprozinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), c-Kit, stem cell factor (SCF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and downregulated the expression levels of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) in the constipated mice. LP-CQPC02-FSM increased the Bacteroides and Akkermansia abundances and decreased the Firmicutes abundance in the feces of the constipated mice and decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio. This study confirmed that LP-CQPC02-FSM partially reversed constipation in mice.

17.
Curr Biol ; 29(20): 3430-3438.e4, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588001

RESUMO

Shoot-root communication is crucial for plant adaptation to environmental changes. However, the extensive crosstalk between shoots and roots that controls the synthesis of jasmonates (JAs), in order to enhance defense responses against rhizosphere herbivores, remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita induces the systemic transmission of electrical and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signals from attacked tomato roots to the leaves, leading to an increased accumulation of JAs in the leaves. Grafting of 1.0-cm stem sections from mutants lacking GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE 3.5 or the mutants deficient in RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG 1 abolished the RKN-induced electrical signals and associated ROS and JA accumulation in the upper stems and leaves with attenuated resistance to RKN. Furthermore, the absence of systemic transmission of electrical and ROS signals compromised the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) 1/2 in leaves. Silencing MPK1 or MPK2 abolished RKN-induced accumulation of JAs and associated resistance. These findings reveal a systemic signaling loop that integrates electrical, ROS, and JA signals to enhance the resistance in distal organs via root-shoot-root communication.

18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566868

RESUMO

AIMS: Amorphophallus konjac is an important commercial crop grown in China because it is the only plant species which is rich in glucomannan concentration. Recently, an outbreak of anthracnose (incidence ranging from 10-15%) was observed in a field survey conducted from June to August 2018. This study aims to identify the causal agent of Amorphophallus konjac anthracnose. METHODS AND RESULTS: The pathogen was isolated on PDA medium. The fungal colony on PDA was grayish to dark gray. Conidia were falcate, one-celled and hyaline. Based on the micro-morphological and cultural characteristics, the pathogen was identified as Colletotrichum sp. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS, GAPDH, CHS1, ACT, CAL and TUB2 genes revealed the pathogen as Colletotrichum siamense. Koch's postulates were conducted on 2-month konjac leaves with conidial suspension. Development of typical anthracnose disease was recorded 5 days after inoculation and the pathogen's identity was confirmed by re-isolation and molecular identification. CONCLUSIONS: Amorphophallus konjac anthracnose was caused by Colletotrichum siamense in China. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: Identification of causal agent of Amorphophallus konjac anthracnose will be helpful in designing effective disease control strategies.

19.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(12): 1520-1524, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515628

RESUMO

In this study, a wild type Methylophilus sp. strain D22 belonging to the family Methylophilus was isolated and characterized, which shows high tolerance towards methanol, as it can grow under 50 g/L of methanol. Methylophilus sp. strain D22 was isolated from the lake sludge in Nanjing Tech University, China. The assembled draft genome contains one circular chromosome with 3,004,398 bp, 49.7% of GC content, and 2107 predicted encoding proteins. Sequence-based genomic analysis demonstrates that the assimilation pathway of ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway and dissimilation pathway of tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) pathway are co-existing and contribute to the high methanol utilization efficiency.

20.
Chest ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have demonstrated a mortality benefit from lung cancer screening by low-dose CT (LDCT) in current or past tobacco smokers who meet criteria. Potential harms of screening mostly relate to downstream evaluation of abnormal screens. Few data exist on the rates outside of clinical trials of imaging and diagnostic procedures following screening LDCT. We describe rates in the community setting of follow-up imaging and diagnostic procedures after screening LDCT. METHODS: We used Clinformatics Data Mart national database to identify enrollees age 55 to 80 year who underwent screening LDCT from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. We assessed rates of follow-up imaging (diagnostic chest CT scan, MRI, and PET) and follow-up procedures (bronchoscopy, percutaneous biopsy, thoracotomy, mediastinoscopy, and thoracoscopy) in the 12 months following LDCT for lung cancer screening. We also assessed these rates in an age-, sex-, and number of comorbidities-matched population that did not undergo LDCT to estimate rates unrelated to the screening LDCT. We then reported the adjusted rate of follow-up testing as the observed rate in the screening LDCT population minus the rate in the non-LDCT population. RESULTS: Among 11,520 enrollees aged 55 to 80 years who underwent LDCT in 2016, the adjusted rates of follow up 12 months after LDCT examinations were low (17.7% for imaging and 3.1% for procedures). Among procedures, the adjusted rates were 2.0% for bronchoscopy, 1.3% for percutaneous biopsy, 0.9% for thoracoscopy, 0.2% for mediastinoscopy, and 0.4% for thoracotomy. Adjusted rates of follow-up procedures were higher in enrollees undergoing an initial screening LDCT (3.3%) than in those after a second screening examination (2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In general, imaging and rates of procedures after screening LDCT was low in this commercially insured population.

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