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1.
Hum Genet ; 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381161

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization is a powerful method for inferring causal relationships. However, obtaining suitable genetic instrumental variables is often challenging due to gene interaction, linkage, and pleiotropy. We propose Bayesian network-based Mendelian randomization (BNMR), a Bayesian causal learning and inference framework using individual-level data. BNMR employs the random graph forest, an ensemble Bayesian network structural learning process, to prioritize candidate genetic variants and select appropriate instrumental variables, and then obtains a pleiotropy-robust estimate by incorporating a shrinkage prior in the Bayesian framework. Simulations demonstrate BNMR can efficiently reduce the false-positive discoveries in variant selection, and outperforms existing MR methods in terms of accuracy and statistical power in effect estimation. With application to the UK Biobank, BNMR exhibits its capacity in handling modern genomic data, and reveals the causal relationships from hematological traits to blood pressures and psychiatric disorders. Its effectiveness in handling complex genetic structures and modern genomic data highlights the potential to facilitate real-world evidence studies, making it a promising tool for advancing our understanding of causal mechanisms.

2.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375570

RESUMO

The increasing demand for high-security, high-performance, and low-cost energy storage systems (EESs) driven by the adoption of renewable energy is gradually surpassing the capabilities of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs), including inorganics, polymers, and composites, have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs). ASSBs offer higher theoretical energy densities, improved safety, and extended cyclic stability, making them increasingly popular in academia and industry. However, the commercialization of ASSBs still faces significant challenges, such as unsatisfactory interfacial resistance and rapid dendrite growth. To overcome these problems, a thorough understanding of the complex chemical-electrochemical-mechanical interactions of SSE materials is essential. Recently, computational methods have played a vital role in revealing the fundamental mechanisms associated with SSEs and accelerating their development, ranging from atomistic first-principles calculations, molecular dynamic simulations, multiphysics modeling, to machine learning approaches. These methods enable the prediction of intrinsic properties and interfacial stability, investigation of material degradation, and exploration of topological design, among other factors. In this comprehensive review, we provide an overview of different numerical methods used in SSE research. We discuss the current state of knowledge in numerical auxiliary approaches, with a particular focus on machine learning-enabled methods, for the understanding of multiphysics-couplings of SSEs at various spatial and time scales. Additionally, we highlight insights and prospects for SSE advancements. This review serves as a valuable resource for researchers and industry professionals working with energy storage systems and computational modeling and offers perspectives on the future directions of SSE development.

3.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 75: 103907, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308947

RESUMO

AIM: To systematically evaluate the effect of smoking cessation training on nursing students' learning outcomes. DESIGN: This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022373280). METHODS: Ten electronic English and Chinese databases were searched to identify articles on nursing students' smoking cessation training from inception to October 2022. Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument was used to assess the methodological quality of eligible studies. RESULTS: Twelve moderate methodological quality studies (three randomized controlled trials and nine quasi-experimental studies) with 2114 undergraduate nursing students were included. Teaching strategies included didactic lectures, collaborative learning, blended learning and the service-learning approach. Eight studies showed that the training significantly increased nursing students' knowledge of smoking cessation (p < 0.05) and three of them showed a large effect size (Cohen's d: 0.83-1.31). Seven studies showed that training enhanced students' attitudes/motivation towards smoking cessation interventions significantly (p < 0.05) and two of them showed a large effect size (Cohen's d: 1.11-1.84). Nine studies reported that students' self-efficacy improved significantly after training (p < 0.05) and six of them showed a large effect size (Cohen's d: 0.98-2.18). Two one-group pre-post studies showed training significantly improved students' practice of 5 A's behavior (p < 0.05), with a small effect size (Cohen's d < 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: This review showed that smoking cessation training had a positive and large effect on undergraduate nursing students' knowledge, attitudes/motivation and self-efficacy towards smoking cessation intervention, but the effect of changing the practice of 5 A's was modest. We noted that very few RCTs were done and most studies only used subjective measures. More robust experimental studies with long-term follow-up are warranted in evaluating nursing students' practice/behavior of smoking cessation intervention and patients' quitting outcomes. Blended and collaborative learning are recommended in smoking cessation education.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Fumar , Aprendizagem
4.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(2): 136, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346941

RESUMO

Histone methylation plays a crucial role in various cellular processes. We previously reported the in vitro function of histone lysine demethylase 7 A (KDM7A) in osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. The current study was undertaken to investigate the physiological role of KDM7A in bone homeostasis and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. A conditional strategy was employed to delete the Kdm7a gene specifically in osterix-expressing osteoprogenitor cells in mice. The resulting mutant mice exhibited a significant increase in cancellous bone mass, accompanied by an increase in osteoblasts and bone formation, as well as a reduction in osteoclasts, marrow adipocytes and bone resorption. The bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and calvarial pre-osteoblastic cells derived from the mutant mice exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation and suppressed adipogenic differentiation. Additionally, osteoclastic precursor cells from the mutant mice exhibited impaired osteoclast differentiation. Co-culturing BMSCs from the mutant mice with wild-type osteoclast precursor cells resulted in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistic investigation revealed that KDM7A was able to upregulate the expression of fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in BMSCs through removing repressive di-methylation marks of H3K9 and H3K27 from Fap and Rankl promoters. Moreover, recombinant FAP attenuated the dysregulation of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in BMSCs from Kdm7a deficient mice. Finally, Kdm7a deficiency prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. This study establish the role of KDM7A in bone homeostasis through its epigenetic regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Consequently, inhibiting KDM7A may prove beneficial in ameliorating osteoporosis. KDM7A suppresses osteoblast differentiation and bone formation through. upregulating FAP expression and inactivating canonical Wnt signaling, and conversely promotes osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption through upregulating RANKL expression. These are based on its epigenetic removal of the repressive H3K9me2 and H3K27me2 marks from Fap and Rankl promoters. As a result, the expression of KDM7A in osteoprogenitor cells tends to negatively modulate bone mass.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji , Osteoclastos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Epigênese Genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Homeostase , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo
5.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 38: 101654, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375420

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disturbance of peripheral and central nerve conduction that causes disability in sensory and motor function. Currently, there is no effective treatment for SCI. Mitophagy plays a vital role in mitochondrial quality control during various physiological and pathological processes. The study aimed to elucidate the role of mitophagy and identify potential mitophagy-related hub genes in SCI pathophysiology. Two datasets (GSE15878 and GSE138637) were analyzed. Firstly, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and mitophagy-related genes were obtained from GeneCards, then the intersection between SCI and mitophagy-related genes was determined. Next, we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), protein-protein interaction network (PPI network), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and cluster analysis to identify and define the hub genes in SCI. Finally, the link between hub genes and infiltrating immune cells was investigated and the potential transcriptional regulation/small molecular compounds to target hub genes were predicted. In total, SKP1 and BAP1 were identified as hub genes of mitophagy-related DEGs during SCI development and regulatory T cells (Tregs)/resting NK cells/activated mast cells may play an essential role in the progression of SCI. LINC00324 and SNHG16 may regulate SKP1 and BAP1, respectively, through miRNAs. Eleven and eight transcriptional factors (TFs) regulate SKP1 and BAP1, respectively, and six small molecular compounds target BAP1. Then, the mRNA expression levels of BAP1 and SKP1 were detected in the injured sites of spinal cord of SD rats at 6 h and 72 h after injury using RT-qPCR, and found that the level were decreased. Therefore, the pathways of mitophagy are downregulated during the pathophysiology of SCI, and SKP1 and BAP1 could be accessible targets for diagnosing and treating SCI.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 251: 116104, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368644

RESUMO

Exosomal proteins from the parental cells are considered to be promising biomarker sets for precise tumor diagnostics and monitoring. However, the accurate quantitative analysis of low-abundance exosomal proteins remains challenging due to the heterogeneity of clinical samples. Here, we standardized the exosomal concentration with a fluorogenic membrane probe and developed an aptamer-bivalent-cholesterol-mediated Proximity Entropy-driven Exosomal Protein Reporter (PEEPR). The proposed PEEPR enables the in-situ analysis of multiple exosomal proteins by integrating bivalent cholesterol anchor (exosomal lipid bilayer) and aptamer (exosomal proteins) with a proximity entropy-driven circuit. Based on this strategy, we successfully achieved detection limits of 3.9 pg/mL exosomal GPC-3 and 3.4 pg/mL exosomal PD-L1. Notably, the standardization of exosome concentrations is designed to avoid errors due to biological heterogeneity. The results showed that evaluating the levels of exosomal GPC-3 and PD-L1 in clinical samples via this strategy could accurately differentiate healthy individuals, hepatitis B patients, and hepatocellular carcinoma patients. In summary, PEEPR is a promising clinical diagnostic strategy for the quantitative analysis of a variety of tumor-associated exosomal proteins for the precise diagnosis and personalized treatment monitoring of tumors.

7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4078, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374125

RESUMO

The African swine fever virus (ASFV) has caused severe economic losses in the pig industry. To monitor ASFV spread, the p30 protein has been identified as an ideal infection marker due to its early and long-term expression during the ASFV infection period. Timely monitoring of ASFV p30 enables the detection of ASFV infection and assessment of disease progression. Aptamers are an outstanding substitute for antibodies to develop an efficient tool for ASFV p30 protein detection. In this study, a series of aptamer candidates were screened by in vitro magnetic bead-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (MB-SELEX). An aptamer (Atc-20) finally showed high specificity and affinity (Kd = 140 ± 10 pM) against ASFV p30 protein after truncation and affinity assessment. Furthermore, an aptamer/antibody heterogeneous sandwich detection assay was designed based on Atc20, achieving a linear detection of ASFV p30 ranging from 8 to 125 ng/ml and a detection limit (LOD) of 0.61 ng/ml. This assay showed good analytical performances and effectively detected p30 protein in diluted serum samples, presenting promising potential for the development of ASFV biosensors.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Suínos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Oligonucleotídeos
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(17): 2389-2392, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321973

RESUMO

A bowl-shaped phosphangulene-protected cubic Cu58 nanocluster has been synthesized. The structure was determined by X-ray crystallography and further analyzed by multiple techniques. The phosphangulenes not only enable ligand substitutions with triphenylphosphines in a cluster-to-cluster transformation way, but also facilitate inter-cluster interactions with fullerenes. These interactions further influence the entirety's photocurrent response and ability to liberate hydrogen when stimulated by light.

9.
Food Funct ; 15(4): 2234-2248, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318730

RESUMO

A promising and efficacious approach to manage diabetes is inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. Therefore, the inhibitory activities of five natural sweeteners (mogrosides (Mog), stevioside (Ste), glycyrrhizinic acid (GA), crude trilobatin (CT), and crude rubusoside (CR)) against α-glucosidase and α-amylase and their interactions were evaluated in vitro using enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, and molecular docking. The inhibitor sequence was CT > GA > Ste, as GA competitively inhibited α-glycosidase activity while CT and Ste exhibited mixed inhibitory effects. Compared to a positive control acarbose, the inhibitory activity of CT was higher. For α-amylase, the mixed inhibitors CT, CR, and Mog and the competitive inhibitor Ste effectively inhibited the enzyme, with the following order: CT > CR > Ste > Mog; nevertheless, the inhibitors were slightly inferior to acarbose. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra depicted that GA, CT, and CR bound to the hydrophobic cavity of α-glucosidase or α-amylase and changed the polarity of the hydrophobic amino acid-based microenvironment and structure of the polypeptide chain backbone. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that GA, CT, and CR could disrupt the secondary structure of α-glucosidase or α-amylase, which decreased enzyme activity. GA, trilobatin and rubusoside bound to amino acid residues through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, changing the conformation of enzyme molecules to decrease the enzymatic activity. Thus, CT, CR and GA exhibit promising inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase.


Assuntos
Acarbose , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Flavonoides , Glucosídeos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Polifenóis , Acarbose/farmacologia , Acarbose/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Aminoácidos
10.
Oncol Lett ; 27(3): 137, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357478

RESUMO

Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumor growth and metastasis, and is heavily influenced by the tumor microenvironment (TME). Endothelial cell dysfunction is a key factor in tumor angiogenesis and is characterized by the aberrant expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Endothelial cell specific molecule-1 (ESM1), also known as endocan, is a marker of endothelial cell dysfunction. Although ESM1 is primarily expressed in normal endothelial cells, dysregulated ESM1 expression has been observed in human tumors and animal tumor models, and implicated in tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. The precise role of ESM1 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential regulatory mechanisms are not yet conclusively defined. However, the aim of the present review was to explore the involvement of ESM1 in the process of tumor angiogenesis in the TME and the characteristics of neovascularization. In addition, the present review discusses the interaction between ESM1 and angiogenic factors, as well as the mechanisms through which ESM1 contributes to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the reciprocal regulation between ESM1 and the TME is explored. Finally, the potential of targeting ESM1 as a therapeutic strategy for tumor angiogenesis is presented.

11.
ACS Synth Biol ; 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362836

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are attractive hosts for photosynthetic terpenoid production, using CO2 as the sole carbon source. Although the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is superior to the mevalonate pathway for cyanobacterial terpenoid synthesis, the first reaction of the MEP pathway, which is catalyzed by 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase, involves complex regulation and carbon loss. Here, we constructed a direct route linking ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) in the Calvin-Benson (CB) cycle with DXP in the MEP pathway in a cyanobacterium to increase the terpenoid yield from CO2 and bypass the DXS-targeted regulations. By employing the adaptive laboratory evolution, we identified new RibB variants including RibB 90-92del with a high activity of synthesizing DXP from Ru5P. These RibB variants were introduced into Synechococcus elongatus, resulting in the significantly increased photosynthetic production of isopentenol. The 13C tracer experiments demonstrated a direct carbon flow from Ru5P in the CB cycle to the MEP pathway; thus, this direct route was denoted as the Ru5P shunt. The strain harboring the Ru5P shunt produced 105.2 mg L-1 of isopentenol with an average rate of 17.5 mg L-1 d-1 under continuous light conditions, which is higher than those ever reported for five-carbon alcohol production by photoautotrophic microorganisms. Utilization of the Ru5P shunt in cyanobacterial cells also improved the pinene production, which demonstrates that this shunt can be used to enhance the photosynthetic production of diverse terpenoids.

12.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363534

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic accidence with little effective treatment, and inflammation played an important role in that. Previous studies showed photobiomodulation (PBM) could effectively downregulate the process of inflammation with modification of macrophage polarization after SCI; however, the potential mechanism behind that is still unclear. In the presented study, we aimed to investigate the effect of PBM on the expression level of versican, a matrix molecular believed to be associated with inflammation, and tried to find the mechanism on how that could regulate the inflammation process. Using immunofluorescence technique and western blot, we found the expression level of versican is increased after injury and markedly downregulated by irradiation treatment. Using virus intrathecal injection, we found the knock-down of versican could produce the effect similar to that of PBM and might have an effect on inflammation and macrophage polarization after SCI. To further verify the deduction, we peptide the supernatant of astrocytes to induce M0, M1, and M2 macrophages. We found that the versican produced by astrocytes might have a role on the promotion of M2 macrophages to inflammatory polarization. Finally, we investigated the potential pathway in the regulation of M2 polarization with the induction of versican. This study tried to give an interpretation on the mechanism of inflammation inhibition for PBM in the perspective of matrix regulation. Our results might provide light on the inflammation regulation after SCI.

13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 391: 110892, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364601

RESUMO

Sodium aescinate (SA) is extracted from Aesculus wilsonii Rehd seeds and was first marketed as a medicament in German. With the wide application of SA in clinical practice, reports of adverse drug reactions and adverse events have gradually increased, including renal impairment. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of SA have not yet been fully elucidated. The toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of SA were explored in this study. Our data showed that SA significantly elevated the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and Kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1), accompanied by pathologically significant changes in renal tissue. SA induced NRK-52E cell death and disrupted the integrity of the cell membrane. Moreover, SA caused significant reductions in FTH, Nrf2, xCT, GPX4, and FSP1 levels, but increased TFR1 and ACSL4 levels. SA decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) levels, but improved Fe2+, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels, ultimately leading to the induction of ferroptosis. Importantly, inhibition of ferroptosis or activation of the Nrf2/GPX4 pathway prevented SA-induced nephrotoxicity. These findings indicated that SA induced oxidative damage and ferroptosis-mediated kidney injury by suppressing the Nrf2/GPX4 axis activity.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 130207, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365156

RESUMO

Polysaccharides have been widely used in the development of natural drugs and health food. However, polysaccharide characterization lags due to inherently complicated features and the limitations of existing detection approaches. We aimed to provide new insight into the fine structure and conformational visualization of polysaccharides from Gastrodia elata Blume, a medicinal and edible plant. A water-soluble polysaccharide (GEP2-6) with the high molecular weight of 2.7 × 106 Da was first obtained, and its purity reached 99.2 %. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses jointly revealed that GEP2-6 was a glucan linked by α-(1 → 4) and α-(1 → 6) glycosidic bonds. After enzymolysis, the local structure of GEP2-6 included α-1,4-Glcp, α-1,6-Glcp, α-1,4,6-Glcp, and α-1-Glcp at a molar ratio of 31.27∶1.32∶1.08∶0.93. The glycosidic linkage pattern of repeating units was further simulated by a glycan database and spatial examination software. The good dissolution performance was interpreted by dynamics simulation and practical molecular characteristics. Spherical flexible chains and the porous stable conformation were corroborated using atomic force microscopy. In addition, GEP2-6 could effectively scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as a promising natural antioxidant. These efforts will contribute to the expansion of clinical applications of this G. elata polysaccharide and the structural elucidation for macromolecular polysaccharides combined with traditional and modern analysis techniques.

15.
Cell Metab ; 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350448

RESUMO

Immunomodulatory effects of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and their activating enzyme, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase long-chain family (ACSL), in the tumor microenvironment remain largely unknown. Here, we find that ACSL5 functions as an immune-dependent tumor suppressor. ACSL5 expression sensitizes tumors to PD-1 blockade therapy in vivo and the cytotoxicity mediated by CD8+ T cells in vitro via regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-mediated antigen presentation. Through screening potential substrates for ACSL5, we further identify that elaidic acid (EA), a trans LCFA that has long been considered harmful to human health, phenocopies to enhance MHC-I expression. EA supplementation can suppress tumor growth and sensitize PD-1 blockade therapy. Clinically, ACSL5 expression is positively associated with improved survival in patients with lung cancer, and plasma EA level is also predictive for immunotherapy efficiency. Our findings provide a foundation for enhancing immunotherapy through either targeting ACSL5 or metabolic reprogramming of antigen presentation via dietary EA supplementation.

16.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 40(1): 13, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347241

RESUMO

AIMS: Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1) is a multifunctional stress-induced protein involved in the regulation of tumorigenesis, apoptosis, and autophagy. However, its role in pulmonary hypertension (PH) after METH exposure remains unexplored. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether METH can induce PH and describe the role and mechanism of Nupr1 in the development of PH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were made to induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) upon chronic intermittent treatment with METH. Their right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured to assess pulmonary artery pressure. Pulmonary artery morphometry was determined by H&E staining and Masson staining. Nupr1 expression and function were detected in human lungs, mice lungs exposed to METH, and cultured pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) with METH treatment. Our results showed that chronic intermittent METH treatment successfully induced PH in mice. Nupr1 expression was increased in the cultured PASMCs, pulmonary arterial media from METH-exposed mice, and METH-ingested human specimens compared with control. Elevated Nupr1 expression promoted PASMC phenotype change from contractile to synthetic, which triggered pulmonary artery remodeling and resulted in PH formation. Mechanistically, Nupr1 mediated the opening of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) by activating the expression of STIM1, thereby promoting Ca2+ influx and inducing phenotypic conversion of PASMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Nupr1 activation could promote Ca2+ influx through STIM1-mediated SOCE opening, which promoted METH-induced pulmonary artery remodeling and led to PH formation. These results suggested that Nupr1 played an important role in METH-induced PH and might be a potential target for METH-related PH therapy.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Metanfetamina , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Metanfetamina/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 207: 108416, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354528

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) and selenium (Se) can improve the tolerance of plants to NaCl-induced salt stress. However, few studies are available on their regulatory effects on plants' tolerance to calcium nitrate stress, which often occurs in protected facilities, causing secondary soil salinization. In this study, we report the effects of Si (6 mM) and Se (20 µM) applied separately or in combination on the growth, photosynthesis, oxidative damage, and nitrogen metabolism of tomato plants, as well as fruit quality under calcium nitrate stress. The results showed that applications of Si or Se alone or in combination improved the plant growth and photosynthetic performance and reduced oxidative damage of the stressed plants. Applications of Si and Se did not decrease the calcium accumulation in leaves of the stressed plants. Under calcium nitrate stress, the concentrations of NO3-, NO2- and NH4+ in leaves were significantly increased, while the activities of nitrogen assimilation-related enzymes (including nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthase, glutamine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were decreased. Applications of Si and Se, especially their combined treatment, decreased the NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ concentrations and enhanced the activities of nitrogen assimilation-related enzymes in the stressed plants. Applied Si and Se also decreased the nitrate and titratable acid concentrations and increased vitamin levels in tomato fruits under calcium nitrate stress. It is suggested that Si and Se improved the tomato plant growth and fruit quality under calcium nitrate stress by alleviating oxidative damage and promoting both photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation.

18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 97(4): 1913-1922, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339928

RESUMO

Background: Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) play an important role in neurodegenerative pathology. Objective: The present study aims to test whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) level is linked to CMBs in elderly people. Methods: A total of 750 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who had measurements of GAP-43 and CMBs were included in the study. According to the presence and extent of CMBs, participants were stratified into different groups. Regression analyses were used to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between GAP-43 and CMBs. Results: Participants with CMB were slightly older and had higher concentrations of CSF GAP43. In multivariable adjusted analyses for age, gender, APOEɛ4 status, and cognitive diagnoses, higher CSF GAP-43 concentrations were modestly associated with CMB presence (OR = 1.169, 95% CI = 1.001-1.365) and number (ß= 0.020, SE = 0.009, p = 0.027). Similarly, higher CSF GAP43 concentrations were accrual of CMB lesions, associated with higher CMB progression (OR = 1.231, 95% CI = 1.044-1.448) and number (ß= 0.017, SE = 0.005, p = 0.001) in the follow up scan. In stratified analyses, slightly stronger associations were noted in male participants, those 65 years and older, carriers of APOEɛ4 alleles, and with more advanced cognitive disorders. Conclusions: CSF GAP-43 was cross-sectionally associated with the presence and extent of CMBs. GAP-43 might be used as a biomarker to track the dynamic changes of CMBs in elderly persons.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Proteína GAP-43 , Hemorragia Cerebral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Transversais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354893

RESUMO

Chronic stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, certain individuals may be at higher risk due to greater stress susceptibility. Elucidating the neurobiology of stress resilience and susceptibility may facilitate the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat stress-related disorders such as depression. Mounting evidence suggests that the serotonin (5-HT) system is a major regulator of stress sensitivity. In this study, we assessed the functions of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors within the lateral septum (LS) in regulating stress vulnerability. Among a group of male mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), 47.2% were classified as stress-susceptible, and these mice employed more passive coping strategies during the defeat and exhibited more severe anxiety- and depression-like behaviors during the following behavioral tests. These stress-susceptible mice also exhibited elevated neuronal activity in the LS as evidenced by greater c-Fos expression, greater activity of 5-HT neurons in both the dorsal and median raphe nucleus, and downregulated expression of the 5-HT1A receptor in the intermediate LS (LSi). Finally, we found the stress-induced social withdrawal symptoms could be rapidly relieved by LSi administration of 8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptors within the LSi play an important role in stress vulnerability in mice. Therefore, modulation of stress vulnerable via 5-HT1A receptor activation in the LSi is a potential strategy to treat stress-related psychiatric disorders.

20.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319757

RESUMO

Vascular structure segmentation plays a crucial role in medical analysis and clinical applications. The practical adoption of fully supervised segmentation models is impeded by the intricacy and time-consuming nature of annotating vessels in the 3D space. This has spurred the exploration of weakly-supervised approaches that reduce reliance on expensive segmentation annotations. Despite this, existing weakly supervised methods employed in organ segmentation, which encompass points, bounding boxes, or graffiti, have exhibited suboptimal performance when handling sparse vascular structure. To alleviate this issue, we employ maximum intensity projection (MIP) to decrease the dimensionality of 3D volume to 2D image for efficient annotation, and the 2D labels are utilized to provide guidance and oversight for training 3D vessel segmentation model. Initially, we generate pseudo-labels for 3D blood vessels using the annotations of 2D projections. Subsequently, taking into account the acquisition method of the 2D labels, we introduce a weakly-supervised network that fuses 2D-3D deep features via MIP to further improve segmentation performance. Furthermore, we integrate confidence learning and uncertainty estimation to refine the generated pseudo-labels, followed by fine-tuning the segmentation network. Our method is validated on five datasets (including cerebral vessel, aorta and coronary artery), demonstrating highly competitive performance in segmenting vessels and the potential to significantly reduce the time and effort required for vessel annotation. Our code is available at: https://github.com/gzq17/Weakly-Supervised-by-MIP.

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