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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149898, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461476

RESUMO

Microbial degradation is an effective approach for the removal of Bisphenol A (BPA). During the biodegradation process, quorum sensing (QS) is a phenomenon that enables bacteria to coordinate collective behaviors based on cell density-dependent chemical signals. However, whether the degradation of BPA can be facilitated by this QS system (such as acyl-homoserine lactone, AHL) is unclear. To answer this question, the bifunctional Sphingonomas sp. strain YK5 that had BPA-degrading and AHL-producing properties was used. Biochemical analysis revealed that this bacterial strain mainly produced C8-HSL signals. Gene knockout experiments indicated that the AHL-system (LuxI1/LuxI2) was required for efficient BPA degradation. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the AHL system positively regulated the relative expression of genes (bisdA, CYP450, hapA, ligAB, and proB) involved in BPA degradation. Given that AHL signaling may be a common trait among BPA-degrading microorganisms and AHL system can regulate the degradation activity, manipulation of this system may be a valuable strategy to control BPA biodegradation.


Assuntos
Acil-Butirolactonas , Percepção de Quorum , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Fenóis
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1684-1694, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500167

RESUMO

Bacterial infections are considered as a critical healthcare concern worldwide. Timely infection detection is crucial to effective antibiotic administration which can reduce the severity of infection and the occurrence of antibiotic resistance. We have developed label-free polydiacetylene (PDA) liposome-based colorimetric biosensor to detect and identify bacterial cultures at the genus and species level with naked eyes by simple color change. We found that among the various liposomal systems, moderate concentration of PDA, phospholipids and cholesterol in liposome assemblies can greatly influence the sensitivity to different bacteria, exhibiting unique chromatic properties of each bacterial strain. The strikingly different chromatic color change was due to the various mechanisms of interactions between bacterial toxins and biomimetic lipid bilayers. Furthermore, increase of cholesterol in liposome assemblies greatly enhanced the sensitivity of bacterial strains related to membrane destruction mediated by pore-formation mechanism such as S. aureus and E.coli, whereas the detection of the two bacterial strains was believed to rely on the specific recognition elements coupled with PDA moiety. As a proof of concept, a colorimetric finger-print array for distinguishing 6 bacterial species was studied. Particularly, the proposed bacterial detection platform is achieved through the interaction between bacterially secreted toxins and liposome bilayers instead of specific recognition of receptors-ligands. The results of both response time and sensitivity of label-free-liposome-based system show superior to previous reports on chromatic bacterial detection assays. By combing these results, the label-free-liposome-based colorimetric sensing platform shows great importance as a bacterial-sensing and discrimination platform.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Colorimetria , Bactérias , Atenção à Saúde , Lipossomos , Polímero Poliacetilênico , Polímeros , Poli-Inos , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126780, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358974

RESUMO

The microbial colonization profiles on microplastics (MPs) in marine environments have recently sparked global interest. However, many studies have characterized plastisphere microbiomes without considering the ecological processes that underly microbiome assembly. Here, we carried out a three-timepoint exposure experiment at 1-, 4-, and 8-week and investigated the colonization dynamics for polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene MP pellets in natural coastal water. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA, we found diversity and evenness were higher (p < 0.05) in the plastisphere communities than those in seawater, and microorganisms colonizing were co-influenced by environmental factors, polymer types, and exposure duration. Functional potential and co-occurrence network analysis revealed that MP exposure enriched the xenobiotic biodegradation potential and reduced the complexity of the MP microbial network. Simultaneously, null-model analyses indicated that stochastic processes contributed a bigger role than deterministic processes in shaping plastisphere microbial community structure with dispersal limitations contributing to a greater extent to microbial succession trajectories. These results implied the plastic surface had a more important role as a raft onto which microbes attach rather than selectively recruiting plastic-specific microbial colonizers. Our work strengthened the understanding of the ecological mechanisms by which microbial community patterns are controlled during colonization by plastic-associated microbes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar
4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833266

RESUMO

This paper investigates size effects on the mechanical response of additively manufactured lattice structures based on a commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) polymer. Initial attention is focused on investigating geometrical effects in the mechanical properties of simple beams and cubes. Following this, a number of geometrically scaled lattice structures based on the body-centered cubic design were manufactured and tested in order to highlight size effects in their compression properties and failure modes. A finite element analysis was also conducted in order to compare the predicted modes of failure with those observed experimentally. Scaling effects were observed in the compression response of the PLA cubes, with the compression strength increasing by approximately 19% over the range of scale sizes investigated. Similar size-related effects were observed in the flexural samples, where a brittle mode of failure was observed at all scale sizes. Here, the flexural strength increased by approximately 18% when passing from the quarter size sample to its full-scale counterpart. Significant size effects were observed following the compression tests on the scaled lattice structures. Here, the compression strength increased by approximately 60% over the four sample sizes, in spite of the fact that similar failure modes were observed in all samples. Finally, reasonably good agreement was observed between the predicted failure modes and those observed experimentally. However, the FE models tended to over-estimate the mechanical properties of the lattice structures, probably as a result of the fact that the models were assumed to be defect free.

5.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835603

RESUMO

Phosphorus-doped hierarchically porous carbon (HPC) is prepared with the assistance of freeze-drying using colloid silica and phytic acid dipotassium salt as a hard template and phosphorus source, respectively. Intensive material characterizations show that the freeze-drying process can effectively promote the porosity of HPC. The specific surface area and P content for HPC can reach up to 892 m2 g-1 and 2.78 at%, respectively. Electrochemical measurements in aqueous KOH and H2SO4 electrolytes reveal that K+ of a smaller size can more easily penetrate the inner pores compared with SO42-, while the developed microporosity in HPC is conducive to the penetration of SO42-. Moreover, P-doping leads to a high operation potential of 1.5 V for an HPC-based symmetric supercapacitor, resulting in an enhanced energy density of 16.4 Wh kg-1. Our work provides a feasible strategy to prepare P-doped HPC with a low dosage of phosphorus source and a guide to construct a pore structure suitable for aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte.

6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(12): 3579-3583, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826999

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the peripapillary changes after vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) tamponade in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: In this study, 25-gauge vitrectomy with SO tamponade was performed in 22 eyes with RRD. The radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density (VD) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) were assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The values of healthy fellow eyes were used as controls. Results: The global RPC VDs were significantly lower in the eyes with RRD than in fellow healthy eyes at 2 weeks (P < 0.001), and increased at 4 weeks, then decreased over time after surgery (F = 1.046, P = 0.377). The RPC VDs in the superior-hemifield were lower than those in the inferior-hemifield at 12 weeks postoperatively (t = -2.844, P = 0.010). The global RNFLTs decreased gradually after vitrectomy in the eyes with RRD (F = 1.312, P = 0.276). The RNFLTs in the superior-hemifield were thinner than those in the inferior-hemifield at 12 weeks postoperatively (t = -2.222, P = 0.037). The global, superior, and inferior RNFLTs were correlated with corresponding RPC VDs in the eyes with RRD at all time-points postoperatively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: RRD resulted in the decrease of RPC VDs. The RPC VDs recovered in the early postoperative period but were still lower than the normal level. Long-term application of SO tamponade resulted in the reduction of peripapillary VDs secondary to loss of RNFLTs.

7.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211058000, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825587

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) gene, which are associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), on the expression of VEGF proteins (VEGF165 and VEGF165b) and their role in cell proliferation and apoptosis in human retinal vascular endothelial cells (hRVECs). Cell viability and VEGF165 and VEGF165b expressions were evaluated in hRVECs transfected with VEGF genes containing different SNPs (rs3025039, rs3025033, and rs10434). The Cell Counting Kit 8 assay, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, TUNEL assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to examine the effects of VEGF gene SNPs on cell viability, VEGF165 and VEGF165b expressions, and cell apoptosis in hRVECs. The interaction and localization of the RNA-binding protein alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2) were assessed using RNA pull-down. Although VEGF165 expression decreased, VEGF165b levels increased significantly in hRVECs transfected with rs3025039, which decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis. The SNPs rs3025033 and rs10434 had no significant effects on VEGF165b protein production and apoptosis; however, they promoted cell proliferation. SNPs affected the interaction between RNA and ASF/SF2, a splicing factor for intron retention. Insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment induced the expression of VEGF165, but not VEGF165b, whereas SRPIN340 treatment, an inhibitor of ASF/SF2, increased VEGF165b protein levels. VEGF gene sequence variations affected hRVEC proliferation and apoptosis via alternative gene splicing. Thus, the regulation of splicing via ASF/SF2 could be a potential strategy in treating pathological neovascularization in patients with AMD.

8.
Hepatoma Res ; 7: 72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786524

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disorder worldwide. It comprises simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can further progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD involves genetic, environmental, and endocrine factors, and several molecular mechanisms have been identified. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on the role of autophagy, in particular lipophagy and mitophagy, in hepatic lipid oxidation. We discuss the pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggesting that impairment of autophagy exacerbates NAFLD progression and restoration of autophagy exerts beneficial effects on NAFLD. We discuss how thyroid hormone (TH) simultaneously regulates lipophagy, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis to increase ß-oxidation of fatty acids and reduce steatosis in the liver. Lastly, we discuss the recent clinical progress in using TH or thyromimetics in treating NAFLD/NASH.

9.
New Phytol ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724229

RESUMO

FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) is a well-known MADS-box transcription factor that is required for preventing early flowering under low temperatures in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative splicing of FLM is involved in the regulation of temperature-responsive flowering. However, how the basic transcript level of FLM is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we conducted forward genetic screening and identified a previously uncharacterized flowering repressor gene, UBA2c. Genetic analyses indicated that UBA2c represses flowering at least by promoting FLM transcription. We further demonstrated that UBA2c directly binds to FLM chromatin and facilitates FLM transcription by inhibiting histone H3K27 trimethylation, a histone marker related to transcriptional repression. UBA2c encodes a protein containing two putative RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and one prion-like domain (PrLD). We found that UBA2c forms speckles in the nucleus and that both the RRMs and PrLD are required not only for forming the nuclear speckles but also for the biological function of UBA2c. These results identify a previously unknown flowering repressor and provide insights into the regulation of flowering time.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 690874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776940

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PEGylated recombinant human granulocyte-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) as a means of achieving primary and secondary prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia cancer cases. Methods: Individuals who underwent PEG-rhG-CSF therapeutics were monitored for 12 months, together with thorough examination of individual medical records for extracting medical care costs. Both prophylaxis-based therapeutic options (primary/secondary) were scrutinized for cost-effectiveness, using a decision-making analysis model which derived the perspective of Chinese payers. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model. Results: In summary, 130 clinical cases treated using PEG-rhG-CSF prophylaxis were included in this study: 51 within the primary prophylaxis (PP) group and 79 within the secondary prophylaxis (SP) group. Compared with SP, PP-based PEG-rhG-CSF successfully contributed to a 14.3% reduction in febrile neutropenia. In general, PP was estimated to reduce costs by $4,701.81 in comparison to SP, with a gain of 0.02 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Equivalent results were found in differing febrile neutropenia (FN) risk subgroups. Sensitivity analyses found the model outputs to be most affected for the average time of hospitalization and for the cost of FN. Conclusion: From the perspective of Chinese payers, PP with PEG-rhG-CSF should be considered cost-effective compared to SP strategies in patients who received chemotherapy regimens with a middle- to high-risk of FN.

11.
Stat Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786731

RESUMO

Statistical methods generating individualized treatment rules (ITRs) often focus on maximizing expected benefit, but these rules may expose patients to excess risk. For instance, aggressive treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with insulin therapies may result in an ITR which controls blood glucose levels but increases rates of hypoglycemia, diminishing the appeal of the ITR. This work proposes two methods to identify risk-controlled ITRs (rcITR), a class of ITR which maximizes a benefit while controlling risk at a prespecified threshold. A novel penalized recursive partitioning algorithm is developed which optimizes an unconstrained, penalized value function. The final rule is a risk-controlled decision tree (rcDT) that is easily interpretable. A natural extension of the rcDT model, risk controlled random forests (rcRF), is also proposed. Simulation studies demonstrate the robustness of rcRF modeling. Three variable importance measures are proposed to further guide clinical decision-making. Both rcDT and rcRF procedures can be applied to data from randomized controlled trials or observational studies. An extensive simulation study interrogates the performance of the proposed methods. A data analysis of the DURABLE diabetes trial in which two therapeutics were compared is additionally presented. An R package implements the proposed methods ( https://github.com/kdoub5ha/rcITR).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813466

RESUMO

Recent learning-based intrinsic image decomposition methods have achieved remarkable progress. However, they usually require massive ground truth intrinsic images for supervised learning, which limits their applicability on real-world images since obtaining ground truth intrinsic decomposition for natural images is very challenging. In this paper, we present an unsupervised framework that is able to learn the decomposition effectively from a single natural image by training solely with the image itself. Our approach is built upon the observations that the reflectance of a natural image typically has high internal self-similarity of patches, and a convolutional generation network tends to boost the self-similarity of an image when trained for image reconstruction. Based on the observations, an unsupervised intrinsic decomposition network (UIDNet) consisting of two fully convolutional encoder-decoder sub-networks, i.e., reflectance prediction network (RPN) and shading prediction network (SPN), is devised to decompose an image into reflectance and shading by promoting the internal self-similarity of the reflectance component, in a way that jointly trains RPN and SPN to reproduce the given image. A novel loss function is also designed to make effective the training for intrinsic decomposition. Experimental results on three benchmark real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 40(12): 5662-5673, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiologic studies are inconsistent regarding the association of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and/or fish intake with risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) incidence and progression. The objective was to determine these associations by conducting a meta-analysis of available studies. METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched for studies that quantified dietary omega-3 PUFA and/or fish intake from inception to December 2020 without language restriction. Three investigators independently assessed for inclusion and extracted data. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects model. Potential dose-response associations were explored with the use of generalized least-squares trend estimation. RESULTS: 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Higher dietary intakes of omega-3 PUFA was significantly associated with 14% (relative risk [RR]: 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77, 0.96) and 29% (RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.91) lower risk of early and late AMD, respectively. The dose-response analysis showed a 6% and 22% decrease in the risk of early and late AMD for each additional 1  g/d omega-3 PUFA intake. For individual omega-3 PUFA, the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was inversely associated with lower AMD risk, whereas no association was found for the alpha-linolenic acid. Consistent inverse associations were also found between fish intake and AMD. The pooled RRs comparing extreme categories of fish intake were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.90) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.85) for early and late AMD risk, respectively. Every 15 g/d of fish consumption was associated with 13% and 14% lower early and late AMD. In addition, fish intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of AMD progression (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of dietary omega-3 PUFA or fish was associated with a reduced risk of developing of AMD, which further supports that consumption of omega-3 PUFA-rich foods may be a new avenue nutritional approach to preventing AMD.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(19): 1493, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805355

RESUMO

Background: To analyze the efficacy and safety of everolimus 5 mg/day in combination with endocrine drugs in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer using real-world clinical data. Methods: Clinical data of hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HER2-negative patients with advanced breast cancer treated with everolimus combined with endocrine drugs in our center between August 2012 and May 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Curative effect and adverse reactions were evaluated. Results: A total of 110 patients were enrolled in this study, and 87.3% received salvage chemotherapy. The median number of salvage treatment lines was 5 (range: 1-19). The median follow-up duration was 12 months (range: 1-56.3 months), the overall response rate (ORR) was 6.4%, the clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 31.8%, the median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 4.0 months (95% CI: 2.9-5.1 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was 17 months (95% CI: 12.1-21.9 months). The mPFS for patients who received ≤2 treatment line was 11.8 months (95% CI: 4.3-19.3 months). Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that absence of liver metastases, secondary endocrine resistance, and number of metastasis sites <3 were the main factors influencing the benefit of everolimus combined with endocrine therapy. The most common adverse events of grade 3 were: stomatitis (5.5%), non-infectious pneumonia (1.8%), and erythra (1.8%). No grade 4 adverse reactions were observed. Conclusions: Our results showed that everolimus (5 mg/day) combined with endocrine therapy was effective and relatively safe for patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

15.
Exp Neurol ; 347: 113918, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748756

RESUMO

In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), abnormal axon guidance and synapse formation lead to sprouting of mossy fibers in the hippocampus, which is one of the most consistent pathological findings in patients and animal models with TLE. Glypican 4 (Gpc4) belongs to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan family, which play an important role in axon guidance and excitatory synapse formation. However, the role of Gpc4 in the development of mossy fibers sprouting (MFS) and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. Using a pilocarpine-induced mice model of epilepsy, we showed that Gpc4 expression was significantly increased in the stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus at 1 week after status epilepticus (SE). Using Gpc4 overexpression or Gpc4 shRNA lentivirus to regulate the Gpc4 level in the dentate gyrus, increased or decreased levels of netrin-1, SynI, PSD-95, and Timm score were observed in the dentate gyrus, indicating a crucial role of Gpc4 in modulating the development of functional MFS. The observed effects of Gpc4 on MFS were significantly antagonized when mice were treated with L-leucine or rapamycin, an agonist or antagonist of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal, respectively, demonstrating that mTOR pathway is an essential requirement for Gpc4-regulated MFS. Additionally, the attenuated spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were observed during chronic stage of the disease by suppressing the Gpc4 expression after SE. Altogether, our findings demonstrate a novel control of neuronal Gpc4 on the development of MFS through the mTOR pathway after pilocarpine-induced SE. Our results also strongly suggest that Gpc4 may serve as a promising target for antiepileptic studies.

16.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1987779, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806521

RESUMO

Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have a high prevalence of mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Gut microbiota imbalance and disturbed metabolism have been suggested to play an important role in either UC or mental disorders. However, little is known about their detailed multi-omics characteristics in patients with UC and depression/anxiety. In this prospective observational study, 240 Chinese patients were enrolled, including 129 patients with active UC (69 in Phase 1 and 60 in Phase 2; divided into depression/non-depression or anxiety/non-anxiety groups), 49 patients with depression and anxiety (non-UC), and 62 healthy people. The gut microbiota of all subjects was analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. The serum metabolome and proteome of patients with UC in Phase 2 were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Associations between multi-omics were evaluated by correlation analysis. The prophylactic effect of candidate metabolites on the depressive-like behavior of mice with colitis was investigated. In total, 58% of patients with active UC had depression, while 50% had anxiety. Compared to patients with UC without depression/anxiety, patients with UC and depression/anxiety had lower fecal microbial community richness and diversity, with more Lactobacillales, Sellimonas, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus but less Prevotella_9 and Lachnospira. Most metabolites (e.g., glycochenodeoxycholate) were increased in the serum, while few metabolites, including 2'-deoxy-D-ribose and L-pipecolic acid, were decreased, accompanied by a general reduction in immunoglobulin proteins. These related bacteria, metabolites, and proteins were highly connected. A prophylactic administration of 2'-deoxy-D-ribose and L-pipecolic acid significantly reduced the depressive-like behaviors in mice with colitis and alleviated the inflammatory cytokine levels in their colon, blood and brain. This study has identified a comprehensive multi-omics network related to depression and anxiety in active UC. It is composed of a certain set of gut microbiota, metabolites, and proteins, which are potential targets for clinical intervention for patients with UC and depression/anxiety.

17.
Xenobiotica ; : 1-15, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806927

RESUMO

1. The effect of agrimoniin on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes would induce drug-drug interaction, which leads to adverse effects or even failure of therapy.2. Agrimoniin was incubated with the specific substrates of eight human liver CYP isoforms in pooled human liver microsomes. The enzyme kinetics and time-dependent study were performed to obtain kinetic parameters and characteristics in vitro.3. Agrimoniin significantly inhibited the activity of CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 6.26, 9.35, and 8.30 µM, respectively. Agrimoniin served as a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP3A4 and a competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2 and 2D6. Moreover, the incubation time also significantly affected the inhibition of CYP3A4.4. In vitro inhibitory effect of agrimoniin on the activity of CYP1A2, 2A6, and 3A4 was reported in this study. The potential drug-drug interactions between agrimoniin and drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 should be paid special attention.

18.
J Nat Prod ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797067

RESUMO

Ten new triterpenoids, including nine 9,10-seco-cycloartanes (1-9) and one 9,19-cyclolanostane (10), as well as one sesquiterpenoid (11) and four known compounds (12-15), were extracted and purified from the whole plant of the Chinese liverwort Lepidozia reptans. Multiple techniques (NMR, HRESIMS, IR, and X-ray crystallographic analysis) were applied to determine the structures of the isolated compounds. Bioassay determinations showed that compound 7, which contains an α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl moiety in its structure, inhibited the growth of a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4.2 ± 0.2 to 5.7 ± 0.5 µM. Further investigation revealed that compound 7 induces PC-3 cell death via mitochondrial-related apoptosis.

19.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(43): 897-900, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745687

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: Benzene is classified as a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Long-term exposure to benzene increases the risk of chronic benzene poisoning and leukemia. However, benzene is still widely used in the manufacturing industry. What is added by this report?: The scale of enterprises most exposed to benzene was small enterprises, and joint-equity enterprises had the highest number that exceeded the permissible concentration-time weighted average. What are the implications for public health practice?: It is still necessary to strengthen the monitoring of benzene concentrations in the manufacturing industry, especially in small enterprises. The occupational exposure limit of benzene should be appropriately reduced.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151769, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801495

RESUMO

The monitoring of air quality compliance requires the use of Federal Reference Methods (FRM)/Federal Equivalent Methods (FEM); nevertheless, the validity and reliability of low-cost sensors deserve attention due to their affordability and accessibility. This review examines the methodologies of previous studies to characterise the performance of low-cost air quality sensors and to identify the influential factors in sensor evaluation experiments. The data on four statistical measures (Correlation of Determination, r2; Root Mean Square Error, RMSE; Mean Normalised Bias, MNB; and Coefficient of Variation, CV) and details about five methodological factors in experimental design (environmental setting, reference instrument, regression model, pollutant attribute, and sensor original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specification) were extracted from a total of 112 primary articles for a detailed analysis. The results of the analysis suggested that low-cost air quality sensors exhibited improved r2 and RMSE in the experiments with stable environmental settings, in the comparison against non-designated reference instruments, or in the analysis where advanced regression models were used to adjust the sensor readings. However, the pollutant attribute and sensor OEM specification had inconclusive effects on r2 and RMSE due to contradictory results and lack of sufficient data. MNB and CV, two measures that US EPA recommends to determine the suitable application tier of air quality sensors, varied significantly among published experiments due to the discrepancy in experimental design. The outcomes of this work could provide direction to researchers regarding sensor evaluation experiments and guide practitioners to effectively select and deploy low-cost sensors for air quality monitoring.

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