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Nurs Crit Care ; 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358027


BACKGROUND: Although the circuit condensate, an ideal bacterial reservoir during mechanical ventilation, may flow into the humidifier reservoir, no studies have investigated if humidifier reservoir colonized bacteria colonize other circuit locations with airflow. AIMS: We aimed to prove whether the humidifier reservoir colonized bacteria colonize other circuit locations with airflow and provide some advice on the disposal of condensate in the clinical setting. STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro experiment was conducted. Mechanical ventilation simulators (n = 90) were divided into sterile water group (n = 30) and broth group (n = 60). In the sterile water group, sterile water was used for humidification, either Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated to humidifier water in the humidifier reservoir, each accounted for 50% of the simulators. The broth group was performed the same as the sterile water group except for the addition of broth into the humidified water. After 24, 72, and 168 h of continuous ventilation, the humidifier water and different locations of the circuits were sampled for bacterial culture. RESULTS: All bacterial culture results of the sterile water group were negative. Bacteria in the humidifier water continued to proliferate in the broth group. With prolonged ventilation, the bacteria at the humidifier reservoir outlet increased. The bacteria at the humidifier reservoir outlet were much more in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa subgroup than in the Acinetobacter baumannii subgroup and the difference was statistically significant (p < .05). During continuous ventilation, no bacterial growth occurred at 10 cm from the humidifier reservoir outlet and the Y-piece of the ventilator circuits. CONCLUSIONS: Sterile water in the humidifier reservoir was not conducive to bacterial growth. Even if bacteria grew in the humidifier reservoir and could reach the humidifier reservoir outlet, colonization of further circuit locations with the airflow was unlikely. During a certain mechanical ventilation time, the amount of bacteria reaching the outlet of the humidifier reservoir varied due to different mobility of bacteria. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: In a clinical setting, nurses should not worry about a small amount of condensate backflow into the humidifier reservoir. Draining condensate into the humidifier reservoir can be used as a low risk and convenient method in clinical practice.

Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(9): 5231-5241, 2023 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699841


Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are refractory organic pollutants, which are characterized by ubiquity, bioaccumulation, and biological toxicity. To explore the biotoxic effects of PFAS on fish, this study reviewed 64 publications. The toxicity of PFAS on functional traits of fish exposed to PFAS was analyzed based on Meta-analysis combined with effect sizes, which provided reference for the toxicity assessment of PFAS and was conducive to the priority control and management of PFAS pollution. The results showed that:① of the 12 functional traits studied, seven were found to be vulnerable in fish; the order of toxicity response was malformation (lnRR=-2.5599), development (lnRR=-0.4103), cell damage (lnRR=-0.3962), reproduction (lnRR=-0.3724), thyroid response (lnRR=-0.2492), growth (lnRR=-0.2194), and survival (lnRR=-0.2192). ② The aquatic toxicity of PFAS was significantly affected by the sex and developmental stage of fish. PFAS tended to have adverse effects on female fish (lnRR=-0.1628), and the physiological function of embryos was most significantly affected by PFAS (lnRR=-0.3553). ③ A total of 13 PFAS were involved in the study, among which PFAS with sulfonate groups and long-chains were more likely to have significant toxicity to the functional traits of fish (P<0.05).④ Existing data revealed that PFAS tended to produce acute toxicity to fish at medium and low concentrations (0.01-10 mg·L-1, P<0.05).

Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Animais , Feminino , Alcanossulfonatos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Masculino
J Invertebr Pathol ; 186: 107665, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520799


Penaeus vannamei is the most economically important species of shrimp cultured worldwide. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an emerging pathogen that severely affects the growth and development of shrimps. In this study, the transcriptome differences between EHP-infected and uninfected shrimp were investigated through next-generation sequencing. The unigenes were assembled with the reads from all the four libraries. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of intestines and hepatopancreas were analyzed. There were 2,884 DEGs in the intestines and 2,096 DEGs in the hepatopancreas. The GO and KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs were significantly enriched in signaling pathways associated with nutritional energy metabolism and mobilizing autoimmunity. Moreover, the results suggested the downregulation of key genes in energy synthesis pathways contributed greatly to shrimp growth retardation; the upregulation of immune-related genes enhanced the resistance of shrimp against EHP infection. This study provided identified genes and pathways associated with EHP infection revealing the molecular mechanisms of growth retardation.

Enterocytozoon/fisiologia , Penaeidae/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Intestinos/parasitologia , Penaeidae/parasitologia