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1.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 63(4): 107106, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325724

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), an important opportunistic pathogen, is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. The polymyxins (colistin and polymyxin B) are the last line of defense in the treatment of CRAB infections, and there is an urgent need to develop novel alternative therapeutic strategies. In this study, we found that the antimicrobial peptide DvAMP exhibited satisfactory antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against CRAB. In addition, DvAMP showed tolerable stability in salt ions and serum and exhibited low toxicity in vivo. Investigation of the underlying mechanism demonstrated that DvAMP disrupts cell membrane structural integrity and specifically binds to exogenous lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and phospholipids (PG/CL), resulting in increased membrane permeability and dissipating proton motive force (PMF), further reducing intracellular ATP levels and inducing ROS accumulation, leading to bacterial death. Furthermore, DvAMP therapy efficiently improved survival rates and decreased the bacterial load in the lungs of mice in a mouse pneumonia model, showing that DvAMP administration reduced CRAB susceptibility to lung infection. These results indicate that the peptide DvAMP is a promising alternative therapeutic agent to combat CRAB infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Animais , Camundongos , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
2.
Bioorg Chem ; 138: 106679, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37329812

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients. However, the number of drugs for the treatment of cryptococcosis is restricted, and the development of novel antifungal drugs and innovative strategies for the treatment of cryptococcosis is urgently needed. In this study, we validated that DvAMP is a novel antimicrobial peptide with antimicrobial activity and that it was obtained by pre-screening from the UniProt database of more than three million unknown functional sequences based on the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) protocol (http://www.chemoinfolab.com/antifungal). The peptide exhibited satisfactory biosafety and physicochemical properties, and relatively rapid fungicidal activity against C. neoformans. Meanwhile, DvAMP was able to inhibit the static biofilm of C. neoformans and cause a reduction in the thickness of the capsule. In addition, DvAMP exerts antifungal effects through membrane-mediated mechanisms (membrane permeability and depolarization) and mitochondrial dysfunction, involving a hybrid multi-hit mechanism. Furthermore, by using the C. neoformans-Galleria mellonella infection model, we demonstrated that DvAMP has significant therapeutic effects in vivo and that it significantly reduces the mortality and fungal burden of infected larvae. These results suggest that DvAMP may be a potential antifungal drug candidate for the treatment of cryptococcosis.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Mariposas , Animais , Humanos , Antifúngicos/química , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 39(1): 304-317, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36738218

RESUMO

Candida albicans is one of the major causes of invasive fungal infections and a serious opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The antimicrobial peptide AMP-17 has prominent anti-Candida activity, and proteomic analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of cell wall (XOG1) and oxidative stress (SRR1) genes upon the action of AMP-17 on C. albicans, suggesting that AMP-17 may exert anti-C. albicans effects by affecting the expression of XOG1 and SRR1 genes. To further investigate whether XOG1 and SRR1 genes were the targets of AMP-17, C. albicans xog1Δ/Δ and srr1Δ/Δ mutants were constructed using the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. Phenotypic observations revealed that deletion of two genes had no significant effect on C. albicans growth and biofilm formation, whereas XOG1 gene deletion affected in vitro stress response and mycelium formation of C. albicans. Drug sensitivity assay showed that the MIC80 values of AMP-17 against xog1Δ/Δ and srr1Δ/Δ mutants increased from 8 µg/mL (for the wild type C. albicans SC5314) to 16 µg/mL, while the MIC80 values against srr1Δ/Δ: : srr1 revertants decreased to the level of the wild type SC5314. In addition, the ability of AMP-17 to inhibit biofilm formation of both deletion strains was significantly reduced compared to that of wild type SC5314, indicating that the susceptibility of the deletion mutants to AMP-17 was reduced in both the yeast state and during biofilm formation. These results suggest that XOG1 and SRR1 genes are likely two of the potential targets for AMP-17 to exert anti-C. albicans effects, which may facilitate further exploration of the antibacterial mechanism of novel peptide antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Candida albicans , Humanos , Proteômica , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358129

RESUMO

The biofilm formation of C. albicans represents a major virulence factor during candidiasis. Biofilm-mediated drug resistance has necessitated the search for a new antifungal treatment strategy. In our previous study, a novel antimicrobial peptide named AMP-17 derived from Musca domestica was confirmed to have significant antifungal activity and suppress hyphal growth greatly in C. albicans. In the current work, we aimed to investigate the antibiofilm property of AMP-17 in C. albicans and explore the underlying mechanism. An antifungal susceptibility assay showed that AMP-17 exerted a strong inhibitory efficacy on both biofilm formation and preformed biofilms in C. albicans. Furthermore, AMP-17 was found to block the yeast-to-hypha transition and inhibit the adhesion of biofilm cells with a reduction in cellular surface hydrophobicity. A morphological analysis revealed that AMP-17 indeed suppressed typical biofilm formation and damaged the structures of the preformed biofilm. The RNA-seq showed that the MAPK pathway, biosynthesis of antibiotics, and essential components of the cell were mainly enriched in the biofilm-forming stage, while the citrate cycle (TCA cycle), phenylamine metabolism, and propanoate metabolism were enriched after the biofilm matured. Moreover, the co-expressed DEGs in the two pairwise comparisons highlighted the terms of transmembrane transporter activity, regulation of filamentation, and biofilm formation as important roles in the antibiofilm effect of AMP-17. Additionally, qRT-PCR confirmed that the level of the genes involved in cell adhesion, filamentous growth, MAPK, biofilm matrix, and cell dispersal was correspondingly altered after AMP-17 treatment. Overall, our findings reveal the underlying antibiofilm mechanisms of AMPs in C. albicans, providing an interesting perspective for the development of effective antifungal agents with antibiofilm efficacy in Candida spp.

5.
Front Nutr ; 9: 1014147, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36337645

RESUMO

The pollution status of crops planted in Guizhou province of Southwestern China with high background values of Fluorine (F) and Cadmium (Cd) has attracted people's concern. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial distributions of F and Cd in rice, corn and wheat grains, and further evaluate their health risks to residents in Guizhou province. The contents of F and Cd were measured by fluoride ion-selective electrode and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods, respectively. Additionally, the inverse distance weighted (IDW) technique was conducted to analyze spatial distribution, and the health risk was estimated by target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazardous index (HI). The results indicate that Cd contents in samples varied from 0.000 to 0.463 for rice, 0.000 to 0.307 for corn, and 0.012 to 0.537 (mg/kg) for wheat, while F contents ranged from 0.825 to 5.193 (rice), 0.946 to 8.485 (corn), and 0.271 to 9.143 (wheat) mg/kg. The Cd exceeding ratios were 11.600% for rice, 13.500% for corn, and 45.100% for wheat grains, respectively. In terms of spatial distribution, high levels of F and Cd in rice were found in the northern and central in Guizhou, while Cd in corn was distributed in the eastern and F in corn were distributed in the west area of Guizhou. Moreover, the high levels of F and Cd in wheat were distributed in the western and eastern areas. The mean carcinogenic risks (R) of Cd in rice, corn, and wheat in children were 4.150 × 10-4, 1.670 × 10-4 and 3.470 × 10-4, respectively, and that in adults were 3.430 × 10-4, 0.471 × 10-4, and 2.190 × 10-4, respectively. The HI for adults in rice, corn and wheat grains were 0.756, 0.154, and 0.514, respectively, and that for children were 0.913, 0.549, and 0.814, respectively. Collectively, the potential risks produced by F and Cd to the local residents should not be ignored.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 990318, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36262330

RESUMO

Azole resistance is becoming increasingly serious due to the frequent recurrence of fungal infections and the need for long-term clinical prevention. In our previous study, we discovered ORF19.5274 with an unknown function by TMT™ quantitative proteomics technology after fluconazole (FLC) treatment of Candida albicans. In this study, we created the target gene deletion strain using CRISPR-Cas9 editing technology to see if ORF19.5274 regulates azole sensitivity. The data showed that ORF19.5274 was involved in hyphal development and susceptibility to antifungal azoles. Deleting this gene resulted in defective hyphal growth in solid medium, while only a weak lag in the initiation of hyphal development and restoring hyphal growth during the hyphal maintenance phase under liquid conditions. Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and propidium iodide staining assays showed increased endogenous ROS levels and membrane permeability, but decreased metabolic activity of biofilm in orf19.5274Δ/Δ after treatment with FLC in comparison with either SC5314 or orf19.5274Δ/Δ::ORF19.5274 strains. More importantly, orf19.5274Δ/Δ significantly enhanced the FLC efficacy against C. albicans in infected Galleria mellonella larvae. The above characteristics were fully or partially restored in the complemented strain indicating that the changes caused by ORF19.5274 deletion were specific. In summary, the ORF19.5274 gene is required for hyphal development of C. albicans, and is correlated with the response to antifungal azoles in vitro and in vivo. The identification of ORF19.5275 is promising to expand the potential candidate targets for azoles.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 872322, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531288

RESUMO

Global burden of fungal infections and related health risk has accelerated at an incredible pace, and multidrug resistance emergency aggravates the need for the development of new effective strategies. Candida albicans is clinically the most ubiquitous pathogenic fungus that leads to high incidence and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in this context, represent promising alternatives having potential to be exploited for improving human health. In our previous studies, a Cecropin-4-derived peptide named C18 was found to possess a broader antibacterial spectrum after modification and exhibit significant antifungal activity against C. albicans. In this study, C18 shows antifungal activity against C. albicans or non-albicans Candida species with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 4∼32 µg/ml, and clinical isolates of fluconazole (FLZ)-resistance C. tropicalis were highly susceptible to C18 with MIC value of 8 or 16 µg/ml. Additionally, C18 is superior to FLZ for killing planktonic C. albicans from inhibitory and killing kinetic curves. Moreover, C18 could attenuate the virulence of C. albicans, which includes damaging the cell structure, retarding hyphae transition, and inhibiting biofilm formation. Intriguingly, in the Galleria mellonella model with C. albicans infection, C18 could improve the survival rate of G. mellonella larvae to 70% and reduce C. albicans load from 5.01 × 107 to 5.62 × 104 CFU. For mechanistic action of C18, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cytosolic Ca2 + increased in the presence of C18, which is closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Meanwhile, mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm) loss and ATP depletion of C. albicans occurred with the treatment of C18. We hypothesized that C18 might inhibit C. albicans via triggering mitochondrial dysfunction driven by ROS generation and Ca2 + accumulation. Our observation provides a basis for future research to explore the antifungal strategies and presents C18 as an attractive therapeutic candidate to be developed to treat candidiasis.

8.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 233-248, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is a common human fungal pathogen in immunocompromised people, as well as a prevalent cause of meningitis in HIV-infected individuals. With the emergence of clinical fungal resistance and the shortage of antifungal drugs, it is urgent to discover novel antifungal agents. AMP-17, a novel antimicrobial peptide from Musca domestica, has antifungal activity against C. neoformans. However, its antifungal and anti-biofilm activities remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of AMP-17 against planktonic cells and biofilms of C. neoformans. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the biofilm inhibitory and eradicating concentration (BIC and BEC) were determined by the broth microdilution assay or the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay, respectively. The inhibitory and killing activities of AMP-17 against C. neoformans were investigated through the time-inhibition/killing kinetic curves. The potential antifungal mechanism of AMP-17 was detected by flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The efficiency of AMP-17 against biofilm formation or preformed biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and XTT reduction assays. The morphology of pre-biofilms was tested by optical microscopy (OM) and CLSM. RESULTS: AMP-17 exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against C. neoformans planktonic cells and biofilms, with MICs of 4~16 µg/ml, BIC80 and BEC80 of 16~32 µg/ml, 64~128 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, the 2× and 4× MIC of AMP-17 exhibited similar inhibition levels compared to the 2× and 4× MIC of the clinical drugs FLC and AMB in C. neoformans growth. Moreover, the time-kill results showed that AMP-17 (8× MIC) did not significantly eliminate colony forming units (CFU) after 6 h of treatment; however, there was 2.9-log reduction in CFU of C. neoformans. Furthermore, increasing of the permeability of the fungal cell membrane was observed with the treatment of AMP-17, since the vast change as fungal leakage and cell membrane disruption. However, the DNA binding assay of AMP-17 indicated that the peptide did not target DNA. Besides, AMP-17 was superior in inhibiting and eradicating biofilms of C. neoformans compared with FLC. CONCLUSION: AMP-17 exhibited potential in vitro antifungal activity against the planktonic cells and biofilms of C. neoformans, and it may disrupt fungal cell membranes through multi-target interactions, which provides a promising therapeutic strategy and experimental basis for Cryptococcus-associated infections.

9.
J Proteomics ; 250: 104385, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606990

RESUMO

Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. With the emergence of clinical fungal resistance, there is an urgent need to develop novel antifungal agents. AMP-17, a novel antimicrobial peptide from Musca domestica, has an antifungal effect against C. albicans, but its mechanism of antifungal action remains unclear. In the current study, we performed a proteomics analysis in C. albicans using TMT technique under the treatment of AMP-17. A total of 3931 proteins were identified, of which 3600 included quantitative information. With a 1.5-fold change threshold and a t-test p-value < 0.05 as standard, 423 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were up-regulated and 180 DEPs were down-regulated in the AMP-17/control. Notably, GO enrichment revealed that DEPs associated with the cell wall, RNA and oxidative stress were significantly up-regulated, while DEPs involved in ergosterol metabolism and membrane were significantly down-regulated in the AMP-17/control. KEGG pathway enrichment revealed that DEPs involved seven significant metabolic pathways, mainly involved oxidative phosphorylation, RNA degradation, propanoate metabolism and fatty acid metabolism. These results show that AMP-17 induces a complex organism response in C. albicans, indicating that AMP-17 may inhibit growth by affecting multiple targets in C. albicans cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important part of the innate immune system of organisms and having broad range of activity against fungi, bacteria and viruses. These AMPs are considered as probable candidate for forthcoming drugs, due to their broad range of activity, lesser toxicity and decreased resistance development by target cells. AMP-17, a novel antimicrobial peptide from M. domestica, has significant antifungal activity against C. albicans. It has been confirmed that AMP-17 can play an antifungal effect by destroying the cell wall and cell membrane of C. albicans in previous studies, but its mechanism of action at the protein level is currently unclear. In the current study, using the TMT-based quantitative proteomics method, 603 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the cells of C. albicans treated with AMP-17 for 12 h, and these DEPs were closely related to cell wall, cell membrane, RNA degradation and oxidative stress. The results provide new insights into the potential mechanism of action of AMP- 17 against C. albicans. Meanwhile, it provides certain technical support and theoretical basis for the research and development of novel peptide drugs.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Candida albicans , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteômica
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1142: 169-178, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280694

RESUMO

A new parameter-free framework for calibration enhancement (PFCE) was proposed for dealing with the near-infrared (NIR) spectral inconsistency and maintaining the prediction ability of the calibration model under different conditions. The calibration issues encountered in the maintenance with or without using standards, and even the enhancement between instruments have been thoroughly addressed. The general calibration maintenance/enhancement cases were formulated into non-supervised PFCE (NS-PFCE), semi-supervised PFCE (SS-PFCE), and full-supervised PFCE (FS-PFCE). The NS-PFCE made use of both the provided master and slave spectra of standard samples to construct a maintained calibration slave model by implementing a correlation constraint on the regression coefficients. The SS-PFCE and FS-PFCE methods integrated the slave spectra and reference information of standard samples at the same time into the slave spectral calibration, and thus a maintenance or enhancement model could be achieved for the slave spectra, in particular measured on different instruments. The use of dataset1 comprised of 655 pharmaceutical tablets measured on two NIR spectrometers and datset2 containing 117 plant leaf samples in two mesh sizes has demonstrated that the PFCE framework had a significant effect on enhancing the predictions of the slave spectra in the models. The root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEPs) of either active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) amount in tablets or reducing sugar content in plant leaf samples from the slave spectra approached to or were lower than those values predicted from the master spectra in the master models established with the partial least-squares (PLS) regression method. The advantage of PFCE was parameter-free and efficient. First, the method could be flexibly employed in scientific or applicative environment with no regard to the parameter specification. Second, the performance of NS-PFCE was comparable to the classical calibration maintenance methods, yet the SS-PFCE and FS-PFCE could enhance the prediction ability to a level widely considered as the upper boundary of classical calibration maintenance methods reached.The source code of the method is available at https://github.com/JinZhangLab/PFCE.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Calibragem , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Padrões de Referência , Comprimidos
11.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1048, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134041

RESUMO

Two-component systems (TCSs) are dominant regulating components in bacteria for responding to environmental stimuli. However, little information is available on how TCSs in Enterococcus faecium respond to bile salts - an important environmental stimulus for intestinal bacteria. In this study, the gene expression of 2 TCSs, BsrXRS and LiaFSR, was positively correlated with survival rates of different E. faecium isolates during exposure to ox gall. Moreover, gene disruptions of bsrR, bsrS, liaS, and liaR significantly reduced the survival rates of E. faecium in the presence of ox gall. Finally, EMSA results indicated that BsrR functioned as a transcription regulator for expression of its own gene as well as lipoate-protein ligase A (lplA). Additional 27 potential target genes by BsrR were revealed through in silico analyses. These findings suggest that BsrXRS and LiaFSR systems play important roles in bile salt resistance in E. faecium.

12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 704, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659929

RESUMO

The microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in the development of the immune system and in regulation of host inflammation responses. Probiotics can effectively alleviate the inflammation caused by Salmonella in chickens. However, whether and how miRNAs are involved in modulation of the inflammation response in the gut of chickens have not been reported. In this study, the impact of a probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum Z01 (LPZ01), was investigated on the cecal miRNAs and cytokine secretions in Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium)-infected chickens at the age of 3 days. Newly hatched chicks were assigned to four groups (1): NC (basal diet) (2): S (basal diet + S. Typhimurium challenged) (3): SP (basal diet + S. Typhimurium challenged + LPZ01) (4): P (basal diet + LPZ01). In comparison with the S group, chicks in the SP group reduced the number of S. Typhimurium and had lower levels of interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) in ceca post challenge. Expression of 14 miRNAs was significantly affected by the presence of S. Typhimurium and/or lactobacillus. Five differential expression miRNAs (gga-miR-215-5p, gga-miR-3525, gga-miR-193a-5p, gga-miR-122-5p, and gga-miR-375) were randomly selected for confirmation by the RT-PCR. Predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, stress-activated MAPK cascade, immune system development and regulation of immune system process as well as in immune related pathways such as MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways. The relationship between changes of miRNAs and changes of cytokines was explored. Finally, 119 novel miRNAs were identified in 36 libraries totally. Identification of novel miRNAs significantly expanded the repertoire of chicken miRNAs and provided the basis for understanding the function of miRNAs in the host. Our results suggest that the probiotics reduce the inflammation of the S. Typhimurium infection in neonatal broiler chicks, at least partially, through regulation of miRNAs expression.

13.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0147630, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799658

RESUMO

Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Células CACO-2/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecium/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Interleucinas/sangue , Lactobacillus/imunologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/imunologia , Pediococcus/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
14.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0116699, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25756992

RESUMO

Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) in bovine milk is a major public health concern. The primary purpose of this research was to determine molecular genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of mastitic cows in the Shaanxi Province in Northwestern China. One hundred and thirteen methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), one mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA, seven mecA- and mecC- negative but phenotype-positive MRSA and two MR-CoNS including one oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus (OS-MRSH) and one mecA-positive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates were recovered from 214 quarter milk samples on 4 dairy farms. All above 123 isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance profiling. S. aureus isolates were also genotyped using the spa typing and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eight MRSA and 2 MR-CoNS isolates were additionally tested for SCCmec types. Resistance was common among isolates against ampicillin or penicillin (80.5%), kanamycin (68.3%), gentamicin (67.5%), tetracycline (43.9%) and chloramphenicol (30.1%). However, no isolate was resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin. Twenty, 29 and 58 isolates showed resistance to 1, 2 or more than 2 antibiotics, respectively. The predominant multidrug resistance profile was penicillin/ampicillin/kanamycin/gentamicin/tetracycline (46 isolates). Most S. aureus isolates belonged to spa types t524 (n = 63), t11772 (a new type, n = 31) and t4207 (n = 15). At the same time, MLST types ST71 (n = 67) and ST2738 (a new type, n = 45) were identified as dominant sequence types. The mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA isolate had a composite genotype t524-ST71-SCCmecIVa, while 7 mecA-negative but phenotype-positive MRSA isolates were all t524-ST71. The OS-MRSH isolate contained a type V SCCmec cassette, while the MRSE isolate possessed a non-typeable SCCmec. The spa-MLST types t11772-ST2738 (n = 27), t11807-ST2683 (n = 4) and t11771-ST2738 (n = 3) were newly identified genotypes of S. aureus. These new genotypes and multidrug-resistant staphylococci could pose additional threat to animal and human health.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/análise , Meticilina/farmacologia , Leite/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bovinos , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Genótipo , Resistência a Meticilina , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética
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