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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19830, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615962

RESUMO

Endosomal trafficking of cell surface receptors is essential to their function. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that integrate adhesion to the extracellular matrix with engagement of the cytoskeleton. Ligated integrins mediate diverse signals that regulate matrix assembly, cell survival, cell morphology, and cell motility. Endosomal trafficking of integrins modulates these signals and contributes to cell motility and is required for cancer cell invasion. The phosphoprotein PEA-15 modulates integrin activation and ERK MAP Kinase signaling. To elucidate novel PEA-15 functions we utilized an unbiased proteomics approach. We identified several binding partners for PEA-15 in the endosome including clathrin and AP-2 as well as integrin ß1 and other focal adhesion complex proteins. We confirmed these interactions using proximity ligation analysis, immunofluorescence imaging, pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation. We further found that PEA-15 is enriched in endosomes and was required for efficient endosomal internalization of α5ß1 integrin and cellular migration. Importantly, PEA-15 promotion of migration was dependent on PEA-15 phosphorylation at serines 104 and 116. These data support a novel endosomal role for PEA-15 in control of endosomal trafficking of integrins through an association with the ß1 integrin and clathrin complexes, and thereby regulation of cell motility.

2.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 9178-9187, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606546

RESUMO

Background: Basic studies have found that xanthine oxidase inhibitors extracted from mushrooms have inhibitory effects on hyperuricemia. However, the association between mushroom consumption and hyperuricemia is unknown in humans. Objective: We therefore designed a large-scale cohort study to examine whether mushroom consumption is a protective factor for developing hyperuricemia in adults. Methods: This prospective cohort study investigated 19 830 participants (mean age: 39.4 years; and 9906 [50.0%] men) who were free of hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline. Mushroom consumption was measured at the baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid levels >420 µmol L-1 in men and >350 µmol L-1 in women. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of mushroom consumption with incident hyperuricemia. Restricted cubic spline regression was used to estimate the dose-response relationship between mushroom consumption and risk of hyperuricemia. Results: A total of 4260 first incident cases of hyperuricemia occurred during 61 421 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up of 4.2 years). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, dietary intake, and inflammatory markers, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident hyperuricemia were 1.00(reference) for <1.76 g per 1000 kcal per day, 0.93(0.86, 1.01) for 1.76-2.84 g per 1000 kcal per day, 0.93(0.85, 1.01) for 2.85-5.52 g per 1000 kcal per day, and 0.88 (0.80, 0.96) for >5.52 g per 1000 kcal per day, respectively (P for trend = 0.007). Conclusions: This population-based prospective cohort study has firstly demonstrated that higher mushroom consumption is significantly associated with lower incidence of hyperuricemia among general adults.

4.
J Virol ; : JVI0082921, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613801

RESUMO

Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), is fatal to both humans and animals around the world. Effective clinical therapy for rabies has not been achieved, and vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling rabies. Although different vaccines, such as live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, can induce different immune responses, different expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) also causes diverse immune responses. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pivotal PRR that induces cytokine production and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. Importantly, TLR4 recognizes various virus-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and virus-induced damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), usually leading to the activation of immune cells. However, the role of TLR4 in the humoral immune response induced by RABV has not been revealed yet. Based on TLR4-deficient (TLR4-/-) and wild-type (WT) mouse models, we report that TLR4-dependent recruitment of the conventional type-2 dendritic cells (CD8α- CD11b+ cDC2) into secondary lymph organs (SLOs) is critical for antigen presentation. cDC2-initiated differentiation of Tfh cells promotes the proliferation of germinal centre (GC) B cells, the formation of GCs, and the production of plasma cells (PCs), all of which contribute to the production of RABV-specific IgG and virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs). Collectively, our work demonstrates that TLR4 is necessary for the recruitment of cDC2 and for the induction of RABV-induced humoral immunity, which is regulated by the cDC2-Tfh-GC B axis. IMPORTANCE Vaccination is the most efficient method to prevent rabies. TLR4, a well-known immune sensor, plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response. Here, we found that TLR4 deficiency (TLR4-/-) mice suppressed the induction of humoral immune response after immunization with rabies virus (RABV), including reduced production of VNAs and RABV-specific IgG, compared with that occurred in wild-type (WT) mice. As a consequence, TLR4-/- mice exhibited higher mortality than WT mice after challenge with virulent RABV. Importantly, further investigation found that TLR4 signaling promoted the recruitment of cDC2 (CD8α+ CD11b-), a subset of cDCs known to induce CD4+ T cell immunity through their MHC-II presentation machinery. Our results imply that TLR4 is indispensable for an efficient humoral response to rabies vaccine, which provides new insight into the development of novel rabies vaccines.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e2106115, 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601769

RESUMO

Crystal phase of nanomaterials is one of the key parameters to determine their physicochemical property and performance in various applications. However, it still remains a great challenge to synthesize nanomaterials with different crystal phases while maintaining the same composition, size and morphology. Here, we report a facile, one-pot, wet-chemical method to synthesize Pd3 Sn nanorods with the comparable size and morphology but different crystal phases, i.e., the ordered intermetallic and disordered alloy with the L12 and face-centered cubic (fcc) phases, respectively. The crystal phase of the as-synthesized Pd3 Sn nanorods is easily tuned by altering the types of tin precursors and solvents. Moreover, our approach can also be used to synthesize ternary PdCuSn nanorods with the L12 crystal phase. When used as electrocatalysts, the L12 Pd3 Sn nanorods exhibit superior electrocatalytic performance towards the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) compared to their fcc counterpart. Impressively, compared to the L12 Pd3 Sn nanorods, the ternary L12 PdCuSn nanorods exhibit more enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards EOR, yielding a high mass current density up to 6.22 A mgPd -1 , which are superior to the commercial Pd/C catalyst and among the best reported Pd-based EOR electrocatalysts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 368, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely reveals structural changes in patients with suspected anti-Tr/DNER encephalitis and thus provides very limited information. Here, we combined structural MRI, functional MRI, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings to characterize this rare disorder in a patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old woman presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia, memory impairment, anxiety, and depression. Anti-Tr antibodies were detected in both her serum (1:10) and cerebrospinal fluid (1:10). A diagnosis of anti-Tr-positive autoimmune cerebellar ataxia was established. The patient's symptoms were worse, but her brain MRI was normal. Meanwhile, voxel-based morphometry analysis showed bilateral reduced cerebellar volume, especially in the posterior lobe and uvula of the cerebellum and the middle of the left temporal lobe compared with 6 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects (6 females, 43 ± 2 years; p < 0.05). Using seed-based functional connectivity analysis, decreased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and left frontal lobe compared to the control group (p < 0.05) was detected. PET-CT revealed bilateral hypometabolism in the cerebellum and relative hypermetabolism in the cerebellar vermis and bilateral frontal lobe, but no malignant changes. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of structural MRI, functional MRI, and brain PET-CT has higher diagnostic and prognostic value than conventional MRI in patients with suspected anti-Tr/DNER encephalitis.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502619

RESUMO

Gas explosion has always been an important factor restricting coal mine production safety. The application of machine learning techniques in coal mine gas concentration prediction and early warning can effectively prevent gas explosion accidents. Nearly all traditional prediction models use a regression technique to predict gas concentration. Considering there exist very few instances of high gas concentration, the instance distribution of gas concentration would be extremely imbalanced. Therefore, such regression models generally perform poorly in predicting high gas concentration instances. In this study, we consider early warning of gas concentration as a binary-class problem, and divide gas concentration data into warning class and non-warning class according to the concentration threshold. We proposed the probability density machine (PDM) algorithm with excellent adaptability to imbalanced data distribution. In this study, we use the original gas concentration data collected from several monitoring points in a coal mine in Datong city, Shanxi Province, China, to train the PDM model and to compare the model with several class imbalance learning algorithms. The results show that the PDM algorithm is superior to the traditional and state-of-the-art class imbalance learning algorithms, and can produce more accurate early warning results for gas explosion.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , China , Carvão Mineral , Probabilidade
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports a link between ultra-processed food consumption and human health outcomes. However, the association between ultra-processed food consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not known. We aimed to explore the association between ultra-processed food consumption and risk of NAFLD. METHODS: The prospective study included 16 168 participants aged 18-90 years from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) Cohort Study. Information on ultra-processed food consumption was collected at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of sonographic fatty liver in the absence of significant alcohol intake (≥210 g/week for men and ≥140 g/week for women, respectively) and other liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between ultra-processed food consumption and risk of NAFLD. RESULTS: During 56 935 person-years of follow-up, we documented 3752 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, education, occupation, income, physical activity, total energy intake, personal and family history of disease and overall diet quality, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of NAFLD across increasing quartiles of ultra-processed food consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 1.13 (1.03, 1.25) and 1.18 (1.07, 1.30), respectively (P for trend <0.0001). The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per one standard deviation increase in ultra-processed food consumption, equivalent to a 62.7 g/1000 kcal per day, was 1.06 (1.03, 1.09), P = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that higher ultra-processed food consumption is associated with a higher risk of NAFLD. This finding suggests that ultra-processed food, which is widely consumed worldwide, might be a modifiable dietary target to reduce the risk of NAFLD.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520192

RESUMO

Tuning the crystal phase of bimetallic nanocrystals offers an alternative avenue to improving their electrocatalytic performance. Herein, we present a facile and one-pot synthesis approach that is used to enhance the catalytic activity and stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media via control of the crystal structure of Pd-Bi nanocrystals. By merely altering the types of Pd precursors under the same conditions, the monoclinic structured Pd5Bi2 and conventional face-centered cubic (fcc) structured Pd3Bi nanocrystals with comparable size and morphology can be precisely synthesized, respectively. Interestingly, the carbon-supported monoclinic Pd5Bi2 nanocrystals exhibit superior ORR activity in alkaline media, delivering a mass activity (MA) as high as 2.05 A/mgPd. After 10,000 cycles of ORR durability test, the monoclinic structured Pd5Bi2/C nanocatalysts still remain a MA of 1.52 A/mgPd, which is 3.6 times, 16.9 times, and 21.7 times as high as those of the fcc Pd3Bi/C counterpart, commercial Pd/C, and Pt/C electrocatalysts, respectively. Moreover, structural characterizations of the monoclinic Pd5Bi2/C nanocrystals after the durability test demonstrate the excellent retention of the original size, morphology, composition, and crystal phase, greatly alleviating the leaching of the Bi component. This work provides new insight for the synthesis of multimetallic catalysts with a metastable phase and demonstrates phase-dependent catalytic performance.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521993

RESUMO

A distinct renal tumor has recently been described as "high-grade oncocytic renal tumor" and "sporadic renal cell carcinoma with eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm". The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) consensus proposed a unifying name "eosinophilic vacuolated tumor" (EVT) for this emerging entity. In this multi-institutional study, we evaluated 19 EVTs, particularly their molecular features and mutation profile, using next-generation sequencing. All cases were sporadic and none of the patients had a tuberous sclerosis complex. There were 8 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 47 years (median 50; range 15-72 years). Average tumor size was 4.3 cm (median 3.8 cm; range 1.5-11.5 cm). All patients with available follow-up data (18/19) were alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression during the follow-up, ranging from 12 to 198 months (mean 56.3, median 41.5 months). The tumors were well circumscribed, but lacked a well-formed capsule, had nested to solid growth, focal tubular architecture, and showed ubiquitous, large intracytoplasmic vacuoles, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, cathepsin K, CD117, CD10, and antimitochondrial antigen were expressed in all cases. Other positive stains included: PAX8, AE1/AE3 and CK18. CK7 was typically restricted only to rare scattered cells. Vimentin, HMB45, melan-A, and TFE3 were negative in all cases. All tumors showed retained SDHB. All cases (19/19) showed non-overlapping mutations of the mTOR pathway genes: TSC1 (4), TSC2 (7), and MTOR (8); one case with MTOR mutation showed a coexistent RICTOR missense mutation. Low mutational rates were found in all samples (ranged from 0 to 6 mutations/Mbp). Microsatellite instability and copy number variations were not found in any of the 17 analyzable cases. EVT represents an emerging renal entity that shows a characteristic and readily identifiable morphology, consistent immunohistochemical profile, indolent behavior, and mutations in either TSC1, TSC2, or MTOR genes.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 670616, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489929

RESUMO

Neutrophils are characterized by their heterogeneity. They fight against pathogens and are involved in tissue injury repair and immune system regulation. Neutrophils have an extremely short life span in the peripheral blood and undergo aging after being released from the bone marrow. The over-aggregation of aged neutrophils is associated with phenotypical and functional changes. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamics of neutrophil aging and its relationship with T cell exhaustion in HIV-1 infection, as they are not well understood. In this study, we enrolled 23 treatment naïve (TN) patients, 23 individuals that had received antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 21 healthy controls (HC). In these cohorts, we measured the degree of neutrophil aging, and its possible correlation with T cell dysfunction. In TN patients, peripheral neutrophils showed a more distinct aging phenotype and were over-activated compared to those in ART-treated patients. The degree of neutrophil aging was positively correlated with HIV-1 RNA viral load and negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell count. Moreover, aged neutrophils had impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, and were characterized by increased PD-L1 and arginase-1 expression in a time-dependent manner. Aged neutrophils demonstrated an increased inhibition of IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion by CD8+ T cell compared to non-aged neutrophils. The inhibition effect could be partially reversed by blocking PD-L1 and arginase-1 in vitro, and LPS was identified as an important activator of neutrophil aging. These results provide evidence that dampening neutrophil aging may provide a novel approach to recover T cell dysfunction in patients with HIV-1 infection.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 89-99, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492357

RESUMO

Flexible and transparent conductive films are highly desirable in some optoelectronic devices, such as smart windows, touch panels, as well as displays and electromagnetic protection field. Silver nanowire (Ag NW) has been considered as the best material to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) to fabricate flexible transparent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding films due to its superior comprehensive performance. However, the common substrates supporting Ag NWs require surface modification to enhance the adhesion with Ag NWs. In this work, a flexible and transparent Ag NWs EMI shielding film with sandwich structure through a facile rod-coating method, wherein Ag NWs network were embedded between biodegradable gelatin-based substrate and cover layer. The interfacial adhesion between Ag NWs and gelatin-based layers was enhanced by hydrogen-bonding interaction and swelling effect without any pretreatment. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of the G/Ag NW/G (G represents gelatin-based layer) film reaches 37.74 dB at X band with an optical transmittance of 72.0 %. What's more, the flexible gelatin-based layer and encapsulated structure endow the resultant G/Ag NW/G film integrating excellent mechanical properties, reliable durability, antioxidation, as well as anti-freezing performance. This work paves a new way for fabricating flexible transparent EMI shielding films.

14.
J Virol ; : JVI0141421, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495701

RESUMO

Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), remains a serious threat to public health in most countries worldwide. At present, the administration of rabies vaccines has been the most effective strategy to control rabies. Herein, we evaluate the effect of colloidal manganese salt (Mn jelly, MnJ) as an adjuvant of rabies vaccine in mice, cats, and dogs. The results showed that MnJ promoted type I interferon (IFN-I) and cytokine production in vitro and the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Besides, MnJ serving as an adjuvant for rabies vaccines could significantly facilitate the generation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, plasma cells (PCs), and RABV-specific antibody-secreting-cells (ASCs), consequently improved the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines and provide better protection against virulent RABV challenge. Similarly, MnJ enhanced the humoral immune response in cats and dogs as well. Collectively, our results suggest that MnJ can facilitate the maturation of DCs during rabies vaccination, which can be a promising adjuvant candidate for rabies vaccines. IMPORTANCE Extending humoral immune response by using adjuvants is an important strategy for vaccine development. In this study, a novel adjuvant MnJ supplemented in rabies vaccines was evaluated in mice, cats, and dogs. Our results in the mouse model revealed that MnJ increased the numbers of mature DCs, Tfh cells, GC B cells, PCs, and RABV-specific ASCs, resulting in enhanced immunogenicity and protection rate of rabies vaccines. We further found MnJ had the same stimulative effect in cats and dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that MnJ serving as a novel adjuvant of rabies vaccines can boost immune response both in a mouse and pet model.

15.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-20, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544523

RESUMO

High dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of diabetes, but the association of dietary fiber with prediabetes is only speculative, especially in China, where the supportive data from prospective studies is lacking. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of incident prediabetes among Chinese adults. We performed a prospective analysis in 18,085 participants of the TCLSIH cohort study who were free of diabetes, prediabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary data were collected using a validated 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Prediabetes was defined based on the American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 63,175 person-years of follow-up, 4,139 cases of incident prediabetes occurred. The multivariable HRs (95% CIs) of prediabetes for the highest versus lowest quartiles were 0.85 (0.75, 0.98) (P for trend =0.02) for total dietary fiber, 0.84 (0.74, 0.95) (P for trend <0.01) for soluble fiber, and 1.05 (0.93, 1.19) (P for trend =0.38) for insoluble fiber. Fiber from fruits, but not from cereals, beans, and vegetables was inversely associated with prediabetes. Our results indicate that intakes of total dietary fiber, soluble fiber, and fiber derived from fruit sources were associated with a lower risk of prediabetes.

16.
Clin Nutr ; 40(10): 5373-5382, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prospective cohort studies linking dietary patterns and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between dietary patterns and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. METHODS: This study included a total of 17,360 participants free from NAFLD at baseline. Dietary patterns at baseline were identified with factor analysis based on responses to a validated 100-item food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between dietary patterns and risk of NAFLD. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 4034 NAFLD cases were documented. Three main dietary patterns were extracted: sugar rich dietary pattern, vegetable rich dietary pattern, and animal food dietary pattern. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, occupation, income, physical activity, total energy intake, personal and family history of disease, depressive symptoms, dietary supplement use, inflammation markers, and each other dietary pattern score, comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles of dietary pattern scores, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of NAFLD were 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) for sugar rich dietary pattern, 0.96 (0.86, 1.07) for vegetable rich dietary pattern, and 1.22 (1.10, 1.36) for animal food dietary pattern. Further adjustment for waist circumference instead of body mass index provided similar results. CONCLUSION: Dietary patterns rich in animal foods or sugar were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults, whereas a vegetable rich dietary pattern was not associated.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(42): 22683-22687, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399018

RESUMO

High-energy-density lithium (Li) metal batteries are severely hindered by the dendritic Li deposition dictated by non-uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Despite its unique advantages in improving the uniformity of Li deposition, the current anion-derived SEI is unsatisfactory under practical conditions. Herein regulating the electrolyte structure of anions by anion receptors was proposed to construct stable anion-derived SEI. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (TPFPB) anion acceptors with electron-deficient boron atoms interact with bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide anions (FSI- ) and decrease the reduction stability of FSI- . Furthermore, the type of aggregate cluster of FSI- in electrolyte changes, FSI- interacting with more Li ions in the presence of TPFPB. Therefore, the decomposition of FSI- to form Li2 S is promoted, improving the stability of anion-derived SEI. In working Li | LiNi0.5 Co0.2 Mn0.3 O2 batteries under practical conditions, the anion-derived SEI with TPFPB undergoes 194 cycles compared with 98 cycles of routine anion-derived SEI. This work inspires a fresh ground to construct stable anion-derived SEI by manipulating the electrolyte structure of anions.

18.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105247, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411979

RESUMO

Fifteen new highly oxygenated eremophilane sesquiterpenoids, parasubolides A-O (1-15), were obtained from the whole plant of Parasenecio albus. The structures of 1-15 were elucidated based on the interpretation of NMR and HRESIMS data, along with experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-6, and 9-14 represent the first class of 1,2,10-trioxygenated eremophilane lactones. Selected isolates were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities. Compounds 4, 5, and 12 exhibited moderate inhibition against LPS-induced B-cell proliferation with IC50 values of 23.1, 33.8, and 26.6 µM, respectively.

19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 222-234, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371392

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is considered as a major constraint on crop production. Although a set of adaptative strategies are extensively suggested in soybean (Glycine max) to phosphate (Pi) deprivation, molecular mechanisms underlying reversible protein phosphorylation in soybean responses to P deficiency remains largely unclear. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify differential phosphoproteins in soybean roots under Pi sufficient and deficient conditions. A total of 427 phosphoproteins were found to exhibit differential accumulations, with 213 up-regulated and 214 down-regulated. Among them, a nitrate reductase, GmNR4 exhibiting increased phosphorylation levels under low Pi conditions, was further selected to evaluate the effects of phosphorylation on its nitrate reductase activity and subcellular localization. Mutations of GmNR4 phosphorylation levels significantly influenced its activity in vitro, but not for its subcellular localization. Taken together, identification of differential phosphoproteins reveled the complex regulatory pathways for soybean adaptation to Pi starvation through reversible protein phosphorylation.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117850, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358875

RESUMO

An ability to real-time, continuously monitor soil ammonia emission profiles under diverse meteorological conditions with high temporal resolution in a simple and maintenance-free fashion can provide the urgently needed scientific insights to mitigate ammonia emission to the atmosphere and improve agricultural fertilization practice. Here, we report an open-chamber deployment unit embedded a gas-permeable membrane-based conductometric sensing probe (OC-GPMCP) capable of on-site continuously monitoring soil ammonia emission flux ( [Formula: see text] ) -time (t) profiles without the need for ongoing calibration. The developed OC-GPMCPs were deployed to a sugarcane field and a cattle farm under different fertilization/meteorological conditions to exemplify their real-world applicability for monitoring soil ammonia emission from agricultural land and livestock farm, respectively. The obtained [Formula: see text] - t profiles from the sugarcane field unveil that the ammonia emission rate is largely determined by fertilization methods and meteorological conditions. While the [Formula: see text] - t profiles from the cattle farm can be decisively correlated to various meteorological conditions. The reported OC-GPMCP is cheap to fabricate, easy to deploy, and maintenance-free to operate. These advantageous features make OC-GPMCP an effective analytical tool for large-scale soil ammonia emission assessment under diverse meteorological conditions, providing critically important scientific insights to mitigate ammonia emission into the atmosphere and improve agricultural fertilization practice.


Assuntos
Amônia , Solo , Agricultura , Amônia/análise , Animais , Atmosfera , Bovinos , Fazendas , Fertilizantes/análise
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