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2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 101, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900395

RESUMO

Sensitive photodetection is crucial for modern optoelectronic technology. Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with unique crystal structure, and extraordinary electrical and optical properties is a promising candidate for ultrasensitive photodetection. Previously reported methods to improve the performance of MoS2 photodetectors have focused on complex hybrid systems in which leakage paths and dark currents inevitably increase, thereby reducing the photodetectivity. Here, we report an ultrasensitive negative capacitance (NC) MoS2 phototransistor with a layer of ferroelectric hafnium zirconium oxide film in the gate dielectric stack. The prototype photodetectors demonstrate a hysteresis-free ultra-steep subthreshold slope of 17.64 mV/dec and ultrahigh photodetectivity of 4.75 × 1014 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at room temperature. The enhanced performance benefits from the combined action of the strong photogating effect induced by ferroelectric local electrostatic field and the voltage amplification based on ferroelectric NC effect. These results address the key challenges for MoS2 photodetectors and offer inspiration for the development of other optoelectronic devices.

3.
Inflammopharmacology ; 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894515

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVDs) is a chronic disease with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world. Previous studies have suggested that preventing inflammation serves an efficient role in protection against cardiovascular diseases. Modulation of IKK-ß activity can be used to treat and control CVDs associated with chronic inflammation, which targets the phosphorylation of IκB following the release of the RelA complex, and then translocates to the nucleus, eventually triggering the transcription of several genes that induce chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. Most importantly, the IκB kinase (IKK) complex is involved in transcriptional activation by phosphorylating the inhibitory molecule IkBα, enabling activation of NF-κB. Phenolic compounds possess cardioprotective potential that may be related to modulating inflammatory responses involved in CVDs. The SystemsDock analysis was used to explore whether 38 active compounds inhibit IKK-ß activity based on literature. Docking results showed that the top docking score of three chemical compounds were icariin, salvianolic acid B, and plantainoside D in all compounds. Icariin, salvianolic acid B, and plantainoside D are the most promising IKKß inhibitors. These phytochemicals could be helpful to find the lead compounds on designing and developing novel cardioprotective agents.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 20-31, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859605

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea, resulting in high mortality in neonatal piglets. Despite widespread outbreaks in many countries, no effective PDCoV vaccines are currently available. Here, we generated, for the first time, a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PDCoV. We further manipulated the infectious clone by replacing the NS6 gene with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) to generate rPDCoV-ΔNS6-GFP; likewise, rPDCoV-ΔNS7 was constructed by removing the ATG start codons of the NS7 gene. Growth kinetics studies suggest that rPDCoV-ΔNS7 could replicate similarly to that of the wild-type PDCoV, whereas rPDCoV-ΔNS6-GFP exhibited a substantial reduction of viral titer in vitro and in vivo. Piglets inoculated with rPDCoV-ΔNS7 or wild-type PDCoV showed similar diarrheic scores and pathological injury. In contrast, rPDCoV-ΔNS6-GFP-infected piglets did not show any clinical signs, indicating that the NS6 protein is an important virulence factor of PDCoV and that the NS6-deficient mutant virus might be a promising live-attenuated vaccine candidate. Taken together, the reverse genetics platform described here not only provides more insights into the role of PDCoV accessory proteins in viral replication and pathogenesis, but also allows the development of novel vaccines against PDCoV infection.

5.
Food Chem ; 308: 125576, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648092

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of cold storage at different temperatures (4, -0.5, -3, and -20 °C) on protein degradation and its relationship to structural changes of black carp muscle. At -0.5 and 4 °C, major structural changes occurred, including the formation of gaps between myofibers and myofibrils, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Gel-based proteomic analysis showed that these structural changes were accompanied by degradation of a series of myofibrillar proteins, including titin, nebulin, troponin, myosin, myomesin, myosin-binding protein, and α-actinin. Loss of extractable gelatinolytic and caseinolytic protease activities was also observed. At -3 and -20 °C, formation of ice crystals was the most noticeable change. The major proteins were degraded at different locations in the black carp muscle, and gelatinolytic and caseinolytic proteases appear to contribute to the degradation of those proteins.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Temperatura Baixa , Conectina/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteômica
6.
Food Chem ; 308: 125596, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648097

RESUMO

The protective mechanism of glycerol on ß-lactoglobulin were studied in 0-60% glycerol solutions by experimental and molecular simulation approaches. Results showed that the stability of ß-lactoglobulin increased with glycerol concentration, with little secondary structure changes induced by glycerol. The tertiary structure altered slightly with glycerol concentration, resulting in a stronger near UV circular dichroism signal and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching, indicating aromatic side chains closer to hydrophobic microenvironment. The Rg of ß-lactoglobulin increased with glycerol concentration without dimer dissociation, due to expansion of the quaternary structures. Moreover, the flexibility (RMSF) of ß-lactoglobulin decreased by glycerol. Distance between areas enclosing Asp33 and Arg40 from separate chains did not increase, suggesting possibly reinforced electrostatic attractions. In conclusion, the stabilization of ß-lactoglobulin in glycerol solution is probably the comprehensive results of the decreased molecular flexibility, the strengthened hydrophobic interaction in individual chain, and the possibly reinforced electrostatic attractions between two chains of ß-lactoglobulin.


Assuntos
Glicerol/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872783

RESUMO

Src homology 3 (SH3) domains are small protein modules involved in the regulation of important cellular pathways such as proliferation and migration, which canonically prefer to recognize and interact with proline-rich peptide ligands with class I or class II motif. Previously, we identified two self-binding peptides (SBPs) in human c-Src tyrosine kinase, of which the first SBP (fSBP) segment (248SKPQTQGLAK257) fulfills intramolecular interaction with the kinase SH3 domain to regulate the kinase function. The segment (and its equivalents in other c-Src family members) does not contain canonical class II motif (PxxQxL versus PxxPx+), but can bind to SH3 domain in a routine class II mode. Existing theories such as non-polyproline-II binding conformation, unusual peptide-binding pocket and extensive use of contacts cannot explain this atypical recognition phenomenon. Here, we performed a systematic investigation of SH3-fSBP binding in different conditions, including the segment in full-length kinase or in isolated state, the kinase in different forms and the fSBP residue mutations, by using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations, conformational clustering analyses and binding energetics calculations. We purposed a new mechanism that the protein context is primarily responsible for the atypical intramolecular SH3-fSBP recognition in c-Src kinase, which can promote the tight packing of segment against domain surface, support the segment polyproline-II (PPII) conformation in unbound state, and avoid unfavorable segment interactions with SH3 charged region by forming a C-terminal t-turn. In addition, the only proline residue Pro250 of fSBP segment is also required for the segment recognition by SH3 domain in c-Src kinase context; lack of Pro250 residue the segment exhibits considerable disorder and cannot maintain in PPII helical conformation, thus largely impairing the domain-segment binding capability. Further binding analysis confirms that the isolated fSBP peptide cannot bind effectively to SH3 domain out of kinase context, whereas its mutant version, i.e. fSBP(Q253P/L255R) peptide, which possesses the canonical class II motif, exhibits an increased affinity to the domain.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

8.
Dev Sci ; : e12927, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793739

RESUMO

Mandarin requires neither determiners nor morphological inflections, which casts doubt on Mandarin-speaking children's ability to use function words as a syntactic bootstrapping tool to identify the form class of a new word. This study examined 3- and 5-year-old Mandarin learners' ability to use function words to interpret new words as either nouns or verbs in the absence of the requirement for determiners and inflections in the ambient language. In Experiment 1, 3- and 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children were exposed to eight novel words embedded in sentence frames differing only in the form class markers used. The 5-year-olds interpreted the novel words as either nouns or verbs depending on the form class markers they heard, while the 3-year-olds learned only the nouns. Experiment 2 confirmed that the 5-year-olds understood the function of the verb-marker. Thus, Mandarin-speaking children can use function words to distinguish nouns versus verbs, and this ability appears between three and five years of age.

9.
J Membr Biol ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820013

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major atherogenic lipid that stimulates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) and the release of cytokines under inflammasome activation. However, the potential receptors of LPC in macrophages are poorly understood. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily, which is crucially involved in transducing environmental irritant stimuli into nociceptor activity, are potential receptors of LPC. In this study, we investigated whether LPC can induce the activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily. The functional expression of TRPA1 was first detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting and calcium imaging in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1)-derived macrophages. The mechanism by which LPC induces the activation of macrophages through TRPA1 was verified by cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium imaging, mtROS detection, a JC-1 assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the CCK-8 assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxic assay. LPC induced the activation of THP-1-derived macrophages via calcium influx, and this activation was suppressed by potent and selective inhibitors of TRPA1. These results indicated that TRPA1 can mediate mtROS generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, the secretion of IL-1ß and cytotoxicity through cellular and mitochondrial Ca2+ influx in LPC-treated THP-1-derived macrophages. Therefore, the inhibition of TRPA1 may protect THP-1-derived macrophages against LPC-induced injury.

10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 111012, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794802

RESUMO

In order to improve the bioavailability of Oryza sativa L. anthocyanins, we fabricated Oryza sativa L. anthocyanins-Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides (OSA-HSP) complex and investigated its anti-proliferation activities taking into account its changes along simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. Results showed that OSA mainly composed by delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, malvidin and their derivatives was combined with HSP through electrostatic interaction. OSA-HSP complex belonged to non-crystalline substance, and had compact and laminar structural characteristics. Under simulated gastrointestinal digestion, OSA-HSP complex significantly prevented the degradation of anthocyanins, and presented sustain release effect. However, the anti-proliferation activities of OSA-HSP complex digested by different gastrointestinal process were remarkably changed, especially after small intestinal digestion. HeLa cells treated with OSA-HSP complex exhibited pro-apoptosis characteristics by triggering endogenous mitochondrial apoptosis pathway through activating the expressions of Bax, cytochrome c and Caspase-3 as well as inhibiting the expression of Bcl-2. These findings provided new insight to improve the bioavailability of anthocyanins in functional foods and tumor therapy.

11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 152-160, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794843

RESUMO

C-type lectins are Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins containing one or more carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity, including nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination. In the present study, two C-type lectins (designated ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2) were identified from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata which dwells in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The open reading frames of ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 encoded polypeptides of 171 and 166 amino acids respectively, which were both composed of a signal peptide and a single CRD. The key motifs determining the carbohydrate binding specificity of ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 were respectively Glu-Pro-Ala (EPA) and Gln-Pro-Asn (QPN), which were firstly discovered in R. exoculata. ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 displayed similar pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) binding features and they bound three PAMPs-ß-glucan, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan-with relatively high affinity. In addition, both could efficiently recognize and bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. However, ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 exhibited different microbial agglutination activities: ReCTL-1 agglutinated Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while ReCTL-2 agglutinated Micrococcus luteus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. fluvialis. Both ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 inhibited the growth of V. fluvialis. All these results illustrated that ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2 could function as important pattern-recognition receptors with broad nonself-recognition spectra and be involved in immune defense against invaders, but their specificities are not the same. In addition, the two ReCTLs possessed different carbohydrate binding specificities from each other and from the classical pattern: ReCTL-1 with an EPA motif bound d-galactose and l-mannose, while ReCTL-2 with a QPN motif bound d-fucose and N-acetylglucosamine.

12.
J Virol Methods ; : 113795, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809783

RESUMO

Two reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays were developed for the detection of areca palm necrotic ringspot virus (ANRSV) and areca palm necrotic spindle-spot virus (ANSSV), respectively. These two emerging viruses both induce necrotic symptoms in areca palms. The coat protein (CP) gene of ANRSV and the 9 K gene of ANSSV were used to design the respective RT-LAMP primers for the assays. Each set of four primers designed for each of these viruses was found to be highly specific in the detection of the respective targeted virus. The optimal incubation conditions for the RT-LAMP assays were 63 °C for 40 min for ANRSV and at 61 °C for 40 min for ANSSV. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP method for each of these viruses was 10-fold greater than that of the corresponding conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The RT-LAMP assays may be useful for the rapid early detection of ANSSV and ANRSV in commercial areca palm production.

13.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; : 1-10, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851528

RESUMO

Background: Arterial pressure volume index (API) and arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) contribute to the development of vascular damage and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between common API/AVI trajectories and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unknown.Methods: A total of 488 consecutive hypertensive patients with HFpEF who repeatedly underwent API/AVI measurements were prospectively examined. We then applied API/AVI measurements into actual clinical practice. Latent mixture modeling was performed to identify API/AVI trajectories. Hazards ratios (HRs) were measured using Cox proportional hazard models.Results: We identified four distinct API/AVI trajectory patterns: low (7.6%), moderate (43.8%), high (28.9%), and very high (19.7%). Compared with the low group, higher API trajectories were associated with increased risk of total cardiovascular events (high group, adjusted HR: 2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.97-4.26; very high group, adjusted HR: 2.46, 95%CI: 1.18-3.79). Consistently, higher AVI trajectories were also associated with a higher risk of total cardiovascular events (high group, adjusted HR: 2.58, 95%CI: 1.23-5.47; very high group, adjusted HR: 3.12, 95%CI: 1.83-6.08), compared with the low trajectory group.Conclusion: High API/AVI trajectories are strong predictors of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with HFpEF. Among these patients, measuring API/AVI may improve risk stratification and provide additional information to tailor treatment strategies.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(10): 4700-4707, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854841

RESUMO

The ecosystem respiration and temperature sensitivity (Q10) of paddy soil play very important roles in the emission of greenhouse gases from paddy ecosystems. Under intermittent irrigation and flooding irrigation conditions, a static opaque chamber and gas chromatography method were applied to study the regulation and influence of ecosystem respiration and Q10 using five treatments:no fertilizer (CK), conventional fertilization (NPK), 10t·hm-2 biochar with chemical fertilizer (LBC), 20t·hm-2 biochar with chemical fertilizer (MBC), and 40t·hm-2 biochar with chemical fertilizer (HBC). The results showed that:① The temperature sensitivity coefficients (Q10) of ecosystem respiration under flooding irrigation were 4.45 (CK), 7.40 (NPK), 6.44 (LBC), 4.58 (MBC), and 3.87 (HBC), respectively. Flooding irrigation significantly reduced the Q10 value of the paddy field ecosystem compared to intermittent irrigation (P<0.01). CK, NPK, LBC, MBC, and HBC decreased by 48.6%, 55.2%, 67.9%, 70.3%, and 70.8% under flooding irrigation, respectively. ② Whether intermittent irrigation or flooding irrigation was adopted, the application of fertilizer with biochar increased the respiration of the paddy field ecosystem than conventional fertilization treatment, but the effect of different biochar levels on respiration was not significant. ③ The application of chemical fertilizer with medium or low amounts of biochar increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration compared with no fertilization in the paddy field ecosystems (P<0.05), but both MBC and HBC treatments reduced the Q10 value of paddy field ecosystem compared with NPK. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of respiration in the paddy field ecosystem decreased with an increase in the level of biochar application. Therefore, under the two irrigation methods, HBC treatment was more effective than LBC and MBC treatments to inhibit the effect of increasing soil temperature on the respiration of the ecosystem.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20240, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882801

RESUMO

Tomato is an important vegetable crop grown worldwide. Grafting is an agricultural technique that is used to improve growth, yield, and resistance to diverse stresses in tomato production. Here, we examined the differences between the scion of heterografted ('Provence'/'Haomei') and homografted ('Provence'/'Provence') tomato seedlings. We observed anatomical changes during the graft-union healing process in heterografted and homografted tomato seedlings and conducted transcriptome analyses of the 'Provence' scion from both graft combinations. With the development of calli from both graft partners, the isolation layer became thinner at 16 d after grafting (DAG). Compared with that of homografts, the healing in heterografts was slightly delayed, but the graft union had completely healed at 21 DAG. In total, 858 significantly differentially expressed genes were detected between the transcriptomes of heterografts and homografts at 16 DAG. Functional pathways identified by GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signalling, transcription factor regulation, transport, and responses to stimuli. Many differentially expressed genes were involved in pathways associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling, plant hormone signalling, and oxidative stress. A number of transcription factors were up-regulated in the scion of heterografted seedlings. The results provide a valuable resource for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms, and candidate genes for functional analyses, of heterograft and homograft systems.

17.
Adv Mater ; : e1904249, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880031

RESUMO

The development of highly efficient photocatalytic systems with rapid photogenerated charge separation and high surface catalytic activity is highly desirable for the storage and conversion of solar energy, yet remains a grand challenge. Herein, a conceptionally new form of atomically dispersed Co-P3 species on CdS nanorods (CoPSA-CdS) is designed and synthesized for achieving unprecedented photocatalytic activity for the dehydrogenation of formic acid (FA) to hydrogen. X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence results confirm that the Co-P3 species have a unique electron-rich feature, greatly improving the efficiency of photogenerated charge separation through an interface charge effect. The in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectra reveal that the Co-P3 species can achieve much better dissociation adsorption of FA and activation of CH bonds than traditional sulfur-coordinated Co single atom-loaded CdS nanorods (CoSSA-CdS). These two new features make CoPSA-CdS exhibit the unprecedented 50-fold higher activity in the photocatalytic dehydrogenation of FA than CoSSA-CdS, and also much better activity than the Ru-, Rh-, Pd-, or Pt-loaded CdS. Besides, CoPSA-CdS also shows the highest mass activity (34309 mmol gCo -1 h-1 ) of Co reported to date. First-principles simulation reveals that the Co-P3 species herein can form an active PHCOO intermediate for enhancing the rate-determining dissociation adsorption of FA.

18.
Adv Mater ; : e1905661, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851401

RESUMO

Defects, inevitably produced within bulk and at perovskite-transport layer interfaces (PTLIs), are detrimental to power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). It is demonstrated that a crosslinkable organic small molecule thioctic acid (TA), which can simultaneously be chemically anchored to the surface of TiO2 and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3 ) through coordination effects and then in situ crosslinked to form a robust continuous polymer (Poly(TA)) network after thermal treatment, can be introduced into PSCs as a new bifacial passivation agent for greatly passivating the defects. It is also discovered that Poly(TA) can additionally enhance the charge extraction efficiency and the water-resisting and light-resisting abilities of perovskite film. These newly discovered features of Poly(TA) make PSCs herein achieve among the best PCE of 20.4% ever reported for MAPbI3 with negligible hysteresis, along with much enhanced ultraviolet, air, and operational stabilities. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the passivation of MAPbI3 bulk and PTLIs by Poly(TA) occurs through the interaction of functional groups (COOH, CS) in Poly(TA) with under-coordinated Pb2+ in MAPbI3 and Ti4+ in TiO2 , which is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8530273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687402

RESUMO

In recent years, many studies have shown that recombinant adenovirus live vector-based vaccines are a promising novel vaccine candidate against virus infection. Therefore, in this study, a new type of recombinant adenovirus expressing the spike (S) protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), rAd-PEDV-S, was generated, and its characteristics were determined. Then, its efficacy as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in 4-week-old pigs. The results showed that the S protein could be well expressed at a high level in rAd-PEDV-S-infected cells and that the viral titers could reach 1011 PFU/mL. Further animal experimental results showed that rAd-PEDV-S elicited a significant PEDV-specific humoral immune response after vaccination (P < 0.05). In addition, rAd-PEDV-S provided partial protection for pigs against the highly virulent PEDV challenge. The results presented in this study indicate that the adenovirus vector can be used as a vaccine delivery vector for the development of a PEDV vaccine and is a promising novel vaccine candidate for future prevention and control of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), but its efficacy still needs to be improved in the future.

20.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7818-7827, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696193

RESUMO

Human milk provides a range of nutrients and bioactive components, which can support the growth and development of infants. However, human milk composition may change due to geographic and ethnic variation. This study investigated the variation of the Chinese human milk serum proteome based on mothers with different ethnicities living in different parts of China, using TMT labeling combined with Nano-LC Q Exactive HF MS/MS proteomics. In total, 693 proteins were identified and quantified in human milk serum from Yunnan (Han and Bai ethnicity), Gansu (Han and Tibetan ethnicity), Xinjiang (Uygur ethnicity), and Inner Mongolia (Mongolian ethnicity). The biological function distribution of identified proteins and the summed intensity of proteins belonging to each biological function were similar among groups. The five relatively highly abundant milk serum proteins, lactoferrin, serum albumin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, macrophage mannose receptor 1, and bile salt-activated lipase were not significantly different among different geographies and ethnicities. On the other hand, we found 34 proteins that did significantly differ with geography and ethnicity. Those significantly different proteins have known strong interaction in inflammation response and regulation of multi-organism processes. Taken together, biological function distribution was similar on both the qualitative and quantitative levels, and proteins with similar abundance are important in providing basic nutrition and protection for infants, whereas the significantly different proteins may be important for the healthy development of infants from different locations and ethnicities.

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