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1.
Autoimmunity ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a prevalent chronic inflammatory airway disease that is characterised by airway remodelling and airway hyperresponsiveness. Abnormal proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) contribute to airway remodelling in asthma. However, the molecular mechanism underlying an increased ASMC mass in asthma remains elusive. Herein, we aimed at investigating the regulation of lncRNA PVT1 on ASMCs and focussing on the mechanism in the proliferation and migration. METHODS: Expression levels of lncRNA PVT1 and miR-590-5p in the serum collected from 24 children with asthma and 10 control children were determined by qRT-PCR. ASMCs proliferation and migration prior to and post platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-BB) stimulation were examined by CCK-8 test and transwell assay. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine miR-590-5p interaction with lncRNA PVT1 and follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1). Expression of lncRNA PVT1, miR-590-5p, FSTL1, C-Myc, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting analysis. RESULTS: The expression level of lncRNA PVT1 was higher but the expression level of miR-590-5p was lower in the serum of children with asthma than in control children. The expression level of lncRNA PVT1 was negatively correlated with the expression level of miR-590-5p in asthma. LncRNA PVT1 was upregulated upon PDGF-BB stimulation. LncRNA PVT1 knockdown by its specific shRNA repressed PDGF-BB-induced promotion of proliferation and migration in ASMCs and triggered an elevated miR-590-5p along with declined C-Myc, cyclin D1, and CDK1. The effects of lncRNA PVT1 knockdown on PDGF-BB-induced ASMCs were lost upon miR-590-5p inhibition. MiR-590-5p targeted FSTL1 gene and declined its expression, thus suppressing ASMC proliferation and migration following PDGF-BB stimulation and downregulating C-Myc, cyclin D1, and CDK1 expressions. The effects of miR-590-5p on PDGF-BB-induced ASMCs were lost upon FSTL1 overexpression. CONCLUSION: These results support the notion that the lncRNA PVT1/miR-590-5p/FSTL1 axis modulates ASMCs proliferation and migration following PDGF-BB stimulation, providing a potential therapeutic target to attenuate airway remodelling in asthma.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5195, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664363

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has rapidly become the most common cause of chronic liver diseases. We aimed to explore the incidence and distribution characteristics of NASH by sex, region and sociodemographic index (SDI). We collected data, including sex and region, on NASH-related liver cirrhosis from the 2017 GBD study. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were used to estimate the incidence trend and distribution characteristics. Globally, the incidence of liver cirrhosis caused by NASH increased from 178,430 cases in 1990 to 367,780 cases in 2017, an increase of approximately 105.56%. The ASR of NASH increased by an average of 1.35% per year (95% CI 1.28-1.42). Meanwhile, large differences in the ASR and the EAPC were observed across regions. The middle-high SDI region had the highest increase among all five SDI regions, followed by middle SDI region. In addition, Eastern Europe, Andean Latin America and Central Asia showed a more significant growth trend of ASR. In contrast, the high SDI region demonstrated the slowest increasing trend of ASR, and the high-income Asia Pacific demonstrated a decreasing trend among the 21 regions. Liver cirrhosis has caused a huge and rising health burden in many countries and regions. In addition, with the growth of obesity, population and aging, NASH might replace viral hepatitis as the most important cause of liver cirrhosis in the near future. Therefore, appropriate interventions are needed in coming decades to realize early diagnosis and prevention of NASH-related liver cirrhosis.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(6): 3322-3337, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704464

RESUMO

RPA is a critical factor for DNA replication and replication stress response. Surprisingly, we found that chromatin RPA stability is tightly regulated. We report that the GDP/GTP exchange factor DOCK7 acts as a critical replication stress regulator to promote RPA stability on chromatin. DOCK7 is phosphorylated by ATR and then recruited by MDC1 to the chromatin and replication fork during replication stress. DOCK7-mediated Rac1/Cdc42 activation leads to the activation of PAK1, which subsequently phosphorylates RPA1 at S135 and T180 to stabilize chromatin-loaded RPA1 and ensure proper replication stress response. Moreover, DOCK7 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and depleting DOCK7 sensitizes cancer cells to camptothecin. Taken together, our results highlight a novel role for DOCK7 in regulation of the replication stress response and highlight potential therapeutic targets to overcome chemoresistance in cancer.

4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior data suggested that women with incidentally detected occult invasive ovarian cancer (OIOC) at the time of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) for BRCA mutation may have poorer prognoses than would be expected based on disease stage. We sought to evaluate prevalence and outcomes of patients with OIOC in a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Patients with BRCA mutation undergoing RRSO from 01/2005 to 05/2017 were identified, and their records reviewed. Women with incidentally detected OIOC were included; those with clinical features raising preoperative suspicion for malignancy were excluded. RESULTS: 548 patients with BRCA mutation who underwent RRSO were identified. 26 (4.7%) had an OIOC (median age 55 years; range 42-75); 15(58%) patients, BRCA1; 9(34%), BRCA2; 2(8%) had a mutation in both genes. All OIOCs were high-grade serous: 10 (38%) Stage I; 8 (31%) Stage II; 8(31%) Stage III. 24(92%) patients received adjuvant platinum/taxane therapy. Of Stage III patients, 4 (50%) were identified intraoperatively; the remaining 4 (50%) had microscopic nodal disease on final pathology only. At median follow-up of 67.3 months (28-166) no Stage I patients have recurred; 2 Stage II and 6 Stage III patients recurred. 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 72% (95%CI, 50.2-85.7%); median PFS for the cohort was 129 months (95%CI, 75.3-not estimable). 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 96% (95%CI, 76-99%); median DSS not reached. CONCLUSION: Consistent with prior reports, almost 5% of patients had an OIOC at RRSO. The majority with early-stage disease had excellent PFS and DSS outcomes, as would be expected based on disease stage.

5.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence shows that aspirin can reduce the morbidity and mortality of different cancers, including breast cancer. Aspirin has become a new focus of cancer prevention and treatment research at present, however, clinical studies found conflicting conclusions of its anticancer characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in 8 electronic databases. The pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the random effects model to estimate the effect of aspirin on breast cancer. RESULTS: Forty-two published articles with 99,769 patients were identified. The meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in breast cancer risk with aspirin use (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.96; I2 = 72%). Aspirin use decreased the risk of hormone receptor-positive tumors (estrogen receptor [ER]-positive RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97; I2=54%; progesterone receptor [PR]-positive RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; I2=32%; ER- and PR-positive RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-1.00; I2=45%) and reduced the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.98; I2=59%). Further analysis showed that for the in situ breast cancer, regular-dose and more than 3 years use of aspirin were associated with the reduced risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that aspirin may reduce the overall risk of breast cancer, reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, hormone receptor-positive tumors, and in situ breast cancer. Larger, multicenter clinical studies are needed to find the optimal dose range, frequency, and duration of the aspirin use to explore the best benefit-risk ratio.

6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 208, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine and in drugs screening. Despite displaying key cardiomyocyte phenotypic characteristics, they more closely resemble fetal/neonatal cardiomyocytes and are still immature; these cells mainly rely on glucose as a substrate for metabolic energy, while mature cardiomyocytes mainly employ oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acids. Studies showed that the alteration of metabolism pattern from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation improve the maturity of hiPSC-CMs. As a transcription factor, accumulating evidences showed the important role of NRF2 in the regulation of energy metabolism, which directly regulates the expression of mitochondrial respiratory complexes. Therefore, we hypothesized that NRF2 is involved in the maturation of hiPSC-CMs. METHODS: The morphological and functional changes related to mitochondria and cell maturation were analyzed by knock-down and activation of NRF2. RESULTS: The results showed that the inhibition of NRF2 led to the retardation of cell maturation. The activation of NRF2 leads to a more mature hiPSC-CMs phenotype, as indicated by the increase of cardiac maturation markers, sarcomere length, calcium transient dynamics, the number and fusion events of mitochondria, and mitochondrial respiration. Bioinformatics analysis showed that in addition to metabolism-related genes, NRF2 also activates the expression of myocardial ion channels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that NRF2 plays an important role in the maturation of hiPSC-CMs. The present work provides greater insights into the molecular regulation of hiPSC-CMs metabolism and theoretical basis in drug screening, disease modeling, and alternative treatment.

7.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768247

RESUMO

miR156/157 plays multiple pivotal roles during plant growth and development. In this study, we identified 11 miR156- and 5 miR157-encoding loci from the genome of P. axillaris and P. inflata, designated as PaMIR0156/157s and PiMIR0156/157s, respectively. qPCR analysis indicated that PhmiR156/157 was expressed predominantly in cotyledons, germinating seeds, flower buds, young fruits, and seedlings. PhmiR156/157 levels declined in shoot apical buds and leaves of petunia before flowering as the plant ages, moreover, the temporal expression patterns of most miR156/157-targeted PhSPLs were complementary to that of PhmiR156/157. Ectopic expression of PhMIR0157a in Arabidopsis and petunia resulted in delayed flowering, dwarf plant stature, increased branches, and reduced organ size. However, PhMIR0156f-overexpressing Arabidopsis and petunia plants showed only delayed flowering. In addition, down-regulation of PhmiR156/157 level by overexpressing STTM156/157 led to higher plant, less branches, longer internodes, and precocious flowering. qPCR analysis indicated that PhmiR156/157 modulates these traits mainly via down-regulating their PhSPL targets and subsequently decreasing the expression of flowering regulatory genes. Our results demonstrated that PhmiR156/157-PhSPL module has conserved but also divergent functions in the growth and development, which will help us deciphering the genetic basis for improvement of flower transition, plant architecture and organ development in petunia.

9.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109793, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648160

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans 13,002 (BCS) and prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on mice treated with the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CTX). We found that both BCS and FOS, especially BCS, significantly alleviated CTX-induced injury by modulating intestinal-derived and fecal microbiota. BCS and BCS + FOS increased serum immunoglobulin levels, which were reduced by CTX. In addition, BCS and BCS + FOS upregulated IFN-γ and IL-4, which protect mucosal barriers and the balance of Th1/Th2. BCS promoted the growth of some beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides, Coprococcus, Enterococcus, Oscillospira, and Ruminococcus in mouse gut. In addition, BCS + FOS inhibited the growth of several harmful bacteria, including Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Corynebacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. Furthermore, BCS potentially improved the growth of Anaerotruncus bacteria, which can promote the production of butyrate acids. In summary, according our results suggest that BCS and FOS improved the immunity of mice with immunosuppression induced by CTX through modulating intestinal-derived and fecal microbiota.

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111406, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676307

RESUMO

We previously reported that Plasmodium infection promotes antitumor immunity in a murine Lewis lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of Plasmodium infection on the tumor inhibition and antitumor CD8+ T cell responses in a murine triple negative breast cancer (TNBCA) model. The results showed that Plasmodium infection significantly inhibited tumor growth, and increased the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice. Both effector and memory CD8+ T cells were increased in peripheral blood and tumor-draining lymph node (DLN) in the infected mice. The co-stimulatory (CD40L, GITR and OX-40) and co-inhibitory (PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG3) immune checkpoints were up-regulated on CD8+ T cells in infected mice. Importantly, Py induced remarkable effects on the infiltration of CD8+ T cells in the tumor and granzym B+ CD8+ T cells in tumor-bearing mice while not in tumor-free mice. In summary, the results suggested that the effects of Plasmodium infection on murine 4T1 breast cancer might be related to the induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses. This finding may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer.

11.
Redox Biol ; 41: 101890, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582562

RESUMO

Recent studies demonstrated HMGB1, an extracellular inflammation molecule, played an important role on endothelial cells. This study aimed to define the role and related mechanism of HMGB1 in endothelial cells. Endothelial-specific deletion of HMGB1(HMGB1ECKO) was generated and Akt/eNOS signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endothelium dependent relaxation (EDR), and angiogenesis were determined in vitro and in vivo. Decreased activation of Akt/eNOS signaling, sprouting, and proliferation, and increased ROS production were evidenced in endothelial cells derived from HMGB1ECKO mice as compared with wild type controls. Decreased EDR and retarded blood flow recovery after hind limb ischemia were also demonstrated in HMGB1ECKO mice. Both impaired EDR and angiogenesis could be partly rescued by superoxide dismutase in HMGB1ECKO mice. In conclusion, intracellular HMGB1 might be a key regulator of endothelial Akt/eNOS pathway and ROS production, thus plays an important role in EDR regulation and angiogenesis.

12.
Eur J Integr Med ; : 101313, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619437

RESUMO

Introduction: The highly infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world. This meta-analysis was strictly focused on the influence of smoking history on the severe and critical outcomes on people with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in eight online databases before 1 February 2021. All studies meeting our selection criteria were included and evaluated. Stata 14.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 109 articles involving 517,020 patients were included in this meta-analysis. A statistically significant association was discovered between smoking history and COVID-19 severity, the pooled OR was 1.55 (95%CI: 1.41-1.71). Smoking was significantly associated with the risk of admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (OR=1.73, 95%CI: 1.36-2.19), increased mortality (OR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.38-1.81), and critical diseases composite endpoints (OR=1.61, 95%CI: 1.35-1.93), whereas there was no relationship with mechanical ventilation. The pooled prevalence of smoking using the random effects model (REM) was 15% (95%CI: 14%-16%). Meta-regression analysis showed that age (P=0.004), hypertension (P=0.007), diabetes (P=0.029), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (P=0.001) were covariates that affect the association. Conclusions: Smoking was associated with severe or critical outcomes and increased the risk of admission to ICU and mortality in COVID-19 patients, but not associated with mechanical ventilation. This association was more significant for former smokers than in current smokers. Current smokers also had a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 compared with non-smokers. More detailed data, which are representative for more counties, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

13.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 100: 103063, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592542

RESUMO

The DNA replication stress-induced checkpoint activated through the TopBP1-ATR axis is important for maintaining genomic stability. However, the regulation of TopBP1 in DNA-damage responses remains unclear. In this study, we identify the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) USP13 as an important regulator of TopBP1. Mechanistically, USP13 binds to TopBP1 and stabilizes TopBP1 by deubiquitination. Depletion of USP13 impedes ATR activation and hypersensitizes cells to replication stress-inducing agents. Furthermore, high USP13 expression enhances the replication stress response, promotes cancer cell chemoresistance, and is correlated with poor prognosis of cancer patients. Overall, these findings suggest that USP13 is a novel deubiquitinating enzyme for TopBP1 and coordinates the replication stress response.

14.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(3): 215-223, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate whether lncRNA ZFAS1 is involved in neuronal apoptosis and inflammation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six TLE patients were recruited, and their peripheral venous blood was gathered to determine Zfas1 expression with polymerase chain reaction. Neurons were separated from hippocampal tissue of newborn SD rats, and si-Zfas1 or pcDNA3.1-Zfas1 was transfected into the neurons. Inflammatory cytokines released by neurons were determined, and neuronal activities were evaluated through MTT assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Serum levels of Zfas1 were higher in TLE patients than in healthy controls (p<0.05). Furthermore, Zfas1 expression in neurons was raised by pcDNA3.1-Zfas1 and declined after silencing of Zfas1 (p<0.05). Transfection of pcDNA-Zfas1 weakened the viability and proliferation of neurons and increased neuronal apoptosis (p<0.05). Meanwhile, pcDNA3.1-Zfas1 transfection promoted lipopolysaccharide-induced release of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (p<0.05), and boosted NF-κB activation by elevating the expression of NF-κB p65, pIκBα, and IKKß in neurons (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that lncRNA ZFAS1 exacerbates epilepsy development by promoting neuronal apoptosis and inflammation, implying ZFAS1 as a promising treatment target for epilepsy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Life Sci ; 270: 119140, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524420

RESUMO

AIMS: Intra-platelet 5-HT (IP 5-HT) and YAP exhibit an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the study was to investigate whether IP 5-HT and YAP could affect the progression and prognosis of HCC. METHODS: 5-HT level and YAP expression were measured and were compared between HCC patients and control patients. By grouping HCC patients, we analyzed clinical indicators and survival. The predictive nomogram was established by R software according to the risk factors obtained from multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Higher IP 5-HT level and higher YAP expression were associated with poorer prognosis. In addition, they were also associated with BCLC stages. Higher IP 5-HT was found to be related with higher international normalized ratio (INR) (p = 0.040), more death (p = 0.015) and higher YAP expression (p < 0.001). Similarly, higher YAP expression was proved to be associated with lower platelet counts (PLT) (p = 0.032), smaller tumor size (p = 0.017), more death (p < 0.001) and higher IP 5-HT (p < 0.001). In addition, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), YAP and tumor size were proved to be independent risk factors. By using risk factors, we have established a prognostic prediction nomogram for HCC patients. In the prognostic prediction nomogram, patients with higher scores would have poorer prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: IP 5-HT and YAP might affect the progression and prognosis of HCC through synergistic effect. Moreover, IP 5-HT might affect HCC by regulating YAP expression. Thus, both of them might be potential therapeutic targets. By establishing the prognostic prediction nomogram, we could improve the prediction system.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/análise , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Serotonina/análise , Serotonina/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/sangue , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 53(3): 342-353, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521809

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory pulmonary disease that can easily develop into serious acute respiratory distress syndrome, which has high morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular mechanism of ALI remains unclear, and few molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment have been identified. In this study, we aimed to identify novel molecular biomarkers using a bioinformatics approach. Gene expression data were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, co-expressed differentially expressed genes (CoDEGs) were identified using R software, and further functional enrichment analyses were conducted using the online tool Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. A protein-protein interaction network was established using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mouse model was constructed and verified. The hub genes were screened and validated in vivo. The transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs associated with the hub genes were predicted using the NetworkAnalyst database. In total, 71 CoDEGs were screened and found to be mainly involved in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and the tumor necrosis factor and malaria signaling pathways. Animal experiments showed that the lung injury score, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentration, and wet-to-dry weight ratio were higher in the LPS group than those in the control group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that most of the hub genes such as colony-stimulating factor 2 (Csf2) were overexpressed in the LPS group. A total of 20 TFs including nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and two miRNAs were predicted to be regulators of the hub genes. In summary, Csf2 may serve as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for ALI. NRF1 and mmu-mir-122-5p may be key regulators in the development of ALI.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043935, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the use of quantitative neuromuscular monitoring together with the administration of reversal drugs (neostigmine or sugammadex), the incidence of residual neuromuscular blockade defined as a train-of-four ratio (TOFr) <0.9 remains high. Even TOFr >0.9 cannot ensure adequate recovery of neuromuscular function when T1 height is not recovered completely. Thus, a mathematical correction of TOFr needs to be applied because the return of a normal TOFr can precede the return of a normal T1 twitch height. On the other hand, different muscles have different sensitivities to neuromuscular blockade agents; thus, complete recovery of one specific muscle group does not represent complete recovery of all other muscles. Therefore, our study aims to assess the muscle strength recovery of respiratory-related muscle groups by ultrasound and evaluate global strength using handgrip dynamometry in the early postoperative period when TOFr=0.9 and corrected TOFr (cTOFr)=0.9 with comparison of neostigmine versus sugammadex as reversal drugs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be a prospective, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial involving 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II and aged between 18 and 65 years, who will undergo microlaryngeal surgery. We will assess geniohyoid muscle, parasternal intercostal muscle, diaphragm, abdominal wall muscle and handgrip strength at four time points: before anaesthesia, TOFr=0.9, cTOFr=0.9 and 30 min after admission to the post anaesthesia care unit. Our primary objective will be to compare the effects of neostigmine and sugammadex on the recovery of muscle strength of different muscle groups in the early postoperative period when TOFr=0.9 and cTOFr=0.9. The secondary objective will be to observe the difference of muscle strength between the time points of TOFr=0.9 and cTOFr=0.9 to find out the clinical significance of cTOFr >0.9. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University. The findings will be disseminated to the public through peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000033832.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3779, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580165

RESUMO

In less than 6 months, COVID-19 spread rapidly around the world and became a global health concern. Hypertension is the most common chronic disease in COVID-19 patients, but its impact on these patients has not been well described. In this retrospective study, 82 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were enrolled, and epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and therapy-related data were analyzed and compared between COVID-19 patients with (29 cases) or without (53 cases) hypertension. The median age of the included patients was 60.5 years, and the cohort included 49 women (59.8%) and 33 (40.2%) men. Hypertension (31 [28.2%]) was the most common chronic illness, followed by diabetes (16 [19.5%]) and cardiovascular disease (15 [18.3%]). The most common symptoms were fatigue (55 [67.1%]), dry cough (46 [56.1%]) and fever ≥ 37.3 °C (46 [56.1%]). The median time from illness onset to positive RT-PCR test was 13.0 days (range 3-25 days). There were 6 deaths (20.7%) in the hypertension group and 5 deaths (9.4%) in the nonhypertension group, and more hypertensive patients with COVID-19 (8 [27.6%]) than nonhypertensive patients (2 [3.8%]) (P = 0.002) had at least one comorbid disease. Compared with nonhypertensive patients, hypertensive patients exhibited higher neutrophil counts, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and NT-proBNP and lower lymphocyte counts and eGFR. Dynamic observations indicated more severe disease and poorer outcomes after hospital admission in the hypertension group. COVID-19 patients with hypertension have increased risks of severe inflammatory reactions, serious internal organ injury, and disease progression and deterioration.


Assuntos
/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Famotidine was reported to potentially provide benefits to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, it remains controversial whether it is effective in treating COVID-19. AIMS: This study aimed to explore whether famotidine use is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study was registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (ID: CRD42020213536). A comprehensive search was performed to identify relevant studies up to October 2020. I-squared statistic and Q-test were utilized to assess the heterogeneity. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through the random effects or fixed effects model according to the heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessment were also conducted. RESULTS: Five studies including 36,635 subjects were included. We found that famotidine use was associated with a statistically non-significant reduced risk of progression to severe disease, death, and intubation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients (pooled RR was 0.82, 95% CI = 0.52-1.30, P = 0.40). CONCLUSION: Famotidine has no significant protective effect in reducing the risk of developing serious illness, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients. More original studies are needed to further clarify whether it is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients.

20.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597272

RESUMO

Proton Bragg peak irradiation has a higher ionizing density than conventional photon irradiation or the entrance of the proton beam profile. Whether targeting the DNA damage response could enhance vulnerability to the distinct pattern of damage induced by proton Bragg peak irradiation is currently unknown. Here we performed genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of key DNA damage response elements and evaluated DNA damage signaling, DNA repair, and tumor control in cell lines and xenografts treated with the same physical dose across a radiotherapy linear energy transfer spectrum. Radiotherapy consisted of 6 MV photons and the entrance beam or Bragg peak of a 76.8 MeV spot scanning proton beam. More complex DNA double strand breaks induced by Bragg peak proton irradiation preferentially underwent resection and engaged homologous recombination (HR) machinery. Unexpectedly, the ATM inhibitor AZD0156 but not an inhibitor of ATR rendered cells hypersensitive to more densely ionizing proton Bragg peak irradiation. ATM inhibition blocked resection and shunted more double strand breaks to processing by toxic ligation through nonhomologous end-joining, whereas loss of DNA ligation via XRCC4 or Lig4 knockdown rescued resection and abolished the enhanced Bragg peak cell killing. Proton Bragg peak monotherapy selectively sensitized cell lines and tumor xenografts with inherent HR defects, and the repair defect induced by ATM inhibitor co-administration showed enhanced efficacy in HR proficient models. In summary, inherent defects in HR or administration of an ATM inhibitor in HR proficient tumors selectively enhance the relative biological effectiveness of proton Bragg peak irradiation.

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