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2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 182: 109130, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774643

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore trajectories of gestational weight gain (GWG) before diagnosis and its association with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study including 37,060 women with live singleton was conducted between 2013 and 2019 in China. Latent class trajectory model (LCTM) was used to identify GWG trajectories, and Poisson regression with robust error estimates was used to estimate risk ratio (RR) of GDM. RESULTS: Among total 37,060 participants, 25.47% of women were developed with GDM. Two trajectories of GWG were identified as non-excessive weight gain (94.31%) and excessive weight gain (5.69%) before diagnosis of GDM. Women with excessive GWG trajectory before diagnosis had significantly 32.8% (aRR = 1.328, 95 %CI: 1.252 âˆ¼ 1.409, P < 0.001) increased risk of developing GDM compared with non-excessive GWG trajectory. Women with excessive GWG trajectory also had higher risk of macrosomia (aRR = 1.476, 95 %CI: 1.307 âˆ¼ 1.666, P < 0.001) and cesarean delivery (aRR = 1.126, 95 %CI: 1.081 âˆ¼ 1.174, P < 0.001). The impact of excessive GWG trajectory on GDM was greater among pre-pregnancy normal weight women compared with overweight/obese or underweight women. CONCLUSION: Women with excessive GWG trajectory before diagnosis had significantly higher risk of GDM and GDM-related adverse outcomes, and pre-pregnancy normal weight women with excessive GWG trajectory should also be concerned.

3.
J Med Chem ; 64(21): 15936-15948, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723524

RESUMO

Off-target drug release and insufficient drug delivery are the main obstacles for effective anticancer chemotherapy. Prodrug-based self-assembled nanoparticles bioactivated under tumor-specific conditions are one of the effective strategies to achieve on-demand drug release and effective tumor accumulation. Herein, stimuli-activable prodrugs are designed yielding smart tumor delivery by combination of the triglyceride-mimic (TG-mimetic) prodrug structure and disulfide bond. Surprisingly, these prodrugs can self-assemble into uniform nanoparticles (NPs) with a high drug loading (over 40%) and accumulate in tumor sites specifically. The super hydrophobic TG structure can act as a gate that senses lipase to selectively control over NP dissociation and affect the glutathione-triggered prodrug activation. In addition, the impacts of the double bonds in the prodrug NPs on parent drug release and the following cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor efficiency are further demonstrated. Our findings highlight the promising potential of TG-mimetic structure-gated prodrug nanoparticles for tumor-specific drug delivery.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 738334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803954

RESUMO

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the changes of carbohydrate composition in fermented total mixed diet and its effects on rumen fermentation, methane production, and rumen microbiome in vitro. The concentrate-to-forage ratio of the total mixed ration (TMR) was 4:6, and TMR was ensiled with lactic acid bacteria and fibrolytic enzymes. The results showed that different TMRs had different carbohydrate compositions and subfractions, fermentation characteristics, and bacterial community diversity. After fermentation, the fermented total mixed ration (FTMR) group had lower contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, non-fibrous carbohydrates, and carbohydrates. In addition, lactic acid content and relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the FTMR group were higher. Compared with the TMR group, the in vitro ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acid concentrations and the molar proportion of propionate and butyrate were increased in the FTMR group. However, the ruminal pH, molar proportion of acetate, and methane production were significantly decreased in the FTMR group. Notably, we found that the relative abundance of ruminal bacteria was higher in FTMR than in TMR samples, including Prevotella, Coprococcus, and Oscillospira. At the same time, we found that the diversity of methanogens in the FTMR group was lower than that in the TMR group. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter significantly decreased, while the relative abundances of Methanoplanus and vadinCA11 increased. The relative abundances of Entodinium and Pichia significantly decreased in the FTMR group compared with the TMR group. These results suggest that FTMR can be used as an environmentally cleaner technology in animal farming due to its ability to improve ruminal fermentation, modulate the rumen microbiome, and reduce methane emissions.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 773759, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804106

RESUMO

Grasslands are crucial components of ecosystems. In recent years, owing to certain natural and socio-economic factors, alpine grassland ecosystems have experienced significant degradation. This study integrated the frequency ratio model (FR) and Bayesian belief networks (BBN) for grassland degradation risk assessment to mitigate several issues found in previous studies. Firstly, the identification of non-encroached degraded grasslands and shrub-encroached grasslands could help stakeholders more accurately understand the status of different types of alpine grassland degradation. In addition, the index discretization method based on the FR model can more accurately ascertain the relationship between grassland degradation and driving factors to improve the accuracy of results. On this basis, the application of BBN not only effectively expresses the complex causal relationships among various variables in the process of grassland degradation, but also solves the problem of identifying key factors and assessing grassland degradation risks under uncertain conditions caused by a lack of information. The obtained result showed that the accuracies based on the confusion matrix of the slope of NDVI change (NDVIs), shrub-encroached grasslands, and grassland degradation indicators in the BBN model were 85.27, 88.99, and 74.37%, respectively. The areas under the curve based on the ROC curve of NDVIs, shrub-encroached grasslands, and grassland degradation were 75.39% (P < 0.05), 66.57% (P < 0.05), and 66.11% (P < 0.05), respectively. Therefore, this model could be used to infer the probability of grassland degradation risk. The results obtained using the model showed that the area with a higher probability of degradation (P > 30%) was 2.22 million ha (15.94%), with 1.742 million ha (78.46%) based on NDVIs and 0.478 million ha (21.54%) based on shrub-encroached grasslands. Moreover, the higher probability of grassland degradation risk was mainly distributed in regions with lower vegetation coverage, lower temperatures, less potential evapotranspiration, and higher soil sand content. Our research can provide guidance for decision-makers when formulating scientific measures for alpine grassland restoration.

6.
JAMA Pediatr ; : e214375, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747972

RESUMO

Importance: A rapid nutritional transition has caused greater childhood obesity prevalence in many countries, but the repertoire of effective preventive interventions remains limited. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a novel multifaceted intervention for obesity prevention in primary school children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted during a single school year (from September 11, 2018, to June 30, 2019) across 3 socioeconomically distinct regions in China according to a prespecified trial protocol. Twenty-four schools were randomly allocated (1:1) to the intervention or the control group, with 1392 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years participating. Data from the intent-to-treat population were analyzed from October 1 to December 31, 2019. Interventions: A multifaceted intervention targeted both children (promoting healthy diet and physical activity) and their environment (engaging schools and families to support children's behavioral changes). The intervention was novel in its strengthening of family involvement with the assistance of a smartphone app. The control schools engaged in their usual practices. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters) from baseline to the end of the trial. Secondary outcomes included changes in adiposity outcomes (eg, BMI z score, prevalence of obesity), blood pressure, physical activity and dietary behaviors, obesity-related knowledge, and physical fitness. Generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. Results: Among the 1392 participants (mean [SD] age, 9.6 [0.4] years; 717 boys [51.5%]; mean [SD] BMI, 18.6 [3.7]), 1362 (97.8%) with follow-up data were included in the analyses. From baseline to the end of the trial, the mean BMI decreased in the intervention group, whereas it increased in the control group; the mean between-group difference in BMI change was -0.46 (95% CI, -0.67 to -0.25; P < .001), which showed no evidence of difference across different regions, sexes, maternal education levels, and primary caregivers (parents vs nonparents). The prevalence of obesity decreased by 27.0% of the baseline figure (a relative decrease) in the intervention group, compared with 5.6% in the control group. The intervention also improved other adiposity outcomes, dietary, sedentary, and physical activity behaviors, and obesity-related knowledge, but it did not change moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, physical fitness, or blood pressure. No adverse events were observed during the intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: The multifaceted intervention effectively reduced the mean BMI and obesity prevalence in primary school children across socioeconomically distinct regions in China, suggesting its potential for national scaling. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03665857.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1977, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increasing urbanization in developing countries, sanitation workers are frequently involved in road traffic collisions. Our purpose was to study specific collisions involving sanitation workers and provide decision-making suggestions and reference measures for the sanitation industry and urban managers to reduce the occurrence of collisions. METHODS: We obtained online news data about sanitation worker road traffic collisions in China between 2013 and 2017 and analyzed occurrence time and location, victim characteristics, and causes of collisions. RESULTS: In China, between 2013 and 2017, 511 road traffic collisions were reported, with the fewest in February and July. Most occurred around 5:00 a.m. in Eastern regions and in urban areas. Victims were mainly over 50 years old, with more females than males. Collisions usually resulted in death at the scene. The ambiguity of laws, the exploitation of workers through industry outsourcing, and the difficulty of processing claims may be the main factors preventing victims from obtaining legal compensation. CONCLUSIONS: The most common cause of collisions was drivers' speeding, but workers also regularly risk death by crossing the road in pursuit of their duties. The absence of legal controls for environmental protection, the excessive pursuit of efficiency in urban governance, and the lack of basic education of sanitation workers are underlying causes of collisions. Raising awareness about sanitation worker road traffic collisions will help protect the work safety rights of this vulnerable group.

8.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tissue ischemia usually leads to necrosis and is a threatening condition associated with reconstructive surgery. Promoting the survival of ischemic tissue is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Although various solutions based on stem cells have been reported, there are still limitations to clinical translation. The aim of this study was to develop an effective method to promote the survival of ischemic tissue. METHODS: Adipose-derived CD34 + and CD34- cells were obtained by magnetic bead sorting from the stromal vascular faction (SVF). Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were collected by subculture. The angiogenic capacities of CD34 + cells, CD34- cells and ADSCs were evaluated in vitro by comparing mRNA and protein expression. Random axial flaps in nude mice were used to evaluate the efficacy of these cells in protecting tissue from necrosis. The effect of these cells in preventing inflammation was also evaluated. RESULTS: Our data suggest that CD34 + cells expressed higher levels of angiogenetic factors and lower levels of inflammatory factors than the other cell types. More vessel branches were formed when human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with conditioned medium from CD34 + cells than conditioned medium from the other cell types. Compared to ADSCs, CD34 + cells showed significantly higher efficacy in promoting tissue survival. More CD31 + cells and higher levels of angiogenic factors were observed in tissues from the CD34 + group than in those from the other groups. Lower levels of the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1b and higher levels of anti-inflammatory factors were found in the CD34 + group than in the other groups. CONCLUSION: Adipose-derived CD34 + cells showed better efficacy in improving ischemic tissue survival than ADSCs by reducing tissue inflammation and promoting angiogenesis. CD34 + cells can be obtained easily and may be suitable for clinical applications.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2101235, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791825

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are important in tumor microenvironment (TME) driven cancer progression. However, CAFs are heterogeneous and still largely underdefined, better understanding their origins will identify new therapeutic strategies for cancer. Here, the authors discovered a new role of macrophage-myofibroblast transition (MMT) in cancer for de novo generating protumoral CAFs by resolving the transcriptome dynamics of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) with single-cell resolution. MMT cells (MMTs) are observed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) associated with CAF abundance and patient mortality. By fate-mapping study, RNA velocity, and pseudotime analysis, existence of novel macrophage-lineage-derived CAF subset in the TME of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model is confirmed, which is directly transited via MMT from M2-TAM in vivo and bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) in vitro. Adoptive transfer of BMDM-derived MMTs markedly promote CAF formation in LLC-bearing mice. Mechanistically, a Smad3-centric regulatory network is upregulated in the MMTs of NSCLC, where chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing(ChIP-seq) detects a significant enrichment of Smad3 binding on fibroblast differentiation genes in the macrophage-lineage cells in LLC-tumor. More importantly, macrophage-specific deletion and pharmaceutical inhibition of Smad3 effectively block MMT, therefore, suppressing the CAF formation and cancer progression in vivo. Thus, MMT may represent a novel therapeutic target of CAF for cancer immunotherapy.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618870

RESUMO

As the largest carbon dioxide emitter, China is working towards the direction of a green economy. As an irreplaceable part of establishing a green economy, the low-carbon city pilot (LCCP) policy is implemented in many large cities in China, and the scope of implementation will be further expanded. However, to date, there has been an absence of empirical studies basing on prefecture-level cities about the evaluation of China's LCCP policy. Evaluating and optimizing the LCCP policy is constructive to achieve the goal of China's green economic transition. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of the LCCP policy on China's low-carbon economic transition by using the difference-in-difference (DID) approach which can effectively alleviate endogenous problems and better evaluate this effect and the panel data of 210 prefecture-level cities in China from 2008 to 2016. The empirical analysis revealed that the LCCP policy inhibited China's low-carbon economic transition in general. Specifically, the policy worked well in the eastern region but failed in the central region and western region by studying the regional heterogeneity and influence mechanism. The reason is that the LCCP policy can stimulate low-carbon innovation with the help of innovation offset effects in the eastern region, but it failed to do so in the central region and western region. In addition, this paper analyzed the performance of three types of policy tools adopted by local governments to implement the policy, we found that market-economic tools are valuable to improving the low-carbon economic transition in pilot areas, but command-mandatory tools and voluntary tools have failed to achieve the expected objectives. The research results of this article can provide policy recommendations for optimizing the low-carbon policy and provide a reference for countries that are determined to develop a green economy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , China , Cidades , Indústrias
11.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(29): 627-631, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594950

RESUMO

Introduction: Fumonisins are a group of widespread mycotoxins mainly existing in staple foods. Their toxicological effects on humans cause worldwide public health threat. During 2015-2020, the 6th China Total Diet Study (TDS) was conducted to study the dietary exposure to fumonisins in the Chinese adult population. Methods: Fumonisins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS in 288 composite dietary samples collected from 24 provincial-level administrative divisions. After combining the national consumption data with analytical results, estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were assessed and compared with health-based guide values (HBGV). Results: In the 6th China TDS, the highest fumonisin B (FBs) levels were found in staple foods/cereals among the 12 food categories. EDI of FBs was 104.9 ng/kg of body weight (bw)/day at the upper bound accounting 5.25% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. Among the 12 food categories, cereals and cereal products were the greatest contributor to FB exposure at 95%. Conclusion: Although the estimated exposure to FBs in the 6th China TDS were well below the HBGV for FBs in general, it was 2 times higher than the exposure in the 5th China TDS. Furthermore, the exposure to FB3 has increased remarkable and is worth further attention in China.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(12): 121601, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597073

RESUMO

We discuss the general method for obtaining full positivity bounds on multifield effective field theories (EFTs). While the leading order forward positivity bounds are commonly derived from the elastic scattering of two (superposed) external states, we show that, for a generic EFT containing three or more low-energy modes, this approach only gives incomplete bounds. We then identify the allowed parameter space as the dual to a spectrahedron, constructed from crossing symmetries of the amplitude, and show that finding the optimal bounds for a given number of modes is equivalent to a geometric problem: finding the extremal rays of a spectrahedron. We show how this is done analytically for simple cases and numerically formulated as semidefinite programming (SDP) problems for more complicated cases. We demonstrate this approach with a number of well-motivated examples in particle physics and cosmology, including EFTs of scalars, vectors, fermions, and gravitons. In all these cases, we find that the SDP approach leads to results that either improve the previous ones or are completely new. We also find that the SDP approach is numerically much more efficient.

13.
Appl Opt ; 60(29): 9074-9081, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623988

RESUMO

The step-stitching issue occurring in digital micromirror device (DMD)-based step lithography, which refers to overlapping and misalignment, has dramatically influenced the overall accuracy of the exposed patterns. To address this technical challenge, this paper proposes a testing method to resolve the system tolerance parameters, inclination angle with 0.060∘±0.003∘, and magnification with 3.60399±0.00020, which induce the stitching problem. With these two parameters, a compensation strategy on motion is implemented to precisely control the step distance of the stage so that the edge-to-edge stitching error is reduced to about 0.150 µm and the corner-to-corner stitching error is less than 0.500 µm. The changes of the linewidth induced by the displacement error due to the stage control accuracy and illumination nonuniformity caused by the light source are simulated and analyzed, and the image preprocessing method based on a gradual grayscale mask is employed to improve the quality of stitching. Using this method, the linewidth difference is controlled to be within 0.150 µm. After finishing all the corrections and imaging preprocessing, the transverse error has become almost invisible, and the longitudinal error has been reduced by 97.72%. Experimental results demonstrate that the improved stitching accuracy could achieve high-fidelity devices.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27410, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622847

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid as one of the criteria has been widely applied to assess whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients could discharge, however, the risk factors that affect the duration of the SARS-CoV-2 clearance remained to be an enigma. Our research was to identify risk factors correlated with prolonged duration of the SARS-CoV-2 clearance in moderate COVID-19 patients.We retrospectively analyzed 279 consecutive ordinary COVID-19 patients in 3 hospitals in Hubei province including Huangshi Hospital of Infectious Disease, Wuhan Thunder God Mountain Hospital, and Tongji Hospital. Eight clinical characters were contained as risk factors. We used a logistic regression model and nomogram to assess the possibility that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid may turn negative in 14 days.Time from symptoms onset to diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-6.46; P = .001), time from onset use of antiviral drugs to onset of symptoms (OR = 0.41; 95% CI 0.23-0.72; P = .02), and bacterial coinfection (OR = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.86; P = .038) were independent risks factors for the duration of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid clearance. The regression model showed good accuracy and sensitivity (area under the curve  = 0.96). Nomogram was also provided to predict the negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids within 14 days.Time from symptoms onset to diagnosi, time from onset use of antiviral drugs to onset of symptoms, and bacterial coinfection were independent risk factors for the time of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid turning negative in ordinary COVID-19 patients. However, the age, gender, underlying disease, fungal coinfection, and duration use of antiviral drugs were irrelevant factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , China , Coinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-dose rivaroxaban is often given to patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) around the world, but the rationale for its use remains unclear. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of standard- or low-dose rivaroxaban in patients with AF through systematic review of literature with meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Clinical Trials.gov, the Cochrane Library, and Bayer trial website from inception of each database until June 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. A random-effects model was employed to calculate the pooled effect estimates. RESULTS: Two RCTs and 17 cohort studies were included in the qualitative analysis. Indirect comparison of RCTs showed no significant difference between the two rivaroxaban dosages in risk of efficacy or safety outcomes (p > 0.05). Indirect comparison of cohort studies showed a lower risk of MACE among Caucasians in standard-dose group (HR 0.779; 95% CI 0.687-0.884; p < 0.001). Bleeding outcomes did not differ significantly between the two dosage regimens in Asian or Caucasian populations, except that the standard dose was associated with higher risk of major bleeding among elderly Caucasian patients (HR 1.329; 95% CI 1.141-1.547; p < 0.001). The quality of evidence was rated ranging from very low to low for all the efficacy and safety outcomes. CONCLUSION: In Caucasians with AF, standard-dose rivaroxaban may prevent MACE significantly better than low-dose treatment. Further studies in Asians are needed to verify the advantages of the standard dose.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685209

RESUMO

Leakage of metal oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) into marine environments is inevitable with the increasing use of MNPs. However, little is known about the effects of these lately emerged MNPs on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of pre-existing contaminants in marine biota. The current study therefore investigated the effects of two common MNPs, CuO nanoparticles (nCuO) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (nFe3O4), on bioaccumulation and toxicity of arsenic (As) in green mussel Perna viridis. Newly introduced MNPs remarkably promoted the accumulation of As and disrupted the As distribution in mussels because of the strong adsorption of As onto MNPs. Moreover, MNPs enhanced the toxicity of As by disturbing osmoregulation in mussels, which could be supported by decreased activity of Na+-K+-ATPase and average weight loss of mussels after MNPs exposure. In addition, the enhanced toxicity of As in mussels might be due to that MNPs reduced the biotransformation efficiency of more toxic inorganic As to less toxic organic As, showing an inhibitory effect on As detoxifying process of mussels. This could be further demonstrated by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as implied by the rise in quantities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), and subsequently restraining the glutathione-S-transferases (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in mussels. Taken together, this study elucidated that MNPs may elevate As bioaccumulation and limit As biotransformation in mussels, which would result in an enhanced ecotoxicity of As towards marine organisms.

17.
Adv Mater ; 33(44): e2104290, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510586

RESUMO

Laser-induced graphene (LIG) has emerged as a promising and versatile method for high-throughput graphene patterning; however, its full potential in creating complex structures and devices for practical applications is yet to be explored. In this study, an in-situ growing LIG process that enables to pattern superhydrophobic fluorine-doped graphene on fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)-coated polyimide (PI) is demonstrated. This method leverages on distinct spectral responses of FEP and PI during laser excitation to generate the environment preferentially for LIG formation, eliminating the need for multistep processes and specific atmospheres. The structured and water-repellant structures rendered by the spectral-tuned interfacial LIG process are suitable as the electrode for the construction of a flexible droplet-based electricity generator (DEG), which exhibits high power conversion efficiency, generating a peak power density of 47.5 W m-2 from the impact of a water droplet 105 µL from a height of 25 cm. Importantly, the device exhibits superior cyclability and operational stability under high humidity and various pH conditions. The facile process developed can be extended to realize various functional devices.

18.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(38): 8377-8383, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528986

RESUMO

2-Alkenyl-tetrahydropyrans belong to a rare class of natural products that exhibit broad antifungal activities. Their structural instability and rareness in nature have restrained their discovery and drug development. In this study, the heterologous expression of a single highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS, App1) from Trichoderma applanatum in Aspergillus nidulans leads to the formation of seven 2-alkenyl-tetrahydropyran derivatives including one known compound virensol C (1) and six new compounds (2-7). However, introducing App1 into Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the identification of additional two 2-alkenyl-tetrahydropyrans lacking the hydroxyl or methoxyl group at the C-2 position (8 and 9). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis using NMR and HR-ESI-MS.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118077, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523522

RESUMO

Humans are extensively exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) daily via multiple pathways. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that occupational exposure to PAHs increases the risk of lung cancer, but related studies in the general population are limited. Hence, we conducted a case-control study among the Chinese general population to investigate the associations between PAHs exposure and lung cancer risk and analyze the modifications of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. In this study, we enrolled 122 lung cancer cases and 244 healthy controls in Wuhan, China. Urinary PAHs metabolites were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and rs25487 in X-ray repair cross-complementation 1 (XRCC1) gene was genotyped by the Agena Bioscience MassARRAY System. Then, multivariable logistic regression models were performed to estimate the potential associations. We found that urinary hydroxynaphthalene (OH-Nap), hydroxyphenanthrene (OH-Phe) and the sum of hydroxy PAHs (∑OH-PAHs) levels were significantly higher in lung cancer cases than those in controls. After adjusting for gender, age, BMI, smoking status, smoking pack-years, drinking status and family history, urinary ∑OH-Nap and ∑OH-Phe levels were positively associated with lung cancer risk, with dose-response relationships. Compared with those in the lowest tertiles, individuals in the highest tertiles of ∑OH-Nap and ∑OH-Phe had a 2.13-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 4.09) and 2.45-fold (95% CI: 1.23, 4.87) increased risk of lung cancer, respectively. Effects of gender, age, smoking status and smoking pack-years on the associations of PAHs exposure with lung cancer risk were shown in the subgroup analysis. Furthermore, associations of urinary ∑OH-Nap and ∑OH-PAHs levels with lung cancer risk were modified by XRCC1 rs25487 (Pinteraction ≤ 0.025), and were more pronounced in wild-types of rs25487. These findings suggest that environmental exposure to naphthalene and phenanthrene is associated with increased lung cancer risk, and polymorphism of XRCC1 rs25487 might modify the naphthalene exposure-related lung cancer effect.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Raios X , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5479, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531388

RESUMO

The Xanthomonas outer protein C2 (XopC2) family of bacterial effectors is widely found in plant pathogens and Legionella species. However, the biochemical activity and host targets of these effectors remain enigmatic. Here we show that ectopic expression of XopC2 promotes jasmonate signaling and stomatal opening in transgenic rice plants, which are more susceptible to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola infection. Guided by these phenotypes, we discover that XopC2 represents a family of atypical kinases that specifically phosphorylate OSK1, a universal adaptor protein of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin ligase complexes. Intriguingly, OSK1 phosphorylation at Ser53 by XopC2 exclusively increases the binding affinity of OSK1 to the jasmonate receptor OsCOI1b, and specifically enhances the ubiquitination and degradation of JAZ transcription repressors and plant disease susceptibility through inhibiting stomatal immunity. These results define XopC2 as a prototypic member of a family of pathogenic effector kinases and highlight a smart molecular mechanism to activate jasmonate signaling.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Oryza/genética , Fosforilação , Fosfotransferases/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Xanthomonas/genética , Xanthomonas/fisiologia
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