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1.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 17(1): 262, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex lower limb reconstruction due to severe trauma remains a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Here, we introduce a modified donor blood flow-preserved cross-leg anterolateral thigh flap procedure and evaluate its clinical efficacy. METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2019, 22 patients (range 10 to 64 years old) with unilateral lower limb injury underwent modified donor blood flow-preserved cross-leg anterolateral thigh flap procedures. Among them, 16 cases were traffic accidents, 5 cases were persistent ulcers, and 1 case was a degloving injury. The arterial pedicle of the flap was prepared in a Y-shaped fashion and microanastomosed to the posterior tibial artery of intact leg in a flow-through style. A split-thickness skin graft was applied to wrap the vascular pedicle after anastomosis. The flap was designed in a single or bilobed fashion according to the shape of the tissue defect. The operation time, the intraoperative blood loss and the length of hospital stays were recorded. The vascular pedicle was divided 4 weeks after anastomosis. Doppler ultrasound was performed to evaluate the blood flow of the donor posterior tibial artery during postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: All 22 flaps survived. The tissue defects ranged from 12 × 6 to 21 × 18 cm2. The flap sizes ranged from 14 × 7.5 to 24 × 21 cm2. The average operation time, intraoperative blood loss and length of hospital stays were 6.73 ± 1.49 h, 280.95 ± 59.25 ml and 30.55 ± 2.52 days, respectively. Eighteen flaps were designed in a single fashion, while four were in bilobed fashion. Twenty patients underwent fasciocutaneous flap transplantations, while two underwent musculocutaneous flap transplantations. Two cases developed local lysis of the flap which healed after further debridement. Direct suture of the incision after flap harvest was performed in 16 cases, while additional full-thickness skin grafting was performed in the remaining 6 cases. Further bone transport procedures were performed in 15 patients who had severe tibia bone defects. The blood flow of donor posterior tibial artery was confirmed in all patients during follow-ups. All patients recovered flap sensation at the final follow-up. The postoperative follow-ups ranged from 18 to 84 months, and no long-term complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The modified donor blood flow-preserved cross-leg anterolateral thigh flap procedure is an ideal method to repair severe lower limb trauma with tibial artery occlusion which avoids sacrificing the major artery of the uninjured lower limb.

2.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 36(5): 619-624, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570638

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effectiveness of anterolateral thigh bridge flap with free skin graft wrapping vascular bridge in repairing complex calf soft tissue defects. Methods: The clinical data of 11 patients with complex calf soft tissue defects between April 2018 and October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed, including 9 males and 2 females, aged 11-60 years, with a median age of 39 years. There were 8 cases of calf soft tissue defect caused by traffic accident, and 3 cases of calf skin infection caused by chronic osteomyelitis. The skin and soft tissue defects ranged from 10 cm×8 cm to 35 cm×10 cm after thorough debridement and accompanied with bone and tendon exposure. There was only one main vessel in calf of 9 cases and no blood vessel that could be anastomosed with the flap vessel could be found in the recipient site of 2 cases. The anterolateral thigh skin flap (the flap size ranged from 12 cm×10 cm to 37 cm×12 cm) was taken to repair the soft tissue defect. The donor site of the flap was treated with direct suture (8 cases) or partial suture followed by skin grafting (3 cases), and the vascular bridge was wrapped with medium-thickness skin graft. Results: The flaps of 11 patients survived completely without necrosis, infection, and vascular crisis. The blood supply of the vascular bridge was unobstructed and the pulse was good. The color of the medium-thickness skin graft were ruddy. All 11 patients were followed up 2-40 months, with an average of 19.4 months. The flaps healed well with the surrounding tissues without obvious exudation and color difference. The flaps had normal color and temperature, good blood supply, and soft texture. The shape of the flap and calf contour were satisfactory and the function of the limb recovered well. The donor area of thigh flap healed by first intention without obvious scar formation. The donor area of skin healed well with a longitudinal oblong scar only and the appearance was satisfactory. Conclusion: The anterolateral thigh bridge flap transplantation with free skin wrapping vascular bridge is an effective method for the treatment of complex calf soft tissue defects.

3.
Front Nutr ; 9: 840780, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571948

RESUMO

The traditional hydrodistillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted pretreatment extraction (UAPE) methods were proposed to obtain essential oil (EO) from Tribute citrus (TC) peels. The Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the HD and UAPE procedures. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and electronic nose (E-nose) were applied to identify the discrepancy of the extraction methods. The yield of EO extracted by UAPE (114.02 mg/g) was significantly higher than that by HD (85.67 mg/g) (p < 0.01) undergoing 40 min short time-consuming UPAE. A total of 28 compounds were extracted from the TC peels as terpenes were the predominant components. d-Limonene was the most vital compound in the T. citrus essential oil (TCEO), accounting for 86.38% of the total volatile concentration in HD and 86.75% in UAPE, respectively, followed by α-pinene, sabinene, γ-myrcene, and ß-phellandrene. The chart of radar and graphic of the principal component analysis by E-nose displayed no significance, which was similar to the GC-MS results. This study demonstrated that UAPE is an efficient and short time-consuming method for TCEO extraction, which provides a promising method for the separation of EO from aromatic plant materials.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 889835, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572624

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation system which can recycle multiple cytoplasmic components under both physiological and stressful conditions. Autophagy could be highly selective to deliver different cargoes or substrates, including protein aggregates, pathogenic proteins or superfluous organelles to lysosome using a series of cargo receptor proteins. During viral invasion, cargo receptors selectively target pathogenic components to autolysosome to defense against infection. However, viruses not only evolve different strategies to counteract and escape selective autophagy, but also utilize selective autophagy to restrict antiviral responses to expedite viral replication. Furthermore, several viruses could activate certain forms of selective autophagy, including mitophagy, lipophagy, aggrephagy, and ferritinophagy, for more effective infection and replication. The complicated relationship between selective autophagy and viral infection indicates that selective autophagy may provide potential therapeutic targets for human infectious diseases. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the interplay between selective autophagy and host antiviral defense, aiming to arouse the importance of modulating selective autophagy as future therapies toward viral infectious diseases.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 848911, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573370

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the impact of early neighborhood cohesion, and its mechanism, on cognitive function in later life. Methods: In total, 10,727 Chinese elderly, aged 60-90, forming two datasets (2014 and 2018) from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were used as a sample. Childhood neighborhood cohesion was measured by the extent of how much neighbors were willing to help and how close-knit neighbors were. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) were used to assess the cognitive functions and depression of the elderly. We used a structural equation model to examine the relationship between early neighborhood cohesion and late-life cognitive function and conducted bootstrapping analyses to assess the mechanism. Results: Cognitive function was positively predicted by childhood neighborhood cohesion (ß = 0.06, p < 0.001), and cognitive function of the elderly were also positively predicted through the mediating effects of childhood friendships, which included depression and social activity participation as two chain paths. Conclusion: The findings suggest that childhood neighborhood cohesion positively predicts cognitive function among elderly people through the mediating roles of childhood friendship, depression, and social activity engagement. Childhood neighborhood cohesion is correlated with better childhood friendships, then to fewer depression symptoms and greater elderly social activity participation, and finally to better cognitive functions in the elderly.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 648-654, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524515

RESUMO

Global changes have profound impacts on the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. It is a prerequisite to realize the sustainable use of ecosystem to clarify the response and adaptation mechanism of ecosystems to global changes. Network of control experiment is an important way to understand the response and adaptation of the structure and function of ecosystems to global change factors at regional and global scales. The scientific top-level design is conducive to the integration, comparison and analysis of integrative network-data, and then supports the development of universal ecological theory. We comprehensively expounded the theoretical basis, methodological principles and brand-new concepts of experimental network design for future global change control experiment networks design from several aspects, such as research progress, development needs, innovative design and research prospects. Taking Chinese grassland ecosystems as an example, based on the concept of space reference points (mean point of water and heat), the innovative design technology system of China's grassland ecosystem networking experiment was proposed, in order to promote the development of networking research of control experiments at both regional and global scales in the future.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , China , Temperatura Alta , Água
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2118597119, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522708

RESUMO

SignificancePhase transitions, the changes between states of matter with distinct electronic, magnetic, or structural properties, are at the center of condensed matter physics and underlie valuable technologies. First-order phase transitions are intrinsically heterogeneous. When driven by ultrashort excitation, nanoscale phase regions evolve rapidly, which has posed a significant experimental challenge to characterize. The newly developed laser-pumped X-ray nanodiffraction imaging technique reported here has simultaneous 100-ps temporal and 25-nm spatial resolutions. This approach reveals pathways of the nanoscale structural rearrangement upon ultrafast optical excitation, different from those transitions under slowly varying parameters. The spatiotemporally resolved structural characterization provides crucial nanoscopic insights into ultrafast phase transitions and opens opportunities for controlling nanoscale phases on ultrafast time scales.

8.
Evol Appl ; 15(4): 523-536, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505886

RESUMO

Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) is an important aquaculture species for offshore cage aquaculture and fish stocking of marine ranching in East Asia. Genomic selection has the potential to expedite genetic gain for the key target traits of a breeding program, but has not yet been evaluated in Oplegnathus. The purposes of the present study were to explore the performance of genomic selection to improve breeding value accuracy through real data analyses using six statistical models and to carry out genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to dissect the genetic architecture of economically vital growth-related traits (body weight, total length, and body depth) in the O. fasciatus population. After quality control, genotypes for 16,162 SNPs were acquired for 455 fish. Heritability was estimated to be moderate for the three traits (0.38 for BW, 0.33 for TL, and 0.24 for BD), and results of GWAS indicated that the underlying genetic architecture was polygenic. Six statistic models (GBLUP, BayesA, BayesB, BayesC, Bayesian Ridge-Regression, and Bayesian LASSO) showed similar performance for the predictability of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). The low SNP density (around 1 K selected SNP based on GWAS) is sufficient for accurate prediction on the breeding value for the three growth-related traits in the current studied population, which will provide a good compromise between genotyping costs and predictability in such standard breeding populations advanced. These consequences illustrate that the employment of genomic selection in O. fasciatus breeding could provide advantages for the selection of breeding candidates to facilitate complex economic growth traits.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 294: 115392, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589019

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Justicia procumbens L. is a traditional Chinese medicine, first recorded in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", for the treatment of lumbar pain and fever. As a widely distributed herb, it has also been documented in India, Nepal, and Malaysia. In "Tang Materia Medica", a famous medicinal book of Tang Dynasty in ancient China, it was first used to treat diseases associated with blood stasis. Blood stasis syndrome is closely related to thrombus formation and platelet aggregation. Although some compounds isolated from this plant have anti-platelet aggregation effects, the main chemical components and mechanism of J. procumbens in terms of these effects are little known. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Through in vivo and in vitro experiments, this studsy revealed the characteristic components and action mechanism of anti-platelet aggregation by J. procumbens from an overall perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effective crude extracts of the whole plant were screened via an in vitro anti-platelet aggregation test. After incubating these extracts with apheresis platelets, high affinity compounds were detected by HPLC-MS and regulatory genes were detected using gene chips. The effective components and potential target proteins were analyzed using computational docking technology. Furthermore, the compound with the strongest predicted activity was evaluated in vivo via an anti-thrombotic test. RESULTS: Integrin aⅡbß3, PKCα, PI3Kγ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 were found to be potential targets. Justicidin B, tuberculatin, chinensinaphthol methyl ether, and neojusticin B were effective compounds that inhibited human platelet aggregation by suppressing Gq-PLC-PKC and Gi-PI3K-MAPK signaling pathways. Among the compounds that bind to platelets, justicidin B showed the strongest virtual binding force. The test of carotid artery thrombosis induced by ferric chloride in SD rats confirmed that justicidin B inhibited thrombus formation. CONCLUSION: Experimental investigation showed that arylnaphthalene lignan aglycones with one methylenedioxy group and two methoxy groups are effective components for anti-platelet aggregation by J. procumbens. These compounds inhibit Gq-PLC-PKC and Gi-PI3K-MAPK signaling pathways by suppressing the expression of genes such as ITGB3, PRKCA, PIK3CG, and MAPK14. These results reflected the characteristics of multi-component and multi-target synergistic treatment of Chinese medicine.

10.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105529, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594682

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare and fatal condition that leads to right heart failure and death. The pathophysiology of PH and potential therapeutic approaches are yet unknown. PH animal models' development and proper evaluation are critical to PH research. This work presents an effective analysis technology for PH from arterial blood gas analysis utilizing an evolutionary kernel extreme learning machine with multiple strategies integrated slime mould algorithm (MSSMA). In MSSMA, two efficient bee-foraging learning operators are added to the original slime mould algorithm, ensuring a suitable trade-off between intensity and diversity. The proposed MSSMA is evaluated on thirty IEEE benchmarks and the statistical results show that the search performance of the MSSMA is significantly improved. The MSSMA is utilised to develop a kernel extreme learning machine (MSSMA-KELM) on PH from arterial blood gas analysis. Comprehensively, the proposed MSSMA-KELM can be used as an effective analysis technology for PH from arterial Blood gas analysis with an accuracy of 93.31%, Matthews coefficient of 90.13%, Sensitivity of 91.12%, and Specificity of 90.73%. MSSMA-KELM can be treated as an effective approach for evaluating mouse PH models.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 483, 2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact patterns play a key role in the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in human populations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the regular contact patterns of the population have been disrupted due to social distancing both imposed by the authorities and individual choices. Many studies have focused on age-mixing patterns before the COVID-19 pandemic, but they provide very little information about the mixing patterns in the COVID-19 era. In this study, we aim at quantifying human heterogeneous mixing patterns immediately after lockdowns implemented to contain COVID-19 spread in China were lifted. We also provide an illustrative example of how the collected mixing patterns can be used in a simulation study of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this work, a contact survey was conducted in Chinese provinces outside Hubei in March 2020, right after lockdowns were lifted. We then leveraged the estimated mixing patterns to calibrate a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Study participants reported 2.3 contacts per day (IQR: 1.0-3.0) and the mean per-contact duration was 7.0 h (IQR: 1.0-10.0). No significant differences in average contact number and contact duration were observed between provinces, the number of recorded contacts did not show a clear trend by age, and most of the recorded contacts occurred with family members (about 78%). The simulation study highlights the importance of considering age-specific contact patterns to estimate the COVID-19 burden. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, despite lockdowns were no longer in place at the time of the survey, people were still heavily limiting their contacts as compared to the pre-pandemic situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7262010, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607310

RESUMO

Heart disease is a very common high-incidence disease. Due to the wide variety of pathology of heart disease, how to improve the medical diagnosis of heart disease and carry out earlier intervention and treatment is a problem that needs to be solved urgently. The paper adds the decision tree algorithm and its comparison and proposes an optimized classification algorithm Co-SVM. Based on the establishment of a heart disease diagnosis classifier based on data mining algorithms, it is aimed at exploring which of these four algorithms is more suitable for heart disease diagnosis problems and optimizing them. A brief description of the cause, influencing factors, and acquired data of heart disease can be seen from the accuracy and scientificity of the data, which further enhances the authenticity and reliability of the clinical diagnosis model of heart disease. At the same time, the ultrasound diagnosis technology of heart disease is introduced, and the important role of ultrasound diagnosis technology in the medical diagnosis of heart disease is discussed. This thesis uses the heart disease clinical data set to establish a heart disease diagnosis classifier based on the decision tree algorithm, neural network algorithm, support vector machine algorithm, and Co-SVM algorithm. Through experimental comparison and analysis, the optimal classification is selected according to the obtained results. The algorithm is Co-SVM algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed Co-SVM algorithm has a higher accuracy rate than the other three classic algorithms, and the effectiveness of the Co-SVM algorithm is verified by the evaluation results of multiple algorithms. By applying the Co-SVM algorithm in the medical diagnosis system, it is helpful to assist doctors in making more accurate and precise diagnosis of the condition.

13.
Brain Behav ; : e2507, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stress-related brain disorders can be associated with glucocorticoid disturbance and hippocampal alteration. However, it remains largely unknown how cortisol affects the structure and function of hippocampus. Cushing's disease (CD) provides a unique "hyperexpression model" to explore the effects of excessive cortisol on hippocampus as well as the relation between these effects and neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in 47 CD patients and 53 healthy controls. We obtained the volume and functional connectivity of the hippocampal rostral and caudal subregions in both groups. Relationships between hippocampal alterations, neuroendocrine, and neuropsychological assessments were identified. RESULTS: Relative to control subjects, the CD patients had smaller volumes of all four hippocampal subregions. Furthermore, whole brain resting-state functional connectivity analyses with these four different hippocampal regions as seeds revealed altered hippocampal functional connectivity with high-order networks, involving the DMN, frontoparietal, and limbic networks in CD patients. The intrinsic hippocampal functional connectivity was associated with the quality of life of the CD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings elucidate the cumulative effect of excess cortisol on the morphology and function of hippocampus and reinforce the need for effective interventions in stress-related brain disease to halt potential hippocampal damage.

14.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(5): 268, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499593

RESUMO

FBXW2 is a poorly characterized F-box protein, as a tumor suppressor that inhibits growth and metastasis of lung cancer by promoting ubiquitylation and degradation of oncogenic proteins, including SKP2 and ß-catenin. However, what the biological functions of FBXW2 in prostate cancer cells and whether FBXW2 targets other substrates to involve in progression of prostate cancer is still unclear. Here, we reported that overexpression of FBXW2 attenuated proliferation and metastasis of PCa models both in vitro and in vivo, while FBXW2 depletion exhibited the opposite effects. Intriguingly, FBXW2 was an E3 ligase for EGFR in prostate cancer. EGFR protein level and its half-life were extended by FBXW2 depletion, while EGFR protein level was decreased, and its half-life was shortened upon overexpression of FBXW2, but not its dominant-negative mutant. Importantly, FBXW2 bond to EGFR via its consensus degron motif (TSNNST), and ubiquitylated and degraded EGFR, resulting in repression of EGF function. Thus, our data uncover a novel that FBXW2 as a tumor suppressor of prostate cancer, inhibits EGFR downstream by promoting EGFR ubiquitination and degradation, resulting in repression of cell proliferation and metastasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas F-Box , Neoplasias da Próstata , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ubiquitinação
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2277-2280, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531672

RESUMO

Due to the special biological characteristics, Gastrodia elata suffers from high resource consumption and low utilization rate in modern agricultural production, which significantly block the green and healthy development of this industry. Based on the theory and technology in ecological cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials, this study analyzed the challenges in ecological cultivation of G. elata, such as waste of fungus material, a few cultivation modes available, continuous cropping obstacles, frequent occurrence of diseases, and poor stability of ecological structure. According to the production practice, the following suggestions were proposed for ecological cultivation of G. elata: following the principle of environmental protection and no pollution, selecting suitable habitats to yield high-quality medicinal materials, committing to green control of diseases and pests, upgrading industrial structure to maximize the benefits, establishing a sound mechanism for protecting the genetic diversity of wild G. elata, carrying out simulative habitat cultivation to improve medicinal material quality, adopting science-based planning of fungus resources to relieve forestry pressure, enhancing the recycling and utilization of fungus materials, and applying diversified cultivation modes to improve the stability of ecological structure. The result is expected to provide a reference for the quality development of G. elata industry.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Plantas Medicinais , Agricultura , Gastrodia/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2281-2287, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531673

RESUMO

Tuber rot has become a serious problem in the large-scale cultivation of Gastrodia elata. In this study, we compared the resistance of different ecotypes of G. elata to tuber rot by field experiments on the basis of the investigation of G. elata diseases. The histological observation and transcriptome analysis were conducted to reveal the resistance differences and the underlying mechanisms among different ecotypes. In the field, G. elata f. glauca had the highest incidence of tuber rot, followed by G. elata f. viridis, and G. elata f. elata and G. elata f. glauca×G. elata f. elata showed the lowest incidence. Tuber rot showcased obvious plant source specificity and mainly occurred in the buds and bottom of G. elata plants. After infection, the pathogen spread hyphae in host cortex cells, which can change the endophytic fungal community structure in the cortex and parenchyma of G. elata. G. elata f. glauca had thinner lytic layer and more sugar lumps in the parenchyma than G. elata f. elata. The transcription of genes involved in immune defense, enzyme synthesis, polysaccharide synthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, hydroxylase activity, and aromatic compound synthesis had significant differences between G. elata f. glauca and G. elata f. elata. These findings suggested that the differences in resis-tance to tuber rot among different ecotypes of G. elata may be related to the varied gene expression patterns and secondary metabolites. This study provides basic data for the prevention and control of tuber rot and the improvement of planting technology for G. elata.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Ecótipo , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Tubérculos/genética
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2288-2295, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531674

RESUMO

Brown rot is a common disease in the cultivation and production of Gastrodia elata, but its pathogens have not been fully revealed. In this study, the pathogenic fungi were isolated and purified from tubers of 77 G. elata samples with brown rot. Pathogens were identified by the pathogenicity test and morphological and molecular identification. The pathogenicity of each pathogen and its inhibitory effects on Armillaria gallica were compared. The results showed that 119 strains of fungi were isolated from tubers of G. elata infected with brown rot. Among them, the frequency of separation of Ilyonectria fungi was as high as 42.01%. The pathogenicity test showed that the pathogenicity characteristics of six strains of fungi were consistent with the natural symptoms of brown rot in G. elata. The morphological and molecular identification results showed that the six strains belonged to I. cyclaminicola and I. robusta in the Nectriaceae family of Sordariomycetes class, respectively. Both types of fungi could produce pigments, conidia, and chlamycospore, and the growth rate of I. cyclaminicola was significantly higher than that of I. robusta. The comparison of pathogenicity showed that the spots formed by I. cyclaminicola inoculation were significantly larger than those of I. robusta inoculation, suggesting I. cyclaminicola was superior to I. robusta in pathogenicity. The results of confrontation culture showed that I. cyclaminicola and I. robusta could signi-ficantly inhibit the germination and cordage growth of A. gallica. A. gallica also inhibited the growth of pathogens, and I. cyclaminicola was less inhibited as compared with I. robusta. The results of this study revealed for the first time that I. cyclaminicola and I. robusta were the pathogens responsible for G. elata brown rot.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Fungos , Tubérculos , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2296-2303, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531675

RESUMO

The continuous cropping obstacle of Gastrodia elata is outstanding, but its mechanism is still unclear. In this study, microbial changes in soils after G. elata planting were investigated to explore the mechanism correlated with continuous cropping obstacle. The changes of species and abundance of fungi and bacteria in soils planted with G. elata after 1, 2, and 3 years were compared. The pathogenic fungi that might cause continuous cropping diseases of G. elata were isolated. Finally, the prevention and control measures of soil-borne fungal diseases of G. elata were investigated with the rotation planting pattern of "G. elata-Phallus impudicus". The results showed that G. elata planting resulted in the decrease in bacterial and fungal community stability and the increase in harmful fungus species and abundance in soils. This change was most obvious in the second year after G. elata planting, and the soil microbial community structure could not return to the normal level even if it was left idle for another two years. After G. elata planting in soils, the most significant change was observed in Ilyonectria cyclaminicola. The richness of the Ilyonectria fungus in soils was significantly positively correlated with the incidence of G. elata diseases. When I. cyclaminicola was inoculated in the sterile soil, the rot rate of G. elata was also significantly increased. After planting one crop of G. elata and one to three crops of P. impudicus, the fungus community structure in soils gradually recovered, and the abundance of I. cyclaminicola decreased year by year. Furthermore, the disease rate of G. elata decreased. The results showed that the cultivation of G. elata made the Ilyonectria fungi the dominant flora in soils, and I. cyclaminicola served as the main pathogen of continuous cropping diseases of G. elata, which could be reduced by rotation planting with P. impudicus.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Micobioma , Bactérias , Fungos , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2304-2308, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531676

RESUMO

Mycena, a symbiont of Gastrodia elata, promotes seed germination of G. elata and plays a crucial role in the sexual reproduction of G. elata. However, the lack of genetic transformation system of Mycena blocks the research on the interaction mechanism of the two. In order to establish the protoplast transformation system of Mycena, this study analyzed the protoplast enzymatic hydrolysis system, screened the resistance markers and regeneration medium, and explored the transient transformation. After hydrolysis of Mycena hyphae with complexes enzymes for 8 h and centrifugation at 4 000 r·min~(-1), high-concentration and quality protoplast was obtained. The optimum regeneration medium for Mycena was RMV, and the optimum resistance marker was 50 mg·mL~(-1) hygromycin. The pLH-HygB-HuSHXG-GFP-HdSHXG was transformed into the protoplast of Mycena which then expressed GFP. The established protoplast transformation system of Mycena laid a foundation for analyzing the functional genes of Mycena and the molecular mechanism of the symbiosis of Mycena and G. elata.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Gastrodia , Gastrodia/genética , Protoplastos , Simbiose/genética , Transformação Genética
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2309-2314, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531677

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the resource utilization of used fungus-growing materials produced in the cultivation of Gastrodia elata. To be specific, based on the production practice, this study investigated the recycling mechanism of used fungus-growing materials of G. elata by Phallus inpudicus. To screen edible fungi with wide adaptability, this study examined the allelopathic effects of Armillaria mellea secretions on P. impudicus and 6 kinds of large edible fungi and the activities of enzymes related to degradation of the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The results showed that P. impudicus can effectively degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The cellulase activity of A. mellea was significantly higher than that of P. impudicus, and the activities of lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and xylanase of P. impudicus were significantly higher than those of A. mellea, which was the important reason why A. mellea and P. impudicus used different parts and components of the used fungus-growing materials to absorb carbon sources and develop ecological niche differences. The growth of P. impudicus was significantly inhibited on the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The secretions of A. mellea had allelopathic effects on P. impudicus and other edible fungi, and the allelopathic effects were related to the concentration of allelopathy substances. The screening result showed that the growth and development of L. edodes and A. auricular were not significantly affected by 30% of A. mellea liquid, indicating that they had high resistance to the allelopathy of A. mellea. The results showed that the activities of extracellular lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and xylanase of the two edible fungi were similar to those of P. impudicus, and the cellulase activity was higher than that of P. impudicus. This experiment can be further verified by small-scale production tests.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Celulases , Gastrodia , Catecol Oxidase
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