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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 587-593, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018182

RESUMO

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodrome of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Cognitive impairment patients often have a delayed diagnosis because there are no early symptoms or conventional diagnostic methods. Exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communications and can act as promising biomarkers in diagnosing diseases. This study was designed to identify serum exosomal candidate proteins that may play roles in diagnosing MCI. Mass spectrometry coupled with tandem mass tag approach-based non-targeted proteomics was used to show the differentially expressed proteins in exosomes between MCI patients and healthy controls, and these differential proteins were validated using immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Correlation of cognitive performance with the serum exosomal protein level was determined. Nanoparticle tracking analysis suggested that there was a higher serum exosome concentration and smaller exosome diameter in individuals with MCI compared with healthy controls. We identified 69 exosomal proteins that were differentially expressed between MCI patients and healthy controls using mass spectrometry analysis. Thirty-nine exosomal proteins were upregulated in MCI patients compared with those in control patients. Exosomal fibulin-1, with an area under the curve value of 0.81, may be a biomarker for an MCI diagnosis. The exosomal protein signature from MCI patients reflected the cell adhesion molecule category. In particular, higher exosomal fibulin-1 levels correlated with lower cognitive performance. Thus, this study revealed that exosomal fibulin-1 is a promising biomarker for diagnosing MCI.

2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133953, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998486

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of l-ascorbyl palmitate (LAP) as an additive to liposome formulations by self-assembling with soy lecithin to form hybrid liposomes, in order to enhance the physical stability and bioactivator-loaded retention ratio of the LAP incorporated liposomes (LAP-LP). The addition of LAP significantly increased its surface negative charge and strong hydrophobic interactions occurred between the hydrophobic tails of LAP and phospholipids resulting in more compactly ordered, rigid and hydrophobic phospholipid bilayers as indicated by surface tension, fluorescence probes and DSC. These changes enhanced the stability of hydrophobic polyphenol loaded LAP-LP during storage. Particularly, after four weeks storage at 37 °C for naringenin loaded liposomes, the retention ratio of pure liposome decreased dramatically to 12.5 %, while the LAP-LP remained above 74.5 %. This study opens up the potential for the LAP-LP to be developed as a food-grade multifunctional formulation for encapsulating and delivering bioactivators.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Fosfolipídeos , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lipossomos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Polifenóis
3.
Insects ; 13(9)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135474

RESUMO

Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used tool for measuring gene expression; however, its accuracy relies on normalizing the data to one or more stable reference genes. Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff) is a polyphagous predatory natural enemy insect that preferentially feeds on more than 40 types of agricultural and forestry pests, such as those belonging to the orders Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. However, to our knowledge, the selection of stable reference genes has not been reported in detail thus far. In this study, nine E. furcellata candidate reference genes (ß-1-TUB, RPL4, RPL32, RPS17, RPS25, SDHA, GAPDH2, EF2, and UBQ) were selected based on transcriptome sequencing results. The expression of these genes in various samples was examined at different developmental stages, in the tissues of male and female adults, and after temperature and starvation treatments. Five algorithms were used, including ΔCt, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder, to evaluate reference gene expression stability. The results revealed that the most stable reference genes were RPL32 and RPS25 at different developmental stages; RPS17, RPL4, and EF2 for female adult tissue samples; RPS17 and RPL32 for male adult tissue samples; RPS17 and RPL32 for various temperature treatments of nymphs; RPS17 and RPS25 for nymph samples under starvation stress; and RPS17 and RPL32 for all samples. Overall, we obtained a stable expression of reference genes under different conditions in E. furcellata, which provides a basis for future molecular studies on this organism.

4.
Mol Immunol ; 151: 29-40, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising remedies for various inflammatory disease including pulmonary fibrosis (PF). However, the properties of MSCs in PF pathological microenvironment remain unclear. In this study, the efficacy of autophagy in placental mesenchymal stem cells of fetal origin (fPMSCs) in either IL-1ß treatment or BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis mice model was examined. METHODS: The characteristic of fPMSCs was identified by morphological observation, flow cytometry and differentiation potential. In vitro experiments, fPMSCs were stimulated with IL-1ß, to mimic inflammatory microenvironment of pulmonary fibrosis. The immunosuppressive properties and autophagic function in fPMSCs treated with IL-1ß were evaluated by both macrophage cells THP-1 activation and the expression of CD200 situation, autophagy marker and MAPK signaling pathway. The in vivo anti-fibrotic activity of fPMSCs interfering autophagy was evaluated by using BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis mice model. RESULTS: fPMSCs belonged to CD73+CD90+CD105+/CD14- CD34-CD45-HLA-DR- cells, and capable differentiation to adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic cells. In addition, immunoinhibitory activity of fPMSCs for macrophage was restrained by IL-1ß treatment in CD200 dependent manner. Suppression of autophagy by sh-Atg5 lentivirus increased the expression of CD200 and ratio of CD200 positive fPMSCs, and enhanced fPMSCs immunosuppression for THP-1 activation. Mechanistically, IL-1ß induced autophagy regulated by p38 signaling cascade. In vivo, autophagy inhibition induced by Atg5 knockdown in fPMSCs resulted in strengthening antifibrotic effects on PF mice model. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, autophagy derived from inflammatory microenvironment hampered the immunoinhibitory properties of MSCs. Based on this, adjustment of autophagy may be a valid approach to facilitate their immunomodulatory and anti-fibrotic efficacy.

5.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140077

RESUMO

To rapidly detect whether apples are infected by fungi, a portable electronic nose was used in this study to collect the gas information from apples, and the collected information was processed by smoothing filtering, data dimensionality reduction, and outlier removal. Following this, we utilized K-nearest neighbors (KNN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), a convolutional neural network (CNN), a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), a particle swarm optimization-back-propagation neural network (PSO-BPNN), a gray wolf optimization-backward propagation neural network (GWO-BPNN), and a sparrow search algorithm-backward propagation neural network (SSA-BPNN) model to discriminate apple samples, and adopted the 10-fold cross-validation method to evaluate the performance of each model. The results show that SSA can effectively optimize the performance of the BPNN, such that the recognition accuracy of the optimized SSA-BPNN model reaches 98.40%. This study provides an important reference value for the application of an electronic nose in the non-destructive and rapid detection of fungal infection in apples.

6.
Foods ; 11(18)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140849

RESUMO

W/O/W emulsions can be used to encapsulate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive as nutritional products. However, studies on protein stabilized gel-like W/O/W emulsions have rarely been reported, compared to the liquid state multiple emulsions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different oil-water ratios on the stability of W/O/W emulgels fabricated with salt-soluble proteins (SSPs) of Sipunculus nudus. The physical stability, structural characteristics, rheological properties, and encapsulation stability of vitamin C and ß-carotene of double emulgels were investigated. The addition of W/O primary emulsion was determined to be 10% after the characterization of the morphology of double emulsion. The results of microstructure and rheological properties showed that the stability of W/O/W emulgels increased with the increasing concentration of SSPs. Additionally, the encapsulation efficiency of vitamin C and ß-carotene were more than 87%, and 99%, respectively, and still could maintain around 50% retention of the antioxidant capacity after storage for 28 days at 4 °C. The aforementioned findings demonstrate that stable W/O/W emulgels are a viable option for active ingredients with an improvement in shelf stability and protection of functional activity.

7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 382: 109929, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116390

RESUMO

The primary seafood-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus seriously threats the health of consumers preferring raw-fish products, becoming a global concern in food safety. In the present study, we found ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), a nutritional iron supplement, could efficiently induce the death of V. parahaemolyticus. Further, the bactericidal mechanisms of FeSO4 were explored. With a fluorescent probe of Fe2+, a significant influx of Fe2+ was determined in V. parahaemolyticus exposed to FeSO4, and the addition of an intracellular Fe2+ chelator was able to block the cell death. This suggested that cell death in V. parahaemolyticus induced by FeSO4 was dependent on the influx of Fe2+. It was intriguing that we did not observe the eruption of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid hydroperoxides by Fe2+, but the application of liproxstatin-1 (a ferroptosis inhibitor) significantly modified the occurrence of cell death in V. parahaemolyticus. These results suggested FeSO4-induced cell death in V. parahaemolyticus be a ferroptosis differing from that in mammalian cells. Through transcriptome analysis, it was discovered that the exposure of FeSO4 disturbed considerable amounts of gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus including those involved in protein metabolism, amide biosynthesis, two-component system, amino acid degradation, carbon metabolism, citrate cycle, pyruvate metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and so on. These data suggested that FeSO4 was a pleiotropic antimicrobial agent against V. parahaemolyticus. Notably, FeSO4 was able to eliminate V. parahaemolyticus in salmon sashimi as well, without affecting the color, texture, shearing force, and sensory characteristics of salmon sashimi. Taken together, our results deciphered a unique ferroptosis in V. parahaemolyticus by FeSO4, and highlighted its potential in raw-fish products to control V. parahaemolyticus.

9.
J Dig Dis ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121308

RESUMO

AIMS: To define endoscopic and histological remission in ulcerative colitis accurately, several score systems have been established. A novel Paddington International Virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre (PICaSSO) virtual electronic chromoendoscopy (VEC) was recently developed, validated, and reproduced to assess inflammation grade and predict prognosis. We externally verified and validated the clinical value of the PICaSSO score in UC patients. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 63 UC patients. The Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES), UC Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS), and PICaSSO score were adopted for endoscopic evaluation. All biopsies were scored using the Robarts Histological Index (RHI), Nancy Histological Index (NHI), and Extent, Chronicity, Activity, and additional findings (ECAP). Patients with an endoscopic MES of 0-1 at baseline were followed up with the median time of 23.5 months. RESULTS: PICaSSO was strongly correlated with other endoscopic and histological scores. PICaSSO ≤3 had advantages in assessing histological remission (HR), with the highest accuracy of 88.9% for ECAP-HR. Relapse-free survival rates were significantly different between patients with MES 0 and MES 1 and patients with PICaSSO ≤3 vs>3 (P = 0.010 and 0.018, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: PICaSSO was externally validated with strong correlations with other endoscopic and histopathologic scoring systems in UC, and PICaSSO-ER might potentially predict the better long-term clinical outcomes in UC patients.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202208323, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053546

RESUMO

Spiro[azetidine-indolines] are important scaffolds in diverse bioactive compounds. Current efforts to synthesize spiro[azetidine-indolines] are limited to chiral spiro[azetidine-2,3'-indolines]. Asymmetric synthesis of structurally similar chiral spiro[azetidine-3,3'-indolines] remains unexplored. In this work, the first copper(I)-catalyzed asymmetric Kinugasa/aryl C-C coupling cascade reaction is described. This provides a straightforward access to densely functionalized chiral spiro[azetidine-3,3'-indoline]-2,2'-diones in good yields and with high enantioselectivity.

11.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 135: 104341, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters have been extensively applied in clinical practices. However, they are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To improve patient care, it is critical to timely identify patients at risk of developing peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis. Artificial neural networks have been successfully used in many areas of clinical events prediction and affected clinical decisions and practice. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a novel clinical model based on artificial neural network for predicting peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis in breast cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy and determine whether it may improve the prediction performance compared with the logistic regression model. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: A large general hospital in Fujian Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eight hundred and forty-four breast cancer patients with peripherally inserted central catheters placement for chemotherapy were eligible for the study. METHODS: The dataset was divided into a training set (N = 1497) and an independent validation set (N = 347). The synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was used to handle the effect of imbalance class. Both the artificial neural network and logistic regression models were then developed on the training set with and without SMOTE, respectively. The performance of each model was evaluated on the validation set using accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Of the 1844 enrolled patients, 256 (13.9%) were diagnosed with peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis. Predictive models were constructed in the training set and assessed in the validation set. Eight factors were selected as input variables to develop the artificial neural network model. Without SMOTE, the artificial neural network model (AUC = 0.725) outperformed the logistic regression model (AUC = 0.670, p = 0.039). SMOTE improved the performance of both two models based on AUC. With the SMOTE sampling, the artificial neural network model performed the best across all evaluated models, the AUC value remained statistically better than that of the logistic regression model (0.742 vs. 0.675, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Artificial neural network model can effectively predict peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Identifying high-risk groups with peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis can provide close monitoring and an opportune time for intervention.

12.
Nanoscale ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102639

RESUMO

The exploitation of p-type oxide semiconductors with excellent optoelectrical properties as well as a simple preparation process is still challenging owing to the difficulty in producing hole carriers which results from strong hole localization in p-type oxide semiconductors. In this work, we succeeded in using ethylene glycol as a reductant to prepare orthorhombic structure SnO films using a sol-gel method and through K doping the optical and electrical properties of the films were improved. When the orthorhombic K doped SnO (K-SnO) films were applied in a phototransistor, it presented ultra-broadband photosensing from the ultraviolet to infrared region (300-1000 nm), demonstrating a photoresponsivity of 349 A W-1 and a detectivity of 5.45 × 1012 Jones at 900 nm under a light intensity of 0.00471 mW cm-2. In particular, infrared photosensing was for the first time reported in the SnO based phototransistors. This work not only provides a simple method to fabricate high-performance and low-cost p-type K-SnO films and phototransistors, but may also suggest a new way to improve the p-type characteristics of other oxide semiconductors and devices.

13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5437, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114182

RESUMO

With decades of electronic health records linked to genetic data, large biobanks provide unprecedented opportunities for systematically understanding the genetics of the natural history of complex diseases. Genome-wide survival association analysis can identify genetic variants associated with ages of onset, disease progression and lifespan. We propose an efficient and accurate frailty model approach for genome-wide survival association analysis of censored time-to-event (TTE) phenotypes by accounting for both population structure and relatedness. Our method utilizes state-of-the-art optimization strategies to reduce the computational cost. The saddlepoint approximation is used to allow for analysis of heavily censored phenotypes (>90%) and low frequency variants (down to minor allele count 20). We demonstrate the performance of our method through extensive simulation studies and analysis of five TTE phenotypes, including lifespan, with heavy censoring rates (90.9% to 99.8%) on ~400,000 UK Biobank participants with white British ancestry and ~180,000 individuals in FinnGen. We further analyzed 871 TTE phenotypes in the UK Biobank and presented the genome-wide scale phenome-wide association results with the PheWeb browser.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Fragilidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenômica , Fenótipo
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 865020, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119086

RESUMO

MS4A6A has been recognized as being associated with aging and the onset of neurodegenerative disease. However, the mechanisms of MS4A6A in glioma biology and prognosis are ill-defined. Here, we show that MS4A6A is upregulated in glioma tissues, resulting in unfavorable clinical outcomes and poor responses to adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that MS4A6A expression can act as a strong and independent predictor for glioma outcomes (CGGA1: HR: 1.765, p < 0.001; CGGA2: HR: 2.626, p < 0.001; TCGA: HR: 1.415, p < 0.001; Rembrandt: HR: 1.809, p < 0.001; Gravendeel: HR: 1.613, p < 0.001). A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network revealed that MS4A6A might be coexpressed with CD68, CD163, and macrophage-specific signatures. Enrichment analysis showed the innate immune response and inflammatory response to be markedly enriched in the high MS4A6A expression group. Additionally, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis revealed distinctive expression features for MS4A6A in macrophages in the glioma immune microenvironment (GIME). Immunofluorescence staining confirmed colocalization of CD68/MS4A6A and CD163/MS4A6A in macrophages. Correlation analysis revealed that MS4A6A expression is positively related to the tumor mutation burden (TMB) of glioma, displaying the high potential of applying MS4A6A to evaluate responsiveness to immunotherapy. Altogether, our research indicates that MS4A6A upregulation may be used as a promising and effective indicator for adjuvant therapy and prognosis assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2116881, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121914

RESUMO

To evaluate the safety of the 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15 (by LvZhu & Co. Ltd)) in healthy infants aged 2 months (minimum to 6 weeks) and 3 months old. This phase I clinical trial enrolled 80 subjects in Laishui County, Hebei Province, China. The total population was divided into 4 age groups on average: 20 adults (≥18 years) and 20 children (1-5 years) all received one vaccine dose; 20 infants (3 months) received the vaccine according to a 3-dose schedule at 0, 1, and 2 months. Twenty infants (2 months, minimum of 6 weeks old) received the vaccine according to a 3-dose schedule of 0, 2, and 4 months. The adverse events (AEs) until 30 days after each dose and serious adverse events (SAEs) until 6 months after the whole dose were reported. The solicited and unsolicited AE frequencies and laboratory indices were similar among the treatment groups. No vaccine-related SAEs were reported. Most vaccine-related adverse events consisting of systemic and local reactions were fever and pain. One hypersensitivity manifested as systemic urticaria that occurred on the third day after the second dose in the 2-month group. The 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was generally well tolerated in infants.

17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 981823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118040

RESUMO

Preterm infants or those with low birth weight are highly susceptible to invasive fungal disease (IFD) and other microbial or viral infection due to immaturity of their immune system. Antibiotics are routinely administered in these vulnerable infants in treatment of sepsis and other infectious diseases, which might cause perturbation of gut microbiome and hence development of IFD. In this study, we compared clinical characteristics of fungal infection after antibiotic treatment in preterm infants. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, compared with non-IFD patients with or without antibiotics treatment, Clostridium species in the intestinal tracts of patients with IFD were almost completely eliminated, and Enterococcus were increased. We established a rat model of IFD by intraperitoneal inoculation of C. albicans in rats pretreated with meropenem and vancomycin. After pretreatment with antibiotics, the intestinal microbiomes of rats infected with C. albicans were disordered, as characterized by an increase of proinflammatory conditional pathogens and a sharp decrease of Clostridium species and Bacteroides. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that C. albicans-infected rats pretreated with antibiotics were deficient in IgA and IL10, while the number of Pro-inflammatory CD11c+ macrophages was increased. In conclusion, excessive use of antibiotics promoted the imbalance of intestinal microbiome, especially sharp decreases of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing Clostridium species, which exacerbated the symptoms of IFD, potentially through decreased mucosal immunomodulatory molecules. Our results suggest that inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics may promote the colonization of invasive fungi. The results of this study provide new insights into the prevention of IFD in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Micoses , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Clostridium/genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Interleucina-10 , Meropeném , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; : 158874, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126710

RESUMO

Aerosol volatility has a substantial impact on gas-particle partitioning, aging process and hence brown carbon (BrC) absorption. Here we analyzed single-particle volatility in winter in Beijing using a thermodenuder coupled with a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer along with a suite of collocated measurements. Our results showed that elemental carbon, metals, organic nitrogen (ON) were the dominant low-volatility components. The ON-containing particles accounting for 50 % of the total low-volatility particles comprised mainly ON-organic carbon (ON-OC) particles which were associated with biomass burning and significantly enhanced during polluted periods with high relative humidity and nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels. By analyzing the relationship between single-particle volatility and BrC, we found that semi-volatile particles related to fossil fuel combustion contributed dominantly to the light absorption of BrC (~50 %). Comparatively, the low-volatility and semi-volatile particles related to biomass burning contributed 21-35 % and 10-15 %, respectively to the BrC light absorption. Our results demonstrated that single particles from different sources with different volatility showed different impacts on BrC absorption. Although low-volatility organic aerosol accounted only for ~16 % of the total ambient organics, they can contribute as much as ~30-40 % to BrC light absorption in winter in Beijing.

20.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 303, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that immune cell infiltration contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We aim to unveil the immune infiltration pattern in the glomerulus of DN and provide potential targets for immunotherapy. METHODS: Infiltrating percentage of 22 types of immune cell in the glomerulus tissues were estimated by the CIBERSORT algorithm based on three transcriptome datasets mined from the GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by the "limma" package. Then immune-related DEGs were identified by intersecting DEGs with immune-related genes (downloaded from Immport database). The protein-protein interactions of Immune-related DEGs were explored using the STRING database and visualized by Cytoscape. The enrichment analyses for KEGG pathways and GO terms were carried out by the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) method. RESULTS: 11 types of immune cell were revealed to be significantly altered in the glomerulus tissues of DN (Up: B cells memory, T cells gamma delta, NK cells activated, Macrophages.M1, Macrophages M2, Dendritic cells resting, Mast cells resting; Down: B cells naive, NK cells resting, Mast cells activated, Neutrophils). Several pathways related to immune, autophagy and metabolic process were significantly activated. Moreover, 6 hub genes with a medium to strong correlation with renal function (eGFR) were identified (SERPINA3, LTF, C3, PTGDS, EGF and ALB). CONCLUSION: In the glomerulus of DN, the immune infiltration pattern changed significantly. A complicated and tightly regulated network of immune cells exists in the pathological of DN. The hub genes identified here will facilitate the development of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Transcriptoma
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