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1.
J Biomol NMR ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510297

RESUMO

Protein secondary structure provides rich structural information, hence the description and understanding of protein structure relies heavily on it. Identification or prediction of secondary structures therefore plays an important role in protein research. In protein NMR studies, it is more convenient to predict secondary structures from chemical shifts as compared to the traditional determination methods based on inter-nuclear distances provided by NOESY experiment. In recent years, there was a significant improvement observed in deep neural networks, which had been applied in many research fields. Here we proposed a deep neural network based on bidirectional long short term memory (biLSTM) to predict protein 3-state secondary structure using NMR chemical shifts of backbone nuclei. While comparing with the existing methods the proposed method showed better prediction accuracy. Based on the proposed method, a web server has been built to provide protein secondary structure prediction service.

2.
Mol Ecol ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510615

RESUMO

The evolutionary outcomes of high-elevation adaptation have been extensively described. However, whether widely distributed high-elevation endemic animals adopt uniform mechanisms during adaptation to different elevational environments remains unknown, especially with respect to extreme high elevation environments. To explore this, we analyze phenotypic and genomic data of seven populations of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) along elevations ranging from 2700 to 4300 m. Based on whole-genome sequencing data and demographic reconstruction of the evolutionary history, we show that two populations of plateau zokor living at elevations exceeding 3700 m diverged from other populations nearly ten thousand years ago. Further, phenotypic comparisons reveal stress-dependent adaptation, as two populations living at elevations exceeding 3700 m have elevated ratios of heart mass to body mass relative to other populations, and the highest population (4300 m) displays alterations in erythrocytes. Correspondingly, genomic analysis of selective sweeps indicates that positive selection might contribute to the observed phenotypic alterations in these two extremely high-elevation populations, with the adaptive cardiovascular phenotypes of both populations possibly evolving under the functional constrains of their common ancestral population. Taken together, phenotypic and genomic evidence demonstrates that heterogeneous stressors impact adaptations to extreme elevations and reveals stress-dependent and genetically constrained adaptation to hypoxia, collectively providing new insights into the high-elevation adaptation.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125930, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492860

RESUMO

The pollution of heavy metals and organic compounds has received increased attention in recent years. In the current study, a novel biochar-based iron oxide composite (FeYBC) was successfully synthesized using pomelo peel and ferric chloride solution through one-step process at moderate temperature. Results clearly demonstrate that FeYBC exhibited more efficient removal of Cr(VI) and/or phenol compared with the pristine biochar, and the maximum adsorption amounts of Cr(VI) and phenol by FeYBC could reach 24.37 and 39.32 mg g-1, respectively. A series of characterization data suggests that several iron oxides such as Fe2O3, Fe0, FeOOH and Fe3O4 were formed on the FeYBC surface as well as oxygen-containing groups. Thermodynamics study indicates that Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption by FeYBC were endothermic and exothermic processes, respectively. Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second order models could better explain the Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption behaviors over FeYBC. The Cr(VI) adsorption might be primarily achieved through the ion exchange and surface complexation and reduction, whereas the π-π interaction and electron donor-acceptor complex mainly contributed to phenol adsorption. The findings indicate that the biochar-based iron oxide composites material was an efficient adsorbent for the remediation of industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) and phenol.

5.
Org Lett ; 23(18): 7295-7300, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494440

RESUMO

The unique structure of oxyallyls represents a significant challenge for their catalytic asymmetric applications. Herein, an unprecedented chiral imidodiphosphoric acid-catalytic enantioselective (3 + 3) cycloaddition between oxyallyl zwitterions generated in situ from α-haloketones and α-diazomethylphosphonates was developed. Pharmaceutically interesting chiral pyridazine-4(1H)-ones were obtained in up to 98% yields with excellent stereoselectivities (up to 99% ee, > 99:1 dr).

6.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105506, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530214

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the prognostic impact of waiting time for radiotherapy (RT) after induction chemotherapy (IC) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 648 NPC patients receiving IC between 2009 and 2011 were included Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance the variables Survival outcomes were compared in subgroups based on time to RT (TTR) after IC. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff point for TTR was 28 days A total of 330 patients were selected by 1:2 PSM Stratified and dichotomized TTRs were both strongly correlated with prognosis Patients with TTR > 28 days had significantly worse 5-year LRFS, DMFS, DFS and OS than those with TTR ≤ 28 days (P < 005) In multivariate analysis, TTR > 28 days was an independent predictor of worse LRFS [HR = 208; 95% CI, 118-366; P = 0011), DMFS (HR = 165; 95% CI, 104-262; P = 0033), DFS (HR = 186; 95% CI, 135-262; P < 0001) and OS (HR = 190; 95% CI, 126-285; P < 0001) High-risk patients with T4 or N2-3 disease were highly susceptible to RT delay with impaired DFS and OS In high-risk patients with TTR > 28 days, concurrent chemotherapy yielded better DMFS (709% vs 520%, P = 0041), DFS (525% vs 343%, P = 0039) and OS (703% vs 532%, P = 0048). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged waiting is detrimental to survival in NPC, and it is strongly recommended to start RT within 28 days after IC T4/N2-3 NPC has a higher risk of treatment failure with delayed RT With potential protection against RT delay, concurrent chemotherapy should be performed in high-risk patients as salvage therapy.

8.
Genes Dev ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531315

RESUMO

Activating mutations in KRAS (KRAS*) are present in nearly all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases and critical for tumor maintenance. By using an inducible KRAS* PDAC mouse model, we identified a deubiquitinase USP21-driven resistance mechanism to anti-KRAS* therapy. USP21 promotes KRAS*-independent tumor growth via its regulation of MARK3-induced macropinocytosis, which serves to maintain intracellular amino acid levels for anabolic growth. The USP21-mediated KRAS* bypass, coupled with the frequent amplification of USP21 in human PDAC tumors, encourages the assessment of USP21 as a novel drug target as well as a potential parameter that may affect responsiveness to emergent anti-KRAS* therapy.

9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 106048, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Aneurysms associated with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (MMD) are reported to stabilize or recede following revascularization. CASE REPORT/RESULTS: A 29 year-old male with no past medical history presented obtunded with diffuse intraventricular hemorrhage and vascular imaging demonstrating bilateral MMD without any associated aneurysms. He underwent a delayed right-sided STA-MCA bypass and pial synangiosis, and was subsequently discharged on hospital day 24 with a modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) of 2. He returned eleven days later from a rehabilitation facility with recurrent IVH. A saccular 5 mm right P4 segment posterior cerebral artery aneurysm was seen on a diagnostic angiogram and embolized with Onyx glue. CONCLUSIONS: Distal posterior circulation artery aneurysmal rupture is a rare cause of hemorrhagic MMD. This case demonstrates the capacity of these aneurysms to re-rupture following revascularization and underscores the importance of treating the aneurysms directly.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(36): 8726-8731, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477390

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of soluble impurities or suspended particles on ice growth is of significant importance from Earth science to materials engineering. Ions are common impurities with ice in a wide range of fields, but their effects on ice growth remain largely elusive. Here, we studied the ion-specific effects on single ice crystal growth in various electrolyte and polyelectrolyte solutions and found F- and NH4+ show remarkable abilities of inducing single ice crystals to form hexagonal shapes and reducing the growth rates of ice crystals. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the accumulation of F- around the ice/solution interface that plays a key role in the shapes and growth rates of single ice crystals. The understanding of ion-specific effects on ice growth opens up more possibilities for improving related fields, e.g., freeze desalination and cryopreservation.

11.
Theranostics ; 11(18): 8674-8691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522206

RESUMO

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by glycogen-laden, unexplained male predominance, and frequent mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and histone modifier genes. Besides, poor survival rates of ccRCC patients seem to be associated with up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, the mechanism underlying these features remains unclear. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was used to identify the gene mutation that implicated in the rewired glucose metabolism. RNA-seq analyses were performed to evaluate the function of KDM5C in ccRCC. Furthermore, heavy isotope tracer analysis and metabolites quantification assays were used to study how KDM5C affects intracellular metabolic flux. To provide more in vivo evidence, we generated the Kdm5c -/- mice by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene knockout and performed the xenografts with KDM5C overexpressing or depleted cell lines. Results: A histone demethylase gene KDM5C, which can escape from X-inactivation and is predominantly mutated in male ccRCC patients, was identified to harbor the frameshift mutation in the ccRCC cell line with the highest glycogen level, while the restoration of KDM5C significantly reduced the glycogen level. Transcriptome and metabolomic analysis linked KDM5C to metabolism-related biological processes. KDM5C specifically regulated the expression of several hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-related genes and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) that were involved in glycogenesis/glycogenolysis and PPP, respectively, mainly through the histone demethylase activity of KDM5C. Depletion of KDM5C increased the production of glycogen, which was then directed to glycogenolysis to generate glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and subsequently PPP to produce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride (NADPH) and glutathione (GSH), thus conferring cells resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ferroptosis. KDM5C re-expression suppressed the glucose flux through PPP and re-sensitized cancer cells to ferroptosis. Notably, Kdm5c-knockout mice kidney tissues exhibited elevated glycogen level, reduced lipid peroxidation and displayed a transformation of renal cysts into hyperplastic lesions, implying a cancer-protective benefit of ferroptosis. Furthermore, KDM5C deficiency predicted the poor prognosis, and clinically relevant KDM5C mutants failed to suppress glycogen accumulation and promoted ferroptosis as wild type. Conclusion: This work revealed that a histone modifier gene inactive mutation reprogramed glycogen metabolism and helped to explain the long-standing puzzle of male predominance in human cancer. In addition, our findings may suggest the therapeutic value of targeting glycogen metabolism in ccRCC.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e2101474, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490683

RESUMO

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are vital energy-storage devices in modern society. However, the performance and cost are still not satisfactory in terms of energy density, power density, cycle life, safety, etc. To further improve the performance of batteries, traditional "trial-and-error" processes require a vast number of tedious experiments. Computational chemistry and artificial intelligence (AI) can significantly accelerate the research and development of novel battery systems. Herein, a heterogeneous category of AI technology for predicting and discovering battery materials and estimating the state of the battery system is reviewed. Successful examples, the challenges of deploying AI in real-world scenarios, and an integrated framework are analyzed and outlined. The state-of-the-art research about the applications of ML in the property prediction and battery discovery, including electrolyte and electrode materials, are further summarized. Meanwhile, the prediction of battery states is also provided. Finally, various existing challenges and the framework to tackle the challenges on the further development of machine learning for rechargeable LIBs are proposed.

13.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy is a novel and minimally invasive alternative for medication-refractory tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of MRgFUS thalamotomy on spontaneous neuronal activity in PD remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of MRgFUS thalamotomy on local fluctuations in neuronal activity as measured by the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in patients with PD. METHODS: Participants with PD undergoing MRgFUS thalamotomy were recruited. Tremor scores were assessed before and 3 and 12 months after treatment using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. MRI data were collected before and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 12 months after thalamotomy. The fALFF was calculated. A whole-brain voxel-wise paired t-test was used to identify significant changes in fALFF at 12 months after treatment compared to baseline. Then fALFF in the regions with significant differences were extracted from fALFF maps of patients for further one-way repeated-measures ANOVA to investigate its dynamic alterations. The association between fALFF changes induced by thalamotomy and tremor improvement were evaluated using the nonparametric Spearman rank test. RESULTS: Nine participants with PD (mean age ± SD 64.7 ± 6.1 years, 8 males) were evaluated. Voxel-based analysis showed that fALFF in the left occipital cortex (Brodmann area 17 [BA17]) significantly decreased at 12 months after thalamotomy compared to baseline (voxel p < 0.001, cluster p < 0.05 family-wise error [FWE] corrected). At baseline, fALFF in the left occipital BA17 in patients was elevated compared with that in 9 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Longitudinal analysis displayed the dynamic changes of fALFF in this region (F (5,40) = 3.61, p = 0.009). There was a significant positive correlation between the falling trend in fALFF in the left occipital BA17 and hand tremor improvement after treatment over 3 time points (Spearman's rho = 0.44, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The present study investigated the impact of MRgFUS ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy on spontaneous neural activity in medication-refractory tremor-dominant PD. The visual area is, for the first time, reported as relevant to tremor improvement in PD after MRgFUS thalamotomy, suggesting a distant effect of MRgFUS thalamotomy and the involvement of specific visuomotor networks in tremor control in PD.

14.
Res Sports Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477036

RESUMO

This study examined the biomechanics of the lower limbs during four typical Tai Chi (TC) movements: wave hand in cloud, leaning fly side, repulse monkey, and brush knee and twist step, in order to provide biomechanical evidence-based recommendations for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) practicing TC. Joint angles and joint moments of the hip, knee, and ankle in frontal and sagittal plane as well as ground reaction forces were examined while performing TC and regular walking in an experienced 38 years old TC master. The results showed that relative to walking, the four TC movements are characterized by a wide motion range of lower limbs, slow increase in joint loading, and strong muscle activity during performance. Therefore, these TC movements could be suitable for patients with knee OA to practice for improving the muscle strength of their lower limbs and functional ability.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487140

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Genetic variations of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) play a critical role in influencing complex traits and diseases development. Two main factors that affect the statistical power of detecting eQTLs are: 1) relatively small size of samples available, and 2) heavy burden of multiple testing due to a very large number of variants to be tested. The later issue is particularly severe when one tries to identify trans-eQTLs that are far away from the genes they influence. If one can exploit co-expressed genes jointly in eQTL-mapping, effective sample size can be increased. Furthermore, using the structure of the gene regulatory network (GRN) may help to identify trans-eQTLs without increasing multiple testing burden. RESULTS: In this paper, we employ the structure equation model (SEM) to model both GRN and effect of eQTLs on gene expression, and then develop a novel algorithm, named sparse SEM for eQTL mapping (SSEMQ), to conduct joint eQTL mapping and GRN inference. The SEM can exploit co-expressed genes jointly in eQTL mapping and also use GRN to determine trans-eQTLs. Computer simulations demonstrate that our SSEMQ significantly outperforms nine existing eQTL mapping methods. SSEMQ is further employed to analyze two real datasets of human breast and whole blood tissues, yielding a number of cis- and trans-eQTLs. AVAILABILITY: R package ssemQr is available at https://github.com/Ivis4ml/ssemQr.git. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 721952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490198

RESUMO

Background: Contact tracing is a core element of the public health response to emerging infectious diseases including COVID-19. Better understanding the implementation context of contact tracing for pandemics, including individual- and systems-level predictors of success, is critical to preparing for future epidemics. Methods: We carried out a prospective implementation study of an emergency volunteer contact tracing program established in New Haven, Connecticut between April 4 and May 19, 2020. We assessed the yield and timeliness of case and contact outreach in reference to CDC benchmarks, and identified individual and programmatic predictors of successful implementation using multivariable regression models. We synthesized our findings using the RE-AIM implementation framework. Results: Case investigators interviewed only 826 (48%) of 1,705 cases and were unable to reach 545 (32%) because of incomplete information and 334 (20%) who missed or declined repeated outreach calls. Contact notifiers reached just 687 (28%) of 2,437 reported contacts, and were unable to reach 1,597 (66%) with incomplete information and 153 (6%) who missed or declined repeated outreach calls. The median time-to-case-interview was 5 days and time-to-contact-notification 8 days. However, among notified contacts with complete time data, 457 (71%) were reached within 6 days of exposure. The least likely groups to be interviewed were elderly (adjusted relative risk, aRR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.89, p = 0.012, vs. young adult) and Black/African-American cases (aRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, pairwise p = 0.01, vs. Hispanic/Latinx). However, ties between cases and their contacts strongly influenced contact notification success (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) 0.60). Surging caseloads and high volunteer turnover (case investigator n = 144, median time from sign-up to retirement from program was 4 weeks) required the program to supplement the volunteer workforce with paid public health nurses. Conclusions: An emergency volunteer-run contact tracing program fell short of CDC benchmarks for time and yield, largely due to difficulty collecting the information required for outreach to cases and contacts. To improve uptake, contact tracing programs must professionalize the workforce; better integrate testing and tracing services; capitalize on positive social influences between cases and contacts; and address racial and age-related disparities through enhanced community engagement.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495766

RESUMO

Background: Epithelial splicing regulatory proteins (ESRPs) can regulate alternative splicing of RNA and play roles in tumorigenesis and development of various malignancies. In this study, bioinformatic analyses and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate the function of ESPRs in serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) oncogenesis and metastasis. Materials and Methods: The mRNA levels of ESRPs were analyzed by Oncomine and gene expression profiling interactive analysis (GEPIA). Prognostic values of ESRPs were analyzed by GEPIA and the UALCAN website. Genetic variations of ESRPs were analyzed by cBioPortal. ESRP1 was selected for further research. The relationship between ESRP1 and immunoregulatory molecules was studied by using the TISIDB database. ESRP1 protein expression in OC was investigated via IHC assays. Results: ESRP1 and ESRP2 mRNA were significantly upregulated in SOC (p < 0.05). The prognostic value of ESRP1 mRNA in SOC was inconsistent, and ESRP2 mRNA level did not relate to prognosis for OC patients. The IHC results showed higher ESRP1 expression in OC tissues than in normal ovarian tissues (p = 0.002), and ESRP1 expression in metastatic lesions of OC patients was higher than in paired primary OC tissues (p = 0.035). The ESRP1 expression was related to FIGO stage, differentiation, and peritoneal metastasis (p = 0.016; 0.031; 0.038, respectively). The ESRP1 switch (the differential expression of ESRP1 between metastatic and primary tumor of ovarian carcinoma) was significantly associated with E-cadherin expression in metastatic OC tumors (p = 0.012). The ESRP1 expression in both metastasis and ESRP1 switch significantly correlated with poor prognosis of OC patients (p = 0.045; 0.038, respectively), and ESRP1 switch and FIGO stage were independent risk factors for OC patient prognosis (p = 0.033; 0.009, respectively). Conclusions: The ESRP1 may promote OC metastasis by promoting OC cell colonization via the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) process. The ESRP1 expression in metastatic lesions of OC patients may be a biomarker for predicting prognosis and a potential therapeutic target in OC.

18.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High cholesterol aggravates the risk development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is closely related to the transport impairment of amyloid-ß (Aß) in the blood-brain barrier. It is unclear whether high cholesterol affects the risk of cognitive impairment in AD by affecting Aß transport. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether high cholesterol regulates Aß transport through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the risk development of AD. METHODS: We established high cholesterol AD mice model. The learning and memory functions were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM). Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells were isolated, cultured, and observed. The expression levels of LRP1 and RAGE of endothelial cells and their effect on Aß transport in vivo were observed. The expression level of LRP1 and RAGE was detected in cultured microvessels after using Wnt inhibitor DKK-1 and ß-catenin inhibitor XAV-939. RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemia exacerbated spatial learning and memory impairment. Hypercholes- terolemia increased serum Aß40 level, while serum Aß42 level did not change significantly. Hyper- cholesterolemia decreased LRP1 expression and increased RAGE expression in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Hypercholesterolemia increased brain apoptosis in AD mice. In in vitro experiment, high cholesterol decreased LRP1 expression and increased RAGE expression, increased Aß40 expression in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. High cholesterol regulated the expressions of LRP1 and RAGE and transcriptional activity of LRP1 and RAGE promoters by the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: High cholesterol decreased LRP1 expression and increased RAGE expression in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, which led to Aß transport disorder in the blood-brain barrier. Increased Aß deposition in the brain aggravated apoptosis in the brain, resulting to cognitive impairment of AD mice.

19.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469542

RESUMO

Bitter taste receptors (Tas2Rs) serve as a vital component in the defense system against toxin intake by animals, and the family of genes encoding these receptors has been demonstrated, usually by family size variance, to correlate with dietary preference. However, few systematic studies of specific Tas2R to unveil their functional evolution have been conducted. Here, we surveyed Tas2R16 across all major clades of primates, which represent diverse feeding ecologies, and observed a rare case of a convergent change to increase sensitivity to ß-glucopyranosides in human and a New World monkey, the white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia). We combined evolutionary, 3D modeling and functional assay analyses to demonstrate that a parallel amino acid substitution (K172N) shared by these two species is responsible for this functional convergence of Tas2R16. Considering the specialized feeding preference of the white-faced saki, the K172N change likely played an important adaptive role in its early evolution to avoid potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, as suggested for the human TAS2R16 gene.

20.
J Control Release ; 338: 742-753, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517041

RESUMO

Cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is a novel and promising approach in recent years. However, exogenous cells are easy to be captured and destroyed by the harsh environment in vivo, so their application prospects have been severely limited. Here, a facile yet versatile approach for decorating individual living cells with nano-armor coatings is reported. By simply self-assembly with liposome under a cyto-compatible condition, the lipid bimolecular coating on the surface of each cell acts as armor to effectively protect it from the attack and destruction of strong acids and digestive enzymes during the oral treatment of PD. Our results demonstrated that the liposome coated B. adolescentis (LCB) could significantly improve the colonization rate in the intestinal tract. LCB, as a living cell factory, can self-regulate to produce a constant concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid and maintain a longer half-life for the treatment of PD. Then, we also explored the specific mechanism of LCB to improve the behavior of murine models of PD, including abating inflammatory effects, reducing neuronal apoptosis, regulating the activity of dopaminergic neurons and microglia. The simple nano-armor shielded single-cell factory can produce neurotransmitters-like drugs on demand in vivo, introducing novel strategies of integration of producing and using to the research of drug delivery field.

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