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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127665, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738530

RESUMO

'Nanguo' pear is particularly renowned for its fragrance. Esters are the main components of its aroma, which are synthesized primarily by the LOX pathway. We identified the main volatile esters and critical gene family members involved in the LOX pathway by monitoring their variation accompanying post-harvest ripening and examining their roles through principal component analysis (PCA), partial least-square regression (PLSR), and correlation analysis. In pears ripening to the optimum taste period (OTP), components and contents of volatile esters reached a peak, of which ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and hexyl acetate were most prominent. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid contents rose greatly until OTP and then declined; the activities of LOX, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) increased progressively until the OTP. Among the genes involved in LOX-pathway, the expressions of PuLOX3, PuADH3, and PuAAT contributed most to changes of total ester and main esters in 'Nanguo' pears.

2.
J Exp Med ; 218(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045062

RESUMO

The mechanism underpinning the regulation of microglial phagocytosis in demyelinating diseases is unclear. Here, we showed that the Quaking protein (Qki) in microglia was greatly induced by demyelination in the brains of both mice and humans. Deletion of the Quaking gene (Qk) in microglia severely impaired the clearance of myelin debris. Transcriptomic profiling indicated that depletion of Qki impaired total RNA levels and splicing of the genes involved in phagosome formation and maturation. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) confirmed the physical interactions between the Qki protein and the mRNAs of Qki targets that are involved in phagocytosis, indicating that Qki regulates their RNA stability. Both Qki depletion and inhibition of Qki target Cd36 greatly reduced the phagocytic activity of microglia and macrophages. The defective uptake and degradation of myelin debris caused by Qki depletion in microglia resulted in unresolved myelin debris that impaired axon integrity, oligodendrocyte maturation, and subsequent remyelination. Thus, our results demonstrate that Qki is an essential regulator of microglia's phagocytic activity under demyelinating conditions.

3.
Behav Brain Res ; 396: 112905, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926907

RESUMO

The precursor of brain derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and its receptor p75NTR are upregulated in depressive patients and chronic stress-induced depressive animals, suggesting that activation of p75NTR signalling may underlie pathogenesis of depression. In the present study we hypothesize that the blockade of p75NTR may have therapeutic effect on depressive mice under chronic stress. The treatment of mice with the recombinant fusion protein of p75NTR extracellular domain and fragment C of immunoglobulin (p75ECD-Fc) significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, and increased the time spent in the central zone in the open field test in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). p75ECD-Fc treatment also significantly increased the length and density of neuronal dendritic spines in the dentate gyrus and amygdala. Our data indicate that blocking p75NTR signalling can alleviate depressive and anxiety-like behaviours of chronically stressed mice and improve the dendritic spinogenesis of neurons under stress.

4.
Food Chem ; 338: 127846, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836001

RESUMO

Cold storage is widely used for delaying ripening and senescence; however, fruit aroma diminishes noticeably after long-term cold storage. The esters synthesized by the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for 'Nanguo' pear aroma. As methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is known to act on various fruit qualities, we investigated whether it acts via the LOX pathway in cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears. MeJA treatment increased the content of volatile esters and unsaturated fatty acids and the activities of alcohol acyltransferase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and LOX. It also up-regulated the expression of key genes (PuAAT, PuADH3, PuADH5, PuADH9, PuLOX1, and PuLOX3) in the LOX pathway and that of transcription factors (PuMYB21-like, PuMYB108-like, PuWRKY61, PuWRKY72, and PuWRKY31), whose genes were differentially expressed in preliminary transcriptome analysis. Therefore, considering its effects on LOX pathway-related genes and transcription factors, MeJA may be useful in preventing cold-storage-induced decline in ester biosynthesis, aroma, and consequently the quality of cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears.

6.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057930

RESUMO

Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel partitivirus from Phomopsis vexans strain PvHZ002, a plant-pathogenic fungus infecting eggplant. The virus was designated "Phomopsis vexans partitivirus 1" (PvPV1). PvPV1 contains two dsRNA segments, dsRNA1 and dsRNA2, which are 1,662 bp and 1,628 bp long, respectively. Each segment contains a single open reading frame, putatively encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dsRNA 1) and capsid protein (dsRNA 2). A homology search and phylogenetic analysis showed that PvPV1 clustered with viruses of the genus Deltapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae.

7.
Oncol Res Treat ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, treatment with proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators has improved the prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM). However, in a complex real-world situation, the patient's ability to undergo regular and timely treatment as prescribed in clinical trials has not been studied, as well as the impact of extended treatment intervals due to different reasons. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment interval and clinical characteristics of 122 patients with primary myeloma in our hospital and explore the prognostic effects of different treatment intervals. METHODS: In total, 122 patients with MM were analyzed retrospectively in our hospital from January 2007 to June 2018. The clinical and laboratory data (such as age, International Staging System [ISS] stage, chromosome, etc.) and subsequent treatment intervals were analyzed. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival. The Kaplan-Meier method was used in survival analysis, and the log-rank test was used to test survival difference. p < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: We found that prolonging the interval treatments (>28 days) shortened the OS in the younger and high-risk subgroups. On the contrary, the OS of the older and low-risk subgroups was not shortened. OS was also shortened in patients who were suitable for transplantation but did not receive a transplant. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that extension of treatment interval was a risk factor for OS shortening. In addition, prolonged treatment interval was due to iatrogenic and family reasons. CONCLUSION: Extended treatment interval is unfavorable in young and high-risk MM patients and those suitable for transplantation but who did not receive a transplant. However, it has a faint impact on the elderly and low-risk subgroups.

8.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCBDE + LC) with intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (IO-ERCP + LC) for the treatment of gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane Library from their inception dates to April 2020, for studies that compared the efficacy and safety of LCBDE + LC with those of IO-ERCP + LC in patients with gallbladder and CBD stones. The technical success, morbidity, major morbidity, biliary leak, postoperative pancreatitis, conversion, retained stones, operative time, and postoperative hospital stay were compared between these two approaches. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials involving 860 patients were evaluated. Overall, no significant difference was found between LCBDE + LC and IO-ERCP + LC regarding technical success, morbidity, major morbidity, and the conversion rate. Biliary leak and retained stones were significantly more prevalent in the LCBDE + LC group, while postoperative pancreatitis was significantly more prevalent in the IO-ERCP + LC group. CONCLUSIONS: LCBDE + LC and IO-ERCP + LC have similar efficacy and safety in terms of technical success, morbidity, major morbidity, and conversion rate. However, LCBDE + LC is associated with a higher biliary leak rate, lower postoperative pancreatitis rate, and higher rate of retained stones.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has revealed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as non-invasive biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in serum which might become potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS: The experiment was carried out between 2015 and 2017. In the screening stage, the Exiqon miRNA quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) panel was applied to select candidate miRNAs. In the following training, testing, and external validation stages, the serum samples of 100 patients and 96 healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed to compare the expression levels of the identified miRNAs. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value of the identified signature. RESULTS: Three miRNAs (miR-25-3p, miR-296-5p, and miR-92a-3p) in serum were consistently up-regulated in PTC patients compared with HCs. A three-miRNA panel was constructed by logistic regression analysis and showed better diagnostic performance than a single miRNA for PTC detection. The AUCs of the panel were 0.727, 0.771, and 0.862 for the training, testing, and external validation stage, respectively. Meanwhile, the panel showed stable capability in differentiating PTC patients from patients with benign goiters, with an AUC as high as 0.969. For further exploration, the three identified miRNAs were analyzed in tissue samples (23 PTC vs. 23 HCs) and serum-derived exosomes samples (24 PTC vs. 24 HCs), and the altered expression in the tumor also indicated their close relationship with PTC disease. CONCLUSION: We identify a three-miRNA panel in serum which might serve as a promising biomarker for PTC diagnosis.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5183, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056981

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a pediatric malignancy with heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To better understand neuroblastoma pathogenesis, here we analyze whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome data from 702 neuroblastoma samples. Forty percent of samples harbor at least one recurrent driver gene alteration and most aberrations, including MYCN, ATRX, and TERT alterations, differ in frequency by age. MYCN alterations occur at median 2.3 years of age, TERT at 3.8 years, and ATRX at 5.6 years. COSMIC mutational signature 18, previously associated with reactive oxygen species, is the most common cause of driver point mutations in neuroblastoma, including most ALK and Ras-activating variants. Signature 18 appears early and is continuous throughout disease evolution. Signature 18 is enriched in neuroblastomas with MYCN amplification, 17q gain, and increased expression of mitochondrial ribosome and electron transport-associated genes. Recurrent FGFR1 variants in six patients, and ALK N-terminal structural alterations in five samples, identify additional patients potentially amenable to precision therapy.

11.
Cancer Cell ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096021

RESUMO

To what extent stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) are transformed by colorectal cancer (CRC) cells is unexplored. To dissect alterations in these non-malignant cells, we performed single-cell multiomics sequencing of 21 patients with microsatellite-stable CRCs and 6 cancer-free, elderly individuals. Surprisingly, somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are prevalent in immune cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in both the TME and the normal tissues of each individual. Moreover, the proportions of fibroblasts with SCNAs in tumors (11.1%-47.7%) are much higher than those in adjacent normal tissues (1.1%-10.6%), with gain of chromosome 7 strongly enriched in the TME, clearly indicating clonal expansion. Furthermore, five genes (BGN, RCN3, TAGLN, MYL9, and TPM2) are identified as fibroblast-specific biomarkers of poorer prognosis of CRC. Our study provides evidence and functional relevance of pervasive genomic alterations in the stromal cells of TME in CRC.

12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113442, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027643

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qingchang Suppository (QCS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula (TCM) for Ulcerative Colitis (UC), which has been used for the treatment of UC for more than 30 years with therapeutic effect. This formula is optimized from a classic formula called "Qingdai San". Although some experiments have shown QCS effective for UC, its mechanism on UC is still unclear and needs to be clarified. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the usage of QCS in our hospital, clarify the main compounds in QCS and their anti-inflammation effect both in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prescription analysis was performed in the clinical department and pharmacology network prediction was predicted for relative signal pathways. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rats and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Caco-2 cell as an inflammatory model were used to evaluate the effect of QCS. RESULTS: QCS and its herbs were associated with inflammatory and immunological diseases. QCS and its ingredients showed little toxicity on Caco-2 cell and could down-regulate the level of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (P-STAT3 Tyr705) in LPS-induced Caco-2 cell. In an animal experiment, QCS and its ingredients (indigo and gallic acid) could alleviate the symptoms of TNBS-induced colitis of rats, significantly decrease pro-inflammatory factors and anti-inflammatory factors as well as inhibit the expressions of P-STAT3 and Tyr705. CONCLUSION: QCS and its components could improve UC by anti-inflammation. JAK2/STAT3 pathway might be the possible signaling pathway.

13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(37): 5646-5660, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol is widely implemented in the field of gastric surgery. However, the effect of the ERAS protocol on the long-term prognosis of gastric cancer has not been reported. AIM: To compare the effects of ERAS and conventional protocols on short-term outcomes and long-term prognosis after laparoscopic gastrectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 1026 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy between 2012 and 2015. The patients were divided into either an ERAS group or a conventional group. The groups were matched in a 1:1 ratio using propensity scores based on covariates that affect cancer survival. The primary outcomes were the 5-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates. The secondary outcomes were the postoperative short-term outcomes and inflammatory indexes. RESULTS: The patient demographics and baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups after matching. Compared to the conventional group, the ERAS group had a significantly shorter postoperative hospital day (7.09 d vs 8.67 d, P < 0.001), shorter time to first flatus, liquid intake, and ambulation (2.50 d vs 3.40 d, P < 0.001; 1.02 d vs 3.64 d, P < 0.001; 1.47 d vs 2.99 d, P < 0.001, respectively), and lower medical costs ($7621.75 vs $7814.16, P = 0.009). There was a significantly higher rate of postoperative complications among patients in the conventional group than among those in the ERAS group (18.1 vs 12.3, P = 0.030). Regarding inflammatory indexes, the C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels on postoperative day 3/4 were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.025, respectively). The ERAS protocol was associated with significantly improved 5-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates compared with conventional protocol (P = 0.013 and 0.032, respectively). When stratified by tumour stage, only the survival of patients with stage III disease was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Adherence to the ERAS protocol improves both the short-term outcomes and the 5-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival of patients after laparoscopic gastrectomy.

14.
Pharmacogenomics ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094665

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether variability in warfarin stable dose (WSD) could be influenced by vitamin K-related polymorphisms in patients with heart valve replacement. Patients & methods: Twenty-nine vitamin K-related SNPs in 208 patients who initially took warfarin and achieved WSD were genotyped. Results: After conducting conditional analysis for both VKORC1 -1639G>A and CYP2C9*3, LRP1 rs1800139 and LRP1 rs1800154 were significantly associated with WSD (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that LRP1 rs1800139 accounted for 5.9% WSD variability. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a novel vitamin K-related gene, LRP1, exerts a relevant influence on WSD, independent of VKORC1 -1639G>A and CYP2C9*3.

15.
Org Lett ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095022

RESUMO

A novel Friedel-Crafts-type alkylation of arenes to access valuable 1-fluoroalkyl-1,1-biaryl compounds is established under mild conditions. The key to success is the efficient generation of a destabilized benzylic carbocation intermediate via two consecutive single-electron transfer processes by virtue of visible-light photoredox catalysis. This unique activation pattern avoids using strong Lewis acids and high temperatures that are required for generation of destabilized carbocations in traditional Friedel-Crafts reactions. This protocol demonstrates the first example of photoredox-catalyzed heterolysis of electronically deactivated benzylic C-Br bonds for the formation of destabilized carbocation intermediates.

16.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082574

RESUMO

Neutralizing agents against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed for the treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19. Here, we present a strategy to rapidly identify and assemble synthetic human variable heavy (VH) domains toward neutralizing epitopes. We constructed a VH-phage library and targeted the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding interface of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain (Spike-RBD). Using a masked selection approach, we identified VH binders to two non-overlapping epitopes and further assembled these into multivalent and bi-paratopic formats. These VH constructs showed increased affinity to Spike (up to 600-fold) and neutralization potency (up to 1,400-fold) on pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus when compared to standalone VH domains. The most potent binder, a trivalent VH, neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 4.0 nM (180 ng ml-1). A cryo-EM structure of the trivalent VH bound to Spike shows each VH domain engaging an RBD at the ACE2 binding site, confirming our original design strategy.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093202

RESUMO

An essential mechanism for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection begins with the viral spike protein binding to the human receptor protein angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here, we describe a stepwise engineering approach to generate a set of affinity optimized, enzymatically inactivated ACE2 variants that potently block SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells. These optimized receptor traps tightly bind the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein and prevent entry into host cells. We first computationally designed the ACE2-RBD interface using a two-stage flexible protein backbone design process that improved affinity for the RBD by up to 12-fold. These designed receptor variants were affinity matured an additional 14-fold by random mutagenesis and selection using yeast surface display. The highest-affinity variant contained seven amino acid changes and bound to the RBD 170-fold more tightly than wild-type ACE2. With the addition of the natural ACE2 collectrin domain and fusion to a human immunoglobulin crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain for increased stabilization and avidity, the most optimal ACE2 receptor traps neutralized SARS-CoV-2-pseudotyped lentivirus and authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the 10- to 100-ng/mL range. Engineered ACE2 receptor traps offer a promising route to fighting infections by SARS-CoV-2 and other ACE2-using coronaviruses, with the key advantage that viral resistance would also likely impair viral entry. Moreover, such traps can be predesigned for viruses with known entry receptors for faster therapeutic response without the need for neutralizing antibodies isolated from convalescent patients.

18.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There was a paucity of follow-up studies in the disease progression of early-onset PD patients with Parkin mutations (Parkin-EOPD). Here we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the progression of motor and cognitive features of Parkin-EOPD patients. METHODS: Genetic analysis was performed via target sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Thirty patients carrying homozygous or compound heterozygous Parkin mutations with at least 2 follow-up revisions were investigated as the Parkin-EOPD group. Fifty-two patients with at least 2 follow-up revisions, who did not have any known causative PD mutations, GBA or LRRK2 risk variants, a heterozygous Parkin mutation or 2 Parkin mutations without a segregation test, were defined as the genetically undefined EOPD (GU-EOPD) group. A linear mixed-effect model was implemented to evaluate longitudinal changes in motor symptoms and cognition. RESULTS: At baseline, the Parkin-EOPD group had a lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (UPDRS-III) (off-medication) than the GU-EOPD group, without significant differences in cognition. A longitudinal study showed the estimated progression rate per year (standard error) of the UPDRS-III score (off-medication) was lower in the Parkin-EOPD group (0.203 [0.3162] points per year) than in the GU-EOPD group (1.056 [0.3001] points per year). The difference in the UPDRS-III score rate between the 2 groups was 0.853 (0.4183) (P = 0.042). The Parkin-EOPD group showed better maintenance of spatial processing ability compared with the GU-EOPD group (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Parkin-EOPD patients showed a slower deterioration of motor symptoms and a better spatial processing ability than GU-EOPD patients, which suggests that subtyping according to genetic features can help predict PD progression. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926347, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs can optimize clinical outcomes and have been widely used across multiple specialties, but a personalized prediction model involving ERAS for the prognosis of gastric cancer is lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively collected clinical data on 725 gastric cancer patients within ERAS who underwent curative gastric resection in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from 2007 to 2014. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional risk model were used to determine the independent prognostic factors of patients. The accuracy of model was evaluated by C-index, calibration curve, and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA), and the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to compare the nomogram model with the predictive value of TNM staging system. RESULTS The 5-year overall survival (OS) of 725 patients within ERAS was 72.5%. Age at diagnosis, T stage, N stage, and postoperative complications were determined to be independent factors affecting the prognosis of patients within ERAS, and nomogram model was constructed. The C-index of the training group was 0.809 and that of the verification group was 0.804; the calibration curves and DCA of the 2 groups showed good accuracy. Through verification, we found that, compared with the TNM staging assessment method, the nomogram model was more accurate in predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS This study identified factors affecting the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer, and we constructed the first prognostic nomogram model in ERAS mode to facilitate postoperative personalized prognostic evaluation.

20.
Hortic Res ; 7: 162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082969

RESUMO

Plant biosynthesis involves numerous specialized metabolites with diverse chemical natures and biological activities. The biosynthesis of metabolites often exclusively occurs in response to tissue-specific combinatorial developmental cues that are controlled at the transcriptional level. Capsaicinoids are a group of specialized metabolites that confer a pungent flavor to pepper fruits. Capsaicinoid biosynthesis occurs in the fruit placenta and combines its developmental cues. Although the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has been largely characterized, the regulatory mechanisms that control capsaicinoid metabolism have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we combined fruit placenta transcriptome data with weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to generate coexpression networks. A capsaicinoid-related gene module was identified in which the MYB transcription factor CaMYB48 plays a critical role in regulating capsaicinoid in pepper. Capsaicinoid biosynthetic gene (CBG) and CaMYB48 expression primarily occurs in the placenta and is consistent with capsaicinoid biosynthesis. CaMYB48 encodes a nucleus-localized protein that primarily functions as a transcriptional activator through its C-terminal activation motif. CaMYB48 regulates capsaicinoid biosynthesis by directly regulating the expression of CBGs, including AT3a and KasIa. Taken together, the results of this study indicate ways to generate robust networks optimized for the mining of CBG-related regulators, establishing a foundation for future research elucidating capsaicinoid regulation.

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