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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122300, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669872

RESUMO

Current high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) process is an aerobic A-stage process that would cause significant organic loss resulted from the mineralization. In this study, the feasibility of operating a high rate A-stage without aeration (HRNS) was carried out in a demo-scale plant (275 m3/h). The organics transformation and energy production potential in A-stage were explored. The developed A-stage process was demonstrated to be more effective for organics recovery compared to that operated with aeration (53.82% versus 40.94%), despite its relatively low total COD removal efficiency (54.3% versus 63.5% with aeration). Minor organics (accounted for 1.75% of incoming COD) was found to be lost in HRNS process. Moreover, sludge generated from HRNS had higher degradability and higher methane compared to that from HRAS. Overall, this study documented the feasibility of high rate A-stage without aeration, and acted as a guide in achieving energy neutrality or even energy-positive wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Metano , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 103: 103511, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580833

RESUMO

ß-defensin is a cationic host defense peptide actively participating in host innate immune response against pathogens. In teleost fish, ß-defensin exhibits a diversity in genotypes and functions. Herein, a ß-defensin homolog (PaBD) was identified from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, showing multiple tissues' upregulation against Vibrio anguillarum challenge. In vivo experiments revealed that intraperitoneal injection of chemically synthesized mature PaBD (mPaBD) increased the survival rate of V. anguillarum-infected ayu, accompanied by reduced bacterial load and decreased tissue mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (PaTNF-α) and interleukin 1ß (PaIL-1ß). However, in vitro, mPaBD showed weak bactericidal activity against V. anguillarum. Interestingly, mPaBD enhanced phagocytosis, intracellular bacterial killing, and respiratory burst of ayu monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ). Moreover, it inhibited mRNA levels of PaIL-1ß and PaTNF-α in MO/MФ upon V. anguillarum infection. In conclusion, PaBD protects ayu against V. anguillarum challenge not only through its direct antibacterial ability, but also through its immunomodulation in MO/MΦ.

3.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683744

RESUMO

Human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) serve immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic functions during pregnancy and are mainly expressed by syncytiotrophoblast cells. While PSG mRNA expression in extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) was reported, the proteins were not previously detected. By immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, we show that PSGs are expressed by invasive EVTs and co-localize with integrin 5. In addition, we determined that native and recombinant PSG1, the most highly expressed member of the family, binds to 51 and induces the formation of focal adhesion structures resulting in adhesion of primary EVTs and EVT-like cell lines under 21% oxygen and 1% oxygen conditions. Furthermore, we found that PSG1 can simultaneously bind to heparan sulfate in the extracellular matrix and to 51 on the cell membrane. Wound healing assays and single-cell movement tracking showed that immobilized PSG1 enhances EVT migration. Although PSG1 did not affect EVT invasion in the in vitro assays employed, we found that the serum PSG1 concentration is lower in African-American women diagnosed with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia, a pregnancy pathology characterized by shallow trophoblast invasion, than in their respective healthy controls only when the fetus was a male; therefore, the reduced expression of this molecule should be considered in the context of preeclampsia as a potential therapy.

5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bioartificial livers (BALs) have attracted much attention as potential supportive therapies for liver diseases. A serum-free microcarrier culture strategy for the in vitro high-density expansion of human-induced hepatocyte-like cells (hiHeps) suitable for BALs was studied in this article. METHODS: hiHeps were transdifferentiated from human fibroblasts by the lentiviral overexpression of FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF4A. Cells were cultured on microcarriers, their proliferation was evaluated by cell count and CCK-8 assays, and their function was evaluated by detecting liver function parameters in the supernatant, including urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. The expressions of hepatocyte function-associated genes of hiHeps were measured by qRT-PCR in 2D and 3D conditions. The expression of related proteins during fibronectin promotes cell adhesion, and proliferation on microcarrier was detected by western blotting. RESULTS: During microcarrier culture, the optimal culture conditions during the adherence period were the use of half-volume high-density inoculation, Cytodex 3 at a concentration of 3 mg/mL, a cell seeding density of 2.0 × 105 cells/mL, and a stirring speed of 45 rpm. The final cell density in self-developed, chemically defined serum-free medium (SFM) reached 2.53 × 106 cells/mL, and the maximum increase in expansion was 12.61-fold. In addition, we found that fibronectin (FN) can promote hiHep attachment and proliferation on Cytodex 3 microcarriers and that this pro-proliferative effect was mediated by the integrin-ß1/FAK/ERK/CyclinD1 signaling pathway. Finally, the growth and function of hiHeps on Cytodex 3 in SFM were close to those of hiHeps on Cytodex 3 in hepatocyte maintenance medium (HMM), and cells maintained their morphology and function after harvest on microcarriers. CONCLUSIONS: Serum-free microcarrier culture has important implications for the expansion of a sufficient number of hiHeps prior to the clinical application of BALs.

6.
Plant Physiol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694901

RESUMO

MicroRNAs(miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of ~21 nt in length, which have regulatory roles in many biological processes. In animals, proper functioning of the circadian clock, which is closely linked to the fitness of almost all living organisms, is regulated by miRNAs. However, to date, there have been no reports of the roles of miRNA in regulation of the plant circadian rhythm. Here, we report a natural variant of miR397 that lengthens the circadian period and controls flowering time in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Highly conserved among angiosperms, the miRNA miR397 has two members in Arabidopsis: miR397a and miR397b. However, only miR397b significantly delayed flowering. Our results suggest that miR397b controls flowering by targeting CASEIN KINASE II SUBUNIT BETA3 (CKB3), in turn modulating the circadian period of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1). We further demonstrated that CCA1 directly bound to the promoter of MIR397B and suppressed its expression, forming a miR397b-CKB3-CCA1 circadian regulation feedback circuit. Evolutionary analysis revealed that miR397b is a newly evolved genetic variant in Arabidopsis, and the miR397b targeting mode may have a role in enhancing plant fitness. Our results provide evidence for miRNA-mediated circadian regulation in plants and suggest the existence of a feedback loop to manipulate plant flowering through the regulation of circadian rhythm.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689688

RESUMO

The field of magnetic skyrmions has been actively investigated across a wide range of topics during the last decades. In this topical review, we mainly review and discuss key results and findings in skyrmion research since the first experimental observation of magnetic skyrmions in 2009. We particularly focus on the theoretical, computational and experimental findings and advances that are directly relevant to the spintronic applications based on magnetic skyrmions, i.e. their writing, deleting, reading and processing driven by magnetic field, electric current and thermal energy. We then review several potential applications including information storage, logic computing gates and non-conventional devices such as neuromorphic computing devices. Finally, we discuss possible future research directions on magnetic skyrmions, which also cover rich topics on other topological textures such as antiskyrmions and bimerons in antiferromagnets and frustrated magnets.

8.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7583-7598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695788

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the key factor in determining cancer recurrence, metastasis, chemoresistance and patient prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The role of miR-5188 in cancer stemness has never been documented. In this study, we investigated the clinical and biological roles of miR-5188 in HCC. Methods: MiRNA expression in HCC was analyzed by bioinformatics analysis and in situ hybridization. The biological effect of miR-5188 was demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies through the ectopic expression of miR-5188. The target gene and molecular pathway of miR-5188 were characterized using bioinformatics tools, dual-luciferase reporter assays, gene knockdown, and rescue experiments. Results: MiR-5188 was shown to be upregulated and confer poor prognosis in HCC patient data from TCGA database. MiR-5188 was subsequently identified as a significant inducer of cancer stemness that promotes HCC pathogenesis. Specifically, the targeting of miR-5188 by its antagomir markedly prolonged the survival time of HCC-bearing mice and improved HCC cell chemosensitivity in vivo. Mechanistic analysis indicated that miR-5188 directly targets FOXO1, which interacts with ß-catenin in the cytoplasm to reduce the nuclear translocation of ß-catenin and promotes the activation of Wnt signaling and downstream tumor stemness, EMT, and c-Jun. Moreover, c-Jun transcriptionally activates miR-5188 expression, forming a positive feedback loop. Interestingly, the miR-5188-FOXO1/ß-catenin-c-Jun feedback loop was induced by hepatitis X protein (HBX) through Wnt signaling and participated in the HBX-induced pathogenesis of HCC. Finally, analyses of transcriptomics data and our clinical data supported the significance of the abnormal expression of the miR-5188 pathway in HCC pathogenesis. Conclusions: These findings present the inhibition of miR-5188 as a novel strategy for the efficient elimination of CSCs to prevent tumor metastasis, recurrence and chemoresistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study highlights the importance of miR-5188 as a tumor stemness inducer that acts as a potential target for HCC treatment.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133914, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756851

RESUMO

Conventional chemical and physical methods to remove antibiotics from wastewater consume large amount of energy and chemicals, and the efficiency of biological process in converting antibiotics is relatively low. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been employed to degrade recalcitrant organic compounds recently. Given it is an energy consuming device, it would be more sustainable if driven by renewable energy, e.g. power from microbial fuel cell (MFC). Here, chloramphenicol (CAP) was chosen as a representative antibiotic that is abundant in the environment, and Ag ion contained wastewater as electron acceptor in MFC, to demonstrate the feasibility of a self-driven system for recalcitrant removal and resource recovery. It was found that CAP removal in MEC can be successfully driven by Ag(I) reduced MFC without external energy consumption. Method of one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design were used to evaluate the system performance. Under the optimum condition, 99.8% of Ag(I) in MFC and 98.8% of CAP in MEC can be converted. EDX and XPS revealed that pure silver was obtained on the surface of electrode in MFC, reflecting Ag(I) was reduced to valuable product. The concept and methods developed in this study can be also applied to design other types of self-driven BES systems for simultaneous pollutants removal and resources recovery.

10.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757115

RESUMO

The pentafluorosulfane (SF5) group, as a more electronegative bioisostere than the trifluoromethyl (CF3) group, has been gaining greater attention and increasingly reported usage in medicinal chemistry. Ostarine is the selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing a CF3 group in clinical trial III. In this study, 21 ostarine derivatives for replacing the CF3 group with SF5 substituents were synthesized. Some SF5-derivatives showed androgen receptor (AR) agonistic activities in vitro. The results pointed to the potential of using this scaffold to develop new AR agonists.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707024

RESUMO

Hypochlorite (ClO-) is a highly reactive oxygen species that plays an important role in resistance to attacks by microorganisms. Herein, we report the preparation of a fluorescence probe (NIB-M) through the integration of a naphthalimide moiety and ClO- to capture diaminomaleonitrile and employ it for the aggregation-induced emission-based (AIE-based) monitoring of ClO-. In the presence of ClO-, NIB-M undergoes sequential nucleophilic substitution and HCl elimination reactions that allow it to possess high selectivity, a fast response, and a low detection limit (0.032 µM). Due to the good AIE properties of the parent molecule, a ClO- test board was facilely prepared by loading NIB-M on a Whatman paper strip-based portable device. The test plate can conveniently and sensitively detect hypochlorite onsite. In addition, the NIB-M probe was used for the imaging of exogenous/endogenous ClO- inside living cells.

12.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710183

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the clinical significance of coatomer protein complex subunit beta 2 (COPB2) in patients with glioma using a bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: Oncomine, GEO, and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases were used to examine the COPB2 transcript levels in glioma tissues. Gene expression profiles with clinical information from low-grade glioma and glioblastoma (GBM) projects were analyzed for associations between COPB2 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were used for survival analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to screen the pathways involved in COPB2 expression. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) and correlograms were performed to verify the correlations between COPB2 and inflammatory responses. Canonical correlation analyses examined whether COPB2-high patients have more infiltrating inflammatory and immune cells. RESULTS: COPB2 was highly expressed in gliomas and high COPB2 expression correlated with shorter overall survival time and several poor clinical prognostic variables. GSEA indicated that some immune-related pathways and other signaling pathways in cancer were associated with the COPB2-high phenotype. The GSVA and canonical correlation analysis demonstrated that COPB2 expression was closely linked to inflammatory and immune responses, and higher immune cell infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: COPB2 may be a potential prognostic biomarker and an immunotherapeutic target for glioma.

13.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 886, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genome topology network (GTN) is a new approach for studying the phylogenetics of bacterial genomes by analysing their gene order. The previous GTN tool gives a phylogenetic tree and calculate the different degrees (DD) of various adjacent gene families with complete genome data, but it is limited to the gene family level. RESULT: In this study, we collected 51 published complete and draft group B Streptococcus (GBS) genomes from the NCBI database as the case study data. The phylogenetic tree obtained from the GTN method assigned the genomes into six main clades. Compared with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method, the GTN method exhibited a higher resolution in two clades. The gene families located at unique node connections in these clades were associated with the clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories of "[G] Carbohydrate transport and metabolism,", "[L] Replication, recombination, and repair" and "[J] translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis". Thus, these genes were the major factors affecting the differentiation of these six clades in the phylogenetic tree obtained from the GTN. CONCLUSION: The modified GTN analyzes draft genomic data and exhibits greater functionality than the previous version. The gene family clustering algorithm embedded in the GTN tool is optimized by introducing the Markov cluster algorithm (MCL) tool to assign genes to functional gene families. A bootstrap test is performed to verify the credibility of the clades when allowing users to adjust the relationships of the clades accordingly. The GTN tool gives additional evolutionary information that is a useful complement to the SNP-based method. Information on the differences in the connections between a gene and its adjacent genes in species or clades is easily obtained. The modified GTN tool can be downloaded from https://github.com/0232/Genome_topology_network.

14.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8562-8570, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare femoral obturator nerve block (FONB) with fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) in the management of acute preoperative pain in elderly patients with hip fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients ≥65 years (n=154) diagnosed with hip fracture who had surgery within 48 hours of hospital admission included two groups who received ultrasound-guided nerve block, the FONB group (n=77), and the FICB group (n=77). The visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, requirement for analgesic drugs, nursing care requirements after hospitalization, post-operative complications, and rehabilitation were compared between the FONB and FICB patient groups. RESULTS The VAS scores after both nerve block procedures were significantly reduced compared with those before both nerve block procedures (P<0.05), but there were no differences on the second day after nerve block. The VAS scores at rest and on exercise in the FONB group were significantly lower than those in the FICB group at 30 min and one day after nerve block (P<0.05). The requirement for postoperative analgesic drugs in the FONB group was significantly lower than that in the FICB group (P=0.048). The incidence of nausea and vertigo in the FICB group were significantly higher than in the FONB group (P=0.031 and P=0.034, respectively). Patients in the FONB group experienced significantly improved quality of postoperative function (P=0.029). CONCLUSIONS Both FONB and FICB provided pain control for elderly patients with hip fracture. However, compared with FICB, FONB resulted in significantly improved analgesia with a reduced requirement for analgesic drugs.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As World Health Organization (WHO) grade II tumor in nervous system, clear cell meningioma (CCM) is an uncommon histological variant of meningioma. Spinal CCMs are even rarer, with only less than 100 spinal CCMs reported in the English literature. We present this study to characterize clinical manifestations of spinal CCMs and determine the factors predicting recurrence. METHODS: A literature search was performed for relevant case reports and series at PubMed and Embase until September 1, 2019. These articles were reviewed to identify clinical features, treatment modalities, and prognosis of patients with spinal CCMs. RESULTS: Eighty-four spinal CCMs were analyzed. Of these cases, 36 (42.9%) were young patients (age ≤18 years), and the mean age at resection was 24 years. Fifty-three (63.1%) patients were female, 31 (36.9%) were male. The majority (56/84, 66.7%) of the tumors were located in the lumbar region. Thirty-one patients (36.9%) involved more than 2 segments in the craniocaudal direction (number of involved segment ≥3 levels). Gross tumor resection (GTR) was performed in 76 (90.5%) patients. Twenty (23.8%) patients showed radiographic evidence of recurrence during the follow-up time. RFS rate at 1- , 5-, and 10-year after resection of spinal CCM was 87%, 71% and 47%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≤18 years (hazard ratio [HR], 3.64; p=0.024), subtotal resection (STR) (HR, 3.43; p=0.031) and segments involved ≥3 levels (HR, 5.66; p=0.002) were associated with increased recurrence. CONCLUSION: Spinal CCMs have their own unique clinical features compared to the conventional spinal meningiomas and intracranial CCMs. Spinal CCMs have a predilection to affect younger patients, are prone to appear in the lumbar region, and has high recurrence rate. Age ≤18 years, STR, and long-segments involved (≥3 levels) are positive predictors of recurrence.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23840-23849, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676549

RESUMO

The plant circadian clock evolved to increase fitness by synchronizing physiological processes with environmental oscillations. Crop fitness was artificially selected through domestication and breeding, and the circadian clock was identified by both natural and artificial selections as a key to improved fitness. Despite progress in Arabidopsis, our understanding of the crop circadian clock is still limited, impeding its rational improvement for enhanced fitness. To unveil the interactions between the crop circadian clock and various environmental cues, we comprehensively mapped abiotic stress inputs to the soybean circadian clock using a 2-module discovery pipeline. Using the "molecular timetable" method, we computationally surveyed publicly available abiotic stress-related soybean transcriptomes to identify stresses that have strong impacts on the global rhythm. These findings were then experimentally confirmed using a multiplexed RNA sequencing technology. Specific clock components modulated by each stress were further identified. This comprehensive mapping uncovered inputs to the plant circadian clock such as alkaline stress. Moreover, short-term iron deficiency targeted different clock components in soybean and Arabidopsis and thus had opposite effects on the clocks of these 2 species. Comparing soybean varieties with different iron uptake efficiencies suggests that phase modulation might be a mechanism to alleviate iron deficiency symptoms in soybean. These unique responses in soybean demonstrate the need to directly study crop circadian clocks. Our discovery pipeline may serve as a broadly applicable tool to facilitate these explorations.

17.
Adv Mater ; : e1904815, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746047

RESUMO

Helicity indicates the in-plane magnetic-moment swirling direction of a skyrmionic configuration. The ability to reverse the helicity of a skyrmionic bubble via purely electrical means has been predicted in frustrated magnetic systems; however, it has been challenging to observe this experimentally. The current-driven helicity reversal of the skyrmionic bubble in a nanostructured frustrated Fe3 Sn2 magnet is experimentally demonstrated. The critical current density required to trigger the helicity reversal is 109 -1010 A m-2 , with a corresponding pulse-width varying from 1 µs to 100 ns. Computational simulations reveal that both the pinning effect and dipole-dipole interaction play a crucial role in the helicity reversal process.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746729

RESUMO

Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming strains, SYSU K30003T and SYSU K30004T, were isolated from cave soil sampled in Xingyi County, Guizhou Province, south-west PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence results indicated that strains SYSU K30003T and SYSU K30004T had highest sequence similarities to Paenibacillus thermoaerophilus DSM 26310T (93.2 %) and Paenibacillus haemerocallicola KCTC 33185T (97.8 %), respectively. Optimum growth for both strains occurred at pH 7.0 and 37 °C. Both strains contained meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid in their cell-wall peptidoglycan and MK-7 was the only isoprenoid quinone detected. The polar lipid profile of strain SYSU K30004T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminophospholipids, an unidentified glycolipid, unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. The polar lipid profile of strain SYSU K30003T contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. The major fatty acids (>5 %) of strain SYSU K30003T were anteiso-C15:0, C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, while those of strain SYSU K30004T were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C17 : 0. The genome G+C contents of strains SYSU K30003T and SYSU K30004T were 59.0 and 53.6 mol%, respectively. The average nucleotide identity values between strains SYSU K30003T and SYSU K30004T and other closely related Paenibacillus members were below the cut-off level (95-96 %) for species identification. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genome analyses, strains SYSU K30003T and SYSU K30004T represent two novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the names Paenibacillus antri sp. nov. and Paenibacillus mesophilus sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are SYSU K30003T (=KCTC 33956T=CGMCC 1.13505T) and SYSU K30004T (=KCTC 33957T=CGMCC 1.13872T).

19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 105977, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An impairment of the intestinal barrier function is one of the major characteristics of Crohn's disease (CD). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of autophagy induction by rapamycin on the intestinal epithelial barrier function in CD model mice. METHODS: IL-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mice were used as the human CD models in this study. All the mice were randomly assigned into four groups, (a) wild-type (WT) group; (b) IL-10 KO group; (c) IL-10 KO + rapamycin group and (d) IL-10 KO + 3-methyladenine (3-MA), containing 6 mice in each group. The disease activity index (DAI), histology, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemotactic factors in colon tissues, intestinal and colonic permeability, distributions and expressions of tight junction (TJ) proteins, epithelial apoptosis of mice in four groups were evaluated and compared. RESULTS: Autophagy induction by rapamycin treatment ameliorated DAI and histological colitis, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17) and chemotactic factors (CXCL-1 and CXCL-2), decreased intestinal and colonic permeability, improved the distribution and expression of TJ proteins in IL-10 KO mice. CONCLUSION: Autophagy induction by rapamycin significantly improved intestinal barrier function and protected IL-10 KO mice from the experimental chronic colitis.

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