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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 480, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is one of the most commonly used instruments to assess mental disorders. However, research on its cross-cultural measurement invariance is not yet sufficient. This study examined the measurement invariance of the Chinese and German versions of the PHQ's somatic symptom severity scale (PHQ-15), depressive symptom severity scale (PHQ-9) and seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale as a prerequisite for their use in cross-cultural comparisons. METHODS: We used online data collected from groups of Chinese students in China (n = 413) and German students in Germany (n = 416). Separate measurement models for each group were examined using confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance testing was conducted to test the cross-cultural equivalence. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 had partial scalar measurement invariance, but the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the PHQ-15 could not be confirmed. Comparisons of latent means did not indicate differences in the levels of depression and anxiety symptoms between Chinese and German samples. CONCLUSION: The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 can be used in cross-cultural comparison of prevalence, but the intercultural use of PHQ-15 is more problematic. Findings are discussed from intercultural and methodological perspectives.

2.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing and incurable inflammatory disorder. MiRNAs, which modulate gene expression by binding to mRNAs, may make significant contributions to understanding the complex pathobiology and etiology of CD. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic role and mechanism of miR-130a-3p in CD. METHODS: Differentially expressed miRNAs in colon tissues of CD patients and normal controls (NCs) were screened using a miRNA microarray and then validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR). The functional role of miR-130a-3p in the pathogenesis of CD was then demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The target genes of miR-130a-3p and the associated signaling pathways were identified using bioinformatics analysis and experimental verification of the interactions between the target predicted by the algorithms and dysregulated mRNAs. The therapeutic role of miR-130a-3p in trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis models was further investigated. RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that miR-130a-3p is the most significantly upregulated miRNA and that miR-130a KO significantly protects mice against TNBS-induced colitis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies indicated that miR-130a-3p promotes CD development by targetingATG16L1via the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, a miR-130a-3p inhibitor significantly suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activity by inducing autophagy in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). Therapeutically, a miR-130a-3p inhibitor effectively ameliorated the severity of TNBS-induced colitis. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that miR-130a-3p promotes CD progression via the ATG16L1/NF-κB pathway and serves as a potential preclinical therapeutic target in CD.

3.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of superselective prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: Sixty-five patients diagnosed with BPH in Fujian Provincial Hospital between December 2014 and July 2019 were included. Patients with ineffective drug treatment after 6 months, who refused surgery, or who were unsuitable for surgery were included. We observed postoperative complications, followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months, compared clinical symptoms, and monitored changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic volume (PV) before and after treatment. RESULTS: Of the 65 patients, 58 (89.23%) successfully received PAE; 44 and 14 bilateral and unilateral embolization, respectively. Clinical efficacy was 94.83% (55/58) after the 6-month follow-up. Postoperative PV, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, maximum flow rate, and post-void residual significantly improved after 6 months (P < 0.05). One month after PAE, the serum total PSA increased by 1.47 (10.84/7.37) times and dropped 3 months later to a level lower than that before surgery (P < 0.05). Six months after PAE, the degree of relief from obstructive symptoms was more apparent than that of irritative symptoms. No serious complications were observed after PAE. CONCLUSION: PAE was safe and effective for the treatment of BPH. The efficacy of bilateral PAE was better than that of unilateral PAE.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 819, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004792

RESUMO

Here we uncovered the involved subcellular mechanisms that sulforaphane-cysteine (SFN-Cys) inhibited invasion in human glioblastoma (GBM). SFN-Cys significantly upregulated 45 and downregulated 14 microtubule-, mitophagy-, and invasion-associated proteins in GBM cells via HPLC-MS/MS and GEO ontology analysis; SFN-Cys disrupted microtubule by ERK1/2 phosphorylation-mediated downregulation of α-tubulin and Stathmin-1 leading to the inhibition of cell migration and invasion; SFN-Cys downregulated invasion-associated Claudin-5 and S100A4, and decreased the interaction of α-tubulin to Claudin-5. Knockdown of Claudin-5 and S100A4 significantly reduced the migration and invasion. Besides, SFN-Cys lowered the expressions of α-tubulin-mediated mitophagy-associated proteins Bnip3 and Nix. Transmission electron microscopy showed more membrane-deficient mitochondria and accumulated mitophagosomes in GBM cells, and mitochondria fusion might be downregulated because that SFN-Cys downregulated mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. SFN-Cys increased the colocalization and interplay of LC3 to lysosomal membrane-associated protein LAMP1, aggravating the fusion of mitophagosome to lysosome. Nevertheless, SFN-Cys inhibited the lysosomal proteolytic capacity causing LC3II/LC3I elevation but autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 was not changed, mitophagosome accumulation, and the inhibition of migration and invasion in GBM cells. These results will help us develop high-efficiency and low-toxicity anticancer drugs to inhibit migration and invasion in GBM.

5.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(10): 767-778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043643

RESUMO

RNA helicases, the largest family of proteins that participate in RNA metabolism, stabilize the intracellular environment through various processes, such as translation and pre-RNA splicing. These proteins are also involved in some diseases, such as cancers and viral diseases. Autophagy, a self-digestive and cytoprotective trafficking process in which superfluous organelles and cellular garbage are degraded to stabilize the internal environment or maintain basic cellular survival, is associated with human diseases. Interestingly, similar to autophagy, RNA helicases play important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are related to many types of diseases. According to recent studies, RNA helicases are closely related to autophagy, participate in regulating autophagy, or serve as a bridge between autophagy and other cellular activities that widely regulate some pathophysiological processes or the development and progression of diseases. Here, we summarize the most recent studies to understand how RNA helicases function as regulatory proteins and determine their association with autophagy in various diseases.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036753

RESUMO

Sulfoquinovose (6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose, SQ) is a component of sulfolipids found in the photosynthetic membranes of plants and other photosynthetic organisms, and is one of the most abundant organosulfur compounds in nature. Microbial degradation of SQ, termed sulfoglycolysis, constitutes an important component of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. Two sulfoglycolysis pathways have been reported, with one resembling the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (sulfo-EMP) pathway, and the other resembling the Entner-Doudoroff (sulfo-ED) pathway. Here we report a third sulfoglycolysis pathway in the bacterium Bacillus megaterium DSM 1804, in which sulfosugar cleavage is catalyzed by the transaldolase SqvA, which converts 6-deoxy-6-sulfofructose and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into fructose -6-phosphate and (S)-sulfolactaldehyde. Variations of this transaldolase-dependent sulfoglycolysis (sulfo-TAL) pathway are present in diverse bacteria, and add to the diversity of mechanisms for the degradation of this abundant organosulfur compound.

7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037577

RESUMO

Objective neuroimaging markers are imminently in need for more accurate clinical diagnosis of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent neuroimaging evidence suggested that IGD is associated with abnormalities in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. As the key nodes of the DA pathways, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) and their connected brain regions may serve as potential markers to identify IGD. Therefore, we aimed to develop optimal classifiers to identify IGD individuals by using VTA and bilateral SN resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns. A dataset including 146 adolescents (66 IGDs and 80 healthy controls (HCs)) was used to build classification models and another independent dataset including 28 subjects (14 IGDs and 14 HCs) was employed to validate the generalization ability of the models. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) with linear support vector machine (SVM) was used to select the features. Our results demonstrated that the VTA RSFC circuits successfully identified IGD individuals (mean accuracy: 86.1%, mean sensitivity: 84.5%, mean specificity: 86.6%, the mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91). Furthermore, the independent generalization ability of the VTA RSFC classifier model was also satisfied (accuracy = 78.5%, sensitivity = 71.4%, specificity = 85.8%). The VTA connectivity circuits that were selected as distinguishing features were mainly included bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right pallidum, right temporal pole superior gyrus and bilateral temporal superior gyrus. These findings demonstrated that the potential of the resting-state neuroimaging features of VTA RSFC as objective biomarkers for the IGD clinical diagnosis in the future.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22538, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019462

RESUMO

The current studies revealed inconsistent relationship between reproductive factors and osteoarthritis. Community-based research has not been conducted in China. The study was to examine the association of reproductive factors with the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA).Through a multistage stratified random sampling method, 10 streets or villages from 5 cities in Hunan province were randomly selected, a total 2746 eligible women aged 50 to 83 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire including demographic factors, socio-economic status, reproductive factors, and knee OA was used. According to the criteria of American College of Rheumatology, clinical knee OA was assessed by doctors in community or village health clinics for knee pain, age, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion or for knee pain, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion, and tenderness of the bony navigation of the joint. Self-reported age of menarche, parity, abortion history, and menopausal status were collected.The prevalence of knee OA was 13.44%. Abortion is associated with knee OA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.271, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.007, 1.606), but age at menarche, parity, and menopausal status were not the factors. Furthermore, age (OR = 1.040, 95% CI = 1.020, 1.060), weight (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.004, 1.035), higher education level (OR = 1.530, 95% CI = 1.121, 2.088), higher monthly household income (OR = .583, 95% CI = 0.441, 0.770 for 3000-4999 ¥ and OR = 0.599, 95% CI = 0.431, 0.833 for 5000 ¥ or more), and chronic gastritis (OR = 3.364, 95% CI = 2.548, 4.442) were associated with knee OA.Abortion may increase the risk of knee OA. Special attention should be paid to women with a history of abortion, and women who are planning to abort should be informed of the risk of knee OA later in life. The relationship between abortion and knee OA should be interpreted with caution and further confirmed.

9.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 197: 111374, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032177

RESUMO

Biomimetic instructive tissue engineering scaffolds are critical for achieving successful tissue regeneration. In the present study, we developed a novel scaffold via ornamenting poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun fibers with a chondrocyte-derived extracellular matrix (ECM)-coating, which was applied for chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). PCL fibrous films with different fiber diameters (1282±121 nm, 549±61 nm and 285±38 nm) were first prepared via electrospinning. Rabbit articular chondrocytes (rACs) were cultured on PCL fibrous scaffolds, followed by a decellularization treatment to generate decellularized ECM (dECM)-coated PCL scaffolds (dECM/PCL). Rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs (rMSCs) were then seeded onto these scaffolds and adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated. dECM/PCL scaffolds displayed distinct surface microstructural features with varying fiber diameters and fibrous mesh-like ECM with more developed collagen fibers was observed on nanofibers. On dECM/PCL scaffolds, rMSCs tended to spread more at 24 h post-seeding and proliferated better within 7 d compared to those on uncoated PCL scaffolds. Based on analysis of gene expression, rMSCs underwent the best chondrogenic differentiation on dECM/PCL scaffolds of 549-nm fibers. Collectively, such dECM/PCL composite scaffolds are very promising for cartilage tissue regeneration.

10.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 353, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical curricula are increasingly internationalized, with international students being mixed with domestic students in small group learning. Small group learning is known to foster competency learning in undergraduate medical education, specifically Communication, Collaboration, Leadership, and Professionalism. However, it is unclear what happens with the learning of competencies when international students are introduced in small groups. This study explores if students in international small groups master the competencies Collaboration, Leadership and Professionalism at the same level as students in domestic groups in an undergraduate medical curriculum. METHOD: In total, 1215 Students of three academic year cohorts participated in the study. They were divided into four learning communities (LCs), per year cohort, in which tutor groups were the main instructional format. The tutorials of two learning communities were taught in English, with a mix of international and Dutch students. The tutorials of the other two learning communities were taught in Dutch with almost all domestic students. Trained tutors assessed three competencies (Collaboration, Leadership, Professionalism) twice per semester, as 'Not-on-track', 'On-track', or 'Fast-on-track'. By using Chi-square tests, we compared students' competencies performance twice per semester between the four LCs in the first two undergraduate years. RESULTS: The passing rate ('On-track' plus 'Fast-on-track') for the minimum level of competencies did not differ between the mixed and domestic groups. However, students in the mixed groups received more excellent performance evaluations ('Fast-on-track') than the students in the homogenous groups of Dutch students. This higher performance was true for both international and Dutch students of the mixed groups. Prior knowledge, age, gender, and nationality did not explain this phenomenon. The effect could also not be explained by a bias of the tutors. CONCLUSION: When students are educated in mixed groups of international and Dutch students, they can obtain the same basic competency levels, no matter what mix of students is made. However, students in the mixed international groups outperformed the students in the homogenous Dutch groups in achieving excellent performance scores. Future research should explore if these findings can be explained from differences in motivation, perceived grading or social network interactions.

11.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(3): 308-311, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er: YAG) laser in the treatment of degree II bifurcation periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty patients(60 teeth) with grade II bifurcation lesions of chronic periodontitis were enrolled in this study. One week after supergingival scaling with ultrasound, the patients were randomly divided into experimental group: subgingival scaling with ultrasound and hand instruments + Er: YAG laser irradiation in periodontal pocket; control group: the contralateral homonymous teeth were treated with subgingival scaling with ultrasound and hand instruments alone. The changes of gingival index(GI), pocket depth(PD), horizontal probing depth (HPD) and attachment loss(AL) were compared between the two groups 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. SPSS 20.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Periodontal clinical indexes(GI, PD, HPD, AL) of the experimental group and control group were significantly reduced compared with baseline at 12 and 20 weeks after treatment(P<0.05). At 12 and 20 weeks after treatment, PD in the experimental group was (4.03±0.48) mm and (3.43±0.45) mm, (4.82±0.55) mm and (4.27±0.36) mm in the control group, respectively. The reduction of PD in the experimental group was significantly greater than that in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in HPD between the two groups at 12 weeks after treatment. Twenty weeks after operation, HPD in the experimental group was found to be (3.01±0.34) mm and (3.78±0.29) mm in the control group. The decrease of HPD in the experimental group was significantly greater than that in the control group (P<0.05). GI and AL of the experimental group at 12 and 20 weeks were lower than those of the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Er: YAG laser is safe and effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis patients with grade II root bifurcation lesions with significant clinical value.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal
12.
J Nurs Manag ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058323

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the performance of frontline nurses, who believed they were living out their calling, during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. BACKGROUND: Although as a profession nursing generally requires high levels of performance, the disruption arising from an infectious disease outbreak increases the work stress and decreases the performance of frontline nurses. How this situation can be improved has yet to be thoroughly examined. METHOD: We used a snowball sampling technique to recruit 339 nurses who were originally from outside of Hubei but volunteered to join medical teams going to Hubei to tackle COVID-19. RESULTS: Drawing on the theory of work as a calling, we found that living a calling had a positive effect on frontline nurses' performance through the clinical and relational care they provided. Perceived supervisor support strengthened these mediated relationships. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that despite the constraints associated with pandemics, frontline nurses who are living a calling are able to provide better clinical and relational care to infected patients, which in turn improves their performance. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The findings of this study suggest that hospitals can introduce career education interventions to enhance nurses' ability to discern and live out their calling to improve their performance.

13.
Nutrition ; 81: 110959, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Liver fibrosis is a common pathologic process related to chronic liver disease. However, there are currently no effective methods to reverse liver fibrosis. Chronic liver disease is typically associated with a major imbalance in the intestinal flora, and targeting the regulation of the intestinal flora structure may facilitate the prevention and treatment of chronic liver disease. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effects of dietary fiber on the prevention of liver fibrosis in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: olive oil group (control), fibrosis (CCl4) group, resistant maltodextrin (RM) + CCl4 group, and wheat fiber (WF) + CCl4 group. In the latter 3 groups, liver fibrosis was established by treatment with CCl4. In the RM + CCl4 and WF + CCl4 groups, the mice were treated with soluble dietary fiber (RM) or insoluble dietary fiber (WF) for 3 wk before receiving CCl4. The effects of dietary fiber on various indexes of liver fibrosis in mice induced by CCl4 were observed. RESULTS: The results showed that increasing dietary fiber intake prevented liver fibrosis in mice, reduced serum levels of proinflammatory factors (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin [IL] 1-beta and IL-6) and increased IL-10 and interferon-gamma levels. Moreover, increased dietary fiber intake also reduced the infiltration of cluster of differentiation (CD) 3+, 4+, and 8+ T lymphocytes in the liver, regulated the structure of the intestinal flora, and increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed the complex relationships between dietary fiber, intestinal flora, and immunity, and suggested that dietary therapy could alleviate liver fibrosis.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064184

RESUMO

Bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) are used as a tool for intercellular communication and seem essential for bacterial survival. However, few data are available on MVs generated by Streptococcus mutans, which is the main aetiological agent of dental caries. The present study presents an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of MVs isolated from S. mutans at initial pH values of 7.5 and 5.5 and explores their function. The results showed that S. mutans releases more MVs with smaller diameters under acidic conditions than under neutral conditions. Proteomic analysis showed 344 common vesicular proteins, including various virulence factors. The expressions of 140 individual proteins and 37 metabolites were altered as a result of culturing S. mutans at different pH values. Co-analyses of proteomic and metabolomics data indicated that ABC transporters underwent significant changes under acid pressure. We concluded that S. mutans produced MVs at different pH values to carry proteins associated with cariogenesis. Moreover, the alterations of S. mutans MVs under acid pressure were associated with ABC transporters. These results increase our knowledge of S. mutans MVs and imply that S. mutans MVs may play a functional role in carious infection. KEY POINTS: • S. mutans MVs contained virulence factor-related proteins, even at low pH values. • Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis showed that S. mutans MVs alterations under acidic conditions were associated with ABC transporters.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5205, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060564

RESUMO

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) regulates the secretion of growth hormone that virtually controls metabolism and growth of every tissue through its binding to the cognate receptor (GHRHR). Malfunction in GHRHR signaling is associated with abnormal growth, making GHRHR an attractive therapeutic target against dwarfism (e.g., isolated growth hormone deficiency, IGHD), gigantism, lipodystrophy and certain cancers. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the human GHRHR bound to its endogenous ligand and the stimulatory G protein at 2.6 Å. This high-resolution structure reveals a characteristic hormone recognition pattern of GHRH by GHRHR, where the α-helical GHRH forms an extensive and continuous network of interactions involving all the extracellular loops (ECLs), all the transmembrane (TM) helices except TM4, and the extracellular domain (ECD) of GHRHR, especially the N-terminus of GHRH that engages a broad set of specific interactions with the receptor. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations uncover detailed mechanisms by which IGHD-causing mutations lead to the impairment of GHRHR function. Our findings provide insights into the molecular basis of peptide recognition and receptor activation, thereby facilitating the development of structure-based drug discovery and precision medicine.

16.
Andrology ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicocoele-associated stressors, such as hypoxia and heat, can damage cell function and viability, and some exosomal biomarkers released from impaired cells may reflect the cell status in testis. OBJECTIVES: To find if seminal exosomal microRNAs can reflect the Sertoli cell function in varicocoele. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental left varicocoele rat model was established (n = 24), and patients with different grades of varicocoele (n = 104) were enrolled. Primary rat Sertoli cells were isolated with enzymatic hydrolysis. Exosomes were isolated from primary rat Sertoli cells, rat epididymis tissue, and human seminal plasma with polymer-based precipitation method. Exosomal microRNAs were quantified with qPCR. Inhibin-B was detected with enzyme immunoassay. The correlation analysis between microRNA and inhibin-B was evaluated with Spearman's correlation. RESULTS: We screened 12 previously reported hypoxia-responsive microRNAs in the primary rat Sertoli cells and found that 4 exosomal microRNAs increased significantly in response to in vitro hypoxia treatment (P < .05). Of the 4 microRNAs, only miR-210-3p was upregulated in the rats with experimental varicocoele (P < .01). In the patients with varicocoele, we found that seminal exosomal miR-210-3p significantly increased in patients with grade II and III varicocoele (P < .01), and miR-210-3p negatively correlated with sperm count (P < .01) and seminal inhibin-B expression (r = -0.39, P < .01). For the 30 patients with microsurgical varicocelectomy, the operation notably decreased miR-210-3p (P < .01). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Seminal exosomal miR-210-3p may be a novel, sensitive, and non-invasive biomarker of Sertoli cell damage in varicocoele.

17.
Plant Physiol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051269

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) occurs extensively in eukaryotes as an important mechanism for regulating transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity, but variation in the AS landscape in response to domestication and polyploidization in crops is unclear. Hexaploid wheat (AABBDD, Triticum aestivum L.) has undergone two separate allopolyploidization events, providing an ideal model for studying AS changes during domestication and polyploidization events. In this study, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of roots and leaves from wheat species with varied ploidies, including wild diploids (AbAb, Triticum boeoticum) and tetraploids (AABB, Triticum dicoccoides), domesticated diploids (AmAm, Triticum monococcum) and tetraploids (AABB, Triticum dicoccum), hexaploid wheat (AABBDD, Triticum aestivum L.), as well as newly synthesized hexaploids together with their parents. Approximately 22.1% of genes exhibited AS, with the major AS type being intron retention. The number of AS events decreased after domestication in both diploids and tetraploids. Moreover, the frequency of AS occurrence tended to decrease after polyploidization, consistent with the functional sharing model that proposes AS and duplicated genes are complementary in regulating transcriptome plasticity in polyploid crops. In addition, the subgenomes exhibited biased AS responses to polyploidization, and ~87.1% of homeologs showed AS partitioning in hexaploid wheat. Interestingly, substitution of the D subgenome modified 42.8% of AS patterns of the A and B subgenomes, indicating subgenome interplay reprograms AS profiles at a genome-wide level, although the causal-consequence relationship requires further study. Conclusively, our study shows that AS variation occurs extensively following polyploidization and domestication in wheat species.

18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), a member of TLR family, plays an important role in the induction and regulation of immune/inflammation. TLR2 gene knockout (TLR2KO) mice have been widely used for animal models of neurological diseases. Since there is close relationship between immune system and neurobehavioral functions, it is important to clarify the exact role of TLR2 defect itself in neurobehavioral functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of TLR2KO on neurobehavioral functions in mice and the mechanisms underlying the observed changes. METHODS: Male TLR2KO and wild type (WT) mice aged 3, 7, and 12 months were used for neurobehavioral testing and detection of protein expression by Western blot. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrophysiological recording, and Evans blue (EB) assay were applied to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), synaptic function, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in 12-month-old TLR2KO and age-matched WT mice. RESULTS: Compared to WT mice, TLR2KO mice showed decreased cognitive function and locomotor activity, as well as increased anxiety, which developed from middle age (before 7-month-old) to old age. In addition, significantly reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), inhibited long-term potentiation (LTP), and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability were observed in 12-month-old TLR2KO mice. Furthermore, compared with age-matched WT mice, significant reduction in protein levels of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Occludin and Claudin5) and increased neurofilament protein (SMI32) were observed in 7 and 12-month-old TLR2KO mice, and that myelin basic protein (MBP) decreased in 12-month-old TLR2KO mice. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated that TLR2 defect resulted in significantly observable neurobehavioral dysfunctions in mice starting from middle age, as well as multiple abnormalities in brain structure, function, and molecular metabolism.

19.
J Integr Neurosci ; 19(3): 413-420, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070519

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation in the brain is an emerging therapy for treating a wide range of neurological disorders. Although electrical pulses are commonly used in the clinic, other electrical waveforms such as sinusoidal-waves have been investigated to improve the therapeutic efficacy, to reduce the risk of tissue damage induced by stimulation, and to decrease the consumption of electrical energy. However, the effects of sinusoidal stimulation on neuronal activity are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neuronal responses to the stimulation of 50-Hz sinusoidal-waves applied on the afferent fibers of the neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of Sprague-Dawley rat in vivo. Results show that the stimulation increased the firing rate of both pyramidal neurons and interneurons in the downstream region of stimulation. Also, the stimulation eliminated the original theta rhythms (2-5 Hz) in the single-unit activity of the two types of neurons and entrained these neurons to fire at the stimulation rhythm. These results provide new clues for the mechanisms of brain stimulation to suppress the pathological rhythms in the neuronal activity, and for the application of sinusoidal waveforms in brain stimulation therapy.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 276: 608-615, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidences suggest that inflammatory marker-mediated neuroplasticity contributes critically to brain changes following antidepressant treatment. To date, no study has examined the relationship between changes in hippocampal volume, depressive symptoms, and inflammatory markers following repeated ketamine treatment. METHODS: Forty-four patients with major depressive disorder received six intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) infusions over 12 days. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used to assess depressive symptoms, and peripheral blood was collected to test multiple cytokines and tryptophan (TRP) metabolites at baseline, 24 h and 14 days after the sixth infusion (day 13 and day 26). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were carried out at baseline and day13, and FreeSurfer software was used to process the T1 images and analyze hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Following ketamine, a significant improvement in depressive symptoms, a small increase in right hippocampal volume and alterations in inflammatory markers was found. No significant association was found between changes in inflammatory markers and changes in hippocampal volume from baseline to day 13 (P>0.05), while a weak association was found between TRP metabolite changes and other cytokine changes from baseline to day 26 (beta=-0.357, t=-2.600, P = 0.013). LIMITATIONS: The patients continued receiving previous medications during ketamine treatment, which may have impacted hippocampal volume and inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Hippocampal volume increase following ketamine was an independent neurobiological effect that was not associated with changes in peripheral inflammatory markers, suggesting a likely complex neurobiological mechanism of the antidepressant effect of ketamine.

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