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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111480, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254385

RESUMO

Environmental or occupational exposure of Cadmium (Cd) is concerned to be a threat to human health. The kidney is main target of Cd accumulation, which increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In addition, low content of Cd had been determined in kidney cancer, however, the roles of presence of Cd in renal tumors progression are still unclear. The present study is proposed to determine the effect of low-dose Cd exposure on the renal cancer cells and aimed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability, cytotoxicity, and the migratory effect of low-dose Cd on the renal cancer cells were detected. Moreover, the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca2+, and cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) signaling, as well as COX2 catalytic product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on cell migration and invasion were identified. Our results suggested that low dose Cd exposure promoted migration of renal cancer Caki-1 cells, which was not dependent on Cd-induced ROS and intracellular Ca2+ levels. Cd exposure induced cAMP/PKA-COX2, which mediated cell migration and invasion, and decreased expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker, E-cadherin, but increased expressions of N-cadherin and Vimentin. Moreover, Cd-induced secretion of PGE2 feedback on activation of cAMP/PKA-COX2 signaling, also promoted EMT, migration and invasion of renal cancer Caki-1 cells. This study might contribute to understanding of the mechanism of Cd-induce progression of renal cancer and future studies on the prevention and therapy of renal cell carcinomas.

2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128390, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182154

RESUMO

Hydroxylamine (HA) driven advanced oxidation processes (HAOPs) for water treatment have attracted extensive attention due to the acceleration of reactive intermediates generation and the improvement on the elimination effectiveness of target contaminants. In this review, HAOPs were categorized into three parts: (1) direct reaction of HA with oxidants (e.g., hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), ozone (O3), ferrate (Fe(VI)), periodate (IO4-)); (2) HA driven homogeneous Fenton/Fenton-like system (Fe(II)/peroxide/HA system, Cu(II)/O2/HA system, Cu(II)/peroxide/HA system, Ce(IV)/H2O2/HA system); (3) HA driven heterogeneous Fe/Cu-Fenton/Fenton-like system (iron-bearing material/peroxide/HA system, copper-bearing material/peroxide/HA system, bimetallic composite/peroxide/HA system). Degradation efficiency of the target pollutant, reactive intermediates, and effective pH range of various HAOPs were summarized. Further, corresponding reaction mechanism was elaborated. For the direct reaction of HA with oxidants, improvement of pollutants degradation was achieved through the generation of secondary reactive intermediates which had higher reactivity compared with the parent oxidant. For HA driven homogeneous and heterogeneous Fe/Cu-Fenton/Fenton-like system, improvement of pollutants degradation was achieved mainly via the acceleration of redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) or Cu(II)/Cu(I) and subsequent generation of reactive intermediates, which avoided the drawbacks of classical Fenton/Fenton-like system. In addition, HA driven homogeneous Fe/Cu-Fenton/Fenton-like system with heterogeneous counterpart were compared. Further, formation of oxidation products from HA in various HAOPs was summarized. Finally, the challenges and prospects in this field were discussed.


Assuntos
Hidroxilamina/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cobre , Compostos Férricos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hidroxilaminas , Ferro , Oxidantes , Oxirredução , Peróxidos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água
3.
Microbiol Res ; 242: 126608, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068829

RESUMO

Amomum villosum Lour (A. villosum Lour) has medicinal properties and has been widely used in China for many years. Herein we aimed to investigate the antibacterial mechanism and the metabolome variation caused by A. villosum Lour essential oil (EO) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The metabolite profile of MRSA was acquired, and metabolic pathways were assessed for significant alterations caused upon treating bacterial cells with EO, the antibacterial mechanism of EO was further investigated in combination with multiple experiments. Metabolomics analysis revealed that 72 metabolites and 10 pathways were significantly affected. EO specifically disrupted amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and also inhibited adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis. Furthermore, the activities of pivotal enzymes involved in the TCA cycle were suppressed. Increased ROS levels could decrease the sensitivity of MRSA to EO, improving the survival of EO-treated MRSA cells. Our data indicate that A. villosum Lour EO causes metabolic dysfunction in MRSA, leading to reduced ROS levels, disruption of the TCA cycle, inhibition of ATP synthesis, and suppression of the activities of key enzymes.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 117072, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142617

RESUMO

Various Pickering emulsions-based system have been increasing demand for potential applications in a wide variety of fields. However, tunable emulsifiers and controllable Pickering emulsions with the ability to respond to external triggers remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we demonstrate the photo-tuning amphiphilicity in Pickering emulsions using ß-cyclodextrin-grafted alginate and azobenzene derivative supramolecular self-assemblies as photoactivatable emulsifiers. Specifically, the photoisomerization of a host-guest system between ß-cyclodextrin and azobenzene derivative was employed to tailor the polarity of the microenvironment, resulting in the reversible variation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance. The photoactivatable emulsifier based on supramolecular self-assemblies could effectively destabilize o/w emulsions by tailoring the amphiphilic balance at oil-water interface under an external UV irradiation, leading to the oil-water separation from Pickering emulsion. The light regulating demulsification is further showcased here by the photodelivery of hydrophobic model drug. Finally, this study provides a sustainable yet eco-friendly formulation for the fabrication of stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsions.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141302, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858287

RESUMO

Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) can increase marine primary productivity, consequently affect ocean biogeochemical cycles and climate change. In this study, we develop an adaptor to generate anthropogenic Fe emission inventories for China in 2012 and 2016 via anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions from Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) using local source-specific mass fractions of Fe in PM2.5. Using the generated emission inventories, we simulated Fe concentrations as well as dry deposition fluxes to China marginal seas using a WRF-CMAQ model during four campaign periods. The simulated Fe concentrations are in good agreement with observations except for those in presence of severe dust-intrusion events (NMB -13% ~ -27%), indicating a reasonably good performance of the generated Fe emissions and leaving the large underestimation of Fe concentrations mainly due to nature dust emissions. Simulated Fe concentrations over China marginal seas are in the range of 62-6.5 × 102 ng m-3, providing 2.0-12.5 µg m-2 d-1 to the seas during the study periods. We also found that inputs of total Fe in PM2.5 to the seas in presence of dust-intrusion events are 3 and 13 times larger than those in presence of haze events or on less polluted days. Due to lower Fe solubility in nature mineral aerosols than in anthropogenic aerosols, dry deposition fluxes of bioavailable Fe on haze days almost double that in dust days. The total anthropogenic emissions of Fe over China in 2012 and 2016 are estimated as 5.5 × 102 Gg and 3.3 × 102 Gg, respectively. Iron and steel industry are the dominant sources of Fe, accounting for 59-63% of the total anthropogenic Fe emissions. Geotropically, stronger emissions per area were distributed in eastern China, e.g., 2.3 to 15.4 ng m-2 s-1 in eastern China versus <0.4 ng m-2 s-1 in western China.

6.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258315

RESUMO

The fabrication of desired anti-magnetic materials for irradiation shielding remained a challenge to date. In this work, a new type of dual-functional magnetic shielding phase change microcapsules with paraffin as the core, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin as the shell and doped with magnetic particles in the shell were successfully prepared by in-situ polymerization. The magnetic particles were dispersed in the shell layer by coating a hydrophilic emulsifier on the surface. These microcapsules were specifically applied to the field of magnetic shielding by using screen printing methods. The effect of magnetic particles on the performance of phase-change microcapsules was examined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The magnetic type and magnetic strength of the microcapsules were studied by the vibrating sample magnetometer. Moreover, the effects of different magnetic particles (Fe3O4, CrO2) on the performance of phase change microcapsules and the magnetic strength of microcapsules were compared. The results showed that these two kinds of magnetic particles can greatly improve the phase change latent heat, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of the microcapsules. Finally, the great magnetic shielding role of these microcapsules was demonstrated in both static and pulsed magnetic fields through the screen printing of magnetic shielding ink on wallpaper. Incorporating 0.5 g Fe3O4 inside of microcapsules, specifically, the magnetic intensity was effectively reduced by ~ 250 Oe within a short distance in the static field. So we expected that these magnetic microcapsules had great potential for the shielding of irradiations via the screen printing on various substrates.

7.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 186, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239048

RESUMO

Mitochondria are important cellular organelles involved in many different functions, from energy generation and fatty acid oxidation to cell death regulation and immune responses. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial stress acts as a key trigger of innate immune responses. Critically, the dysfunctional mitochondria can be selectively eliminated by mitophagy. The elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria may function as an effective way employed by mitophagy to keep the immune system in check. In addition, mitophagy can be utilized by pathogens for immune evasion. In this review, we summarize how mitochondrial stress triggers innate immune responses and the roles of mitophagy in innate immunity and in infection, as well as the molecular mechanisms of mitophagy. Video Abstract.

8.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 9510594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145365

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of knockdown of the yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) on the migration and invasion of the rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and to preliminarily elucidate the mechanisms between YAP/TAZ and autophagy in the migration and invasion of RA-FLS. RA-FLS stable knockdown of YAP or TAZ was successfully established by using lentiviral-mediated gene knockdown techniques. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay were used to evaluate the effect of knockdown of YAP or TAZ on the migration and invasion of RA-FLS. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting assays were performed to examine the expression of indicated genes. The results showed that YAP and TAZ were upregulated in RA-FLS, and knockdown of YAP or TAZ inhibited the migration and invasion, reduced the expression of N-cadherin and Vimentin, and increased the accumulation of E-cadherin and ß-catenin in RA-FLS. Our results also demonstrated that knockdown of YAP or TAZ promoted autophagy which increased the accumulation of LC3B-II and ULK1 and decreased the amount of SQSTM1/p62 in RA-FLS. Furthermore, our data displayed that inhibition of autophagy either with 3-MA or CQ can partially reverse the decrease of migration and invasion induced by YAP and TAZ knockdown in RA-FLS. Our experiments preliminarily revealed that YAP/TAZ and autophagy play important roles in the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which might provide novel targets for the treatment of RA.

9.
FASEB J ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150686

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by the activation of cardiac fibroblasts and accumulation of extracellular matrix. METTL3, a component of methyltransferase complex, participates in multiple biological processes associated with mammalian development and disease progression. However, the role of METTL3 in cardiac fibrosis is still unknown. We performed fibroblasts activation with TGF-ß1 (20 ng/mL) in vitro and established in vivo mouse models with lentivirus to assess the effects of METTL3 on cardiac fibroblasts proliferation and collagen formation. Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation (MeRIP) was used to define the potential fibrosis-regulated gene. The expression level of METTL3 was increased in cardiac fibrotic tissue of mice with chronic myocardial infarction and cultured cardiac fibroblats (CFs) treated with TGF-ß1. Enforced expression of METTL3 promoted proliferation and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition and collagens accumulation, while silence of METTL3 did the opposite. Silence of METTL3 by lentivirus carrying METTL3 siRNA markedly alleviated cardiac fibrosis in MI mice. Transcriptome and N6-methyladenosine (m6 A) profiling analyses revealed that the expression and m6 A level of collagen-related genes were altered after silence of METTL3. METTL3-mediated m6 A modification is critical for the development of cardiac fibrosis, providing a molecular target for manipulating fibrosis and the associated cardiac diseases.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185005

RESUMO

The design and assembly of photoelectro-active molecular channel structures is of great importance because of their special advantages in charge mobility, photo-induced electron transfer, proton conduction and exciton transport. Besides macrocycle stacking and knot + linker connection, this work rarely provides a fresh strategy for the exquisite design of 1D channel based on a pair of mirror isomers. Racemic 9,9'-diphenyl-[2,2'-bifluorene]-9,9'-diol (DPFOH) enantiomers were proved to be utilized as newfashioned building modules for the non-helical 1D channel structures. Although the individual molecule doesn't present any molecular symmetry, two pairs of racemic DPFOH enantiomers can form a C2-symmetric closed loop via the stereoscopic herringbone assembly. Thanks to the special symmetry derived from the enantiomer pairs, the multiple supramolecular interactions and the padding from solvent molecules, this conventionally unstable topological structure is achieved. The self-similar relationship of tubular structures spanning from molecular level to microscale level was explained. Finally, the lithium-ion transport performance was demonstrated, showing a significant ion conductivity of 1.77×10-4 S/cm, indicating the potential research value of this novel 1D channel structure.

11.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 535, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cemented vertebrae frequently re-fracture after vertebroplasty to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) with large clefts. We compared the efficacy of planned and central-clefted puncture, both followed by a second puncture, as treatments for OVCFs with large clefts. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 38 patients. 18 of whom underwent planned puncture (group A) and 20 central-clefted puncture (group B). A second puncture was performed when the initially injected cement was restricted to the cleft. We recorded a visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, vertebral kyphotic angles (KAs), and compression ratios (CRs) preoperatively and at 2 days and 6 months postoperatively. We recorded the cement dispersion patterns and complications. RESULTS: Second punctures succeeded in 15/18 and 7/20 patients of groups A and B, respectively. At 2 days postoperatively, the VAS score, KA, and CR were significantly better than the preoperative values (P < 0.01); no significant difference was found between the two groups (P > 0.05). At the 6-month follow-up, all scores were poorer than at 2 days postoperatively (all P < 0.05), significantly more so in group B than group A (P < 0.05). Significant differences in terms of the cement dispersion patterns, and the cemented vertebral re-fracture and cement leakage rates, were observed between the two groups (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The two-puncture techniques were initially effective when treating large-clefted OVCFs. However, compared to the central-clefted puncture, the planned puncture improved the success rate of the second puncture, allowed better cement dispersion, and reduced the incidence of vertebral re-fracture during follow-up.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 53297-53309, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169963

RESUMO

Because of the inherent quasibrittleness and heterogeneity, matrix-directed toughening of concrete and cement composites remains to be a huge challenge. Herein, inspired by nacre materials, a novel biomimetic bulk cement composite is fabricated via a facile and efficient process based on compacting prefabricated multisized cement-polymer hybrid prills. This method combines with the three-dimensional "brick-bridge-mortar" structure design and synchronously the intrinsic and extrinsic toughening strategies. Such an approach shows the remarkable maximum toughness enhancement of 27-fold with 71% increase in flexural strength via cooperation with only 4 wt % organic matter. More attractively, it alters the traditional brittle fracture of cement composites to a distinct ductile fracture. In addition, such a biomimetic composite demonstrates the long-term ever-increasing strength and toughness, performing the excellent ductile-fracture retention ability. The hierarchical toughening mechanisms are further revealed with the synergy of microscopic characterizations and simulation methods. This strategy provides a new route for the development of high toughness biomimetic cement-based materials for potential applications in civil engineering domain.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(47): 52307-52318, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183010

RESUMO

Acute wounds subject to frequent deformations are difficult to be treated because the healing process was easily interfered by external mechanical forces. Traditional wound dressings have limited efficacy because of their poor mechanical properties and skin adhesiveness and difficulty in the delivery of therapeutic drugs effectively. As such, tough and skin-adhesive wound dressings with sustainable and stimuli-responsive drug release properties for treatment of those wounds are highly desirable. For this purpose, we have developed a mechano-responsive poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogel which aims to control the delivery of antibiotic drug upon application of mechanical forces. Diacrylated Pluronic F127 micelles were used as a macro-cross-linker of the hydrogel and loaded with hydrophobic antimicrobial drugs. The micelle-cross-linked hydrogel has excellent mechanical properties, with the ultimate tensile strength and tensile strain of up to 112 kPa and 1420%, respectively, and compressive stress of up to 1.41 MPa. Adhesiveness of the hydrogel to the skin tissue was ∼6 kPa, and it did not decrease significantly after repetitive adhesion cycles. Protein adsorption on the hydrogel was significantly inhibited compared to that on commercial wound dressings. Because of the mechano-responsive deformation of micelles, the release of drug from the hydrogel could be precisely controlled by the extent and cycles of mechanical loading and unloading, endowing the hydrogel with superior antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, drug penetration into the skin tissue was enhanced by mechanical stress applied to the hydrogel. The micelle-cross-linked zwitterionic hydrogel also showed good cell biocompatibility, negligible skin irritation, and healing capacity to acute skin wounds in mice. Such a tough mechano-responsive hydrogel holds great promise as wound dressings for acute wounds subjected to frequent movements.

14.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To apply a multi-objective radiomics model based on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving diagnostic accuracy of LN metastasis in rectal cancer patients. METHODS: This study consisted of 91 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from April 2018 to March 2019. All patients underwent rectal MRI before surgery without any other treatment. Clinical data, subjective radiologist assessments, and radiomic features of LNs were obtained. A total of 1409 radiomic features were extracted from T2WI LN images. Multi-objective optimization with the iterative multi-objective immune algorithm (IMIA) was used to select radiomic features to build prediction models. Predictive performances of radiomic, radiologist, and combined radiomic and radiologist models were assessed for accuracy by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. RESULTS: For the radiologist analysis, heterogeneity was the only significant independent predictor of LN status. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the subjective radiologist analysis were 72.09%, 73.81%, and 78.12%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the solitary radiomic model consisting of 10 features were 89.81%, 82.57%, and 87.77%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the combined model, which consisted of 12 radiomic and radiologist features, were 92.23%, 84.69%, and 89.88%, respectively. The combined model had the best prediction performance with an AUC of 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: The multi-objective radiomics model based on T2WI images was very useful in predicting pre-operative LN status in rectal cancer patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188721

RESUMO

A bio-coreactant-enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) microscopy realizes the ECL imaging of intracellular structure and dynamic transport. This microscopy uses Ru(bpy)32+ as the electrochemical molecular antenna connecting extracellular and intracellular environments, and uses intracellular biomolecules as the coreactants of ECL reactions via "catalytic route". Accordingly, intracellular structures are identified without using multiple labels, and the autophagy involving DNA oxidative damage is determined by nuclear ECL signals. Time-resolved image sequence discloses the universal edge effect of cellular electroporation due to the influence of geometric properties of cell membranes on the induced transmembrane voltage. The dynamic transport of Ru(bpy)33+ in the different cellular compartments unveils the heterogeneous intracellular diffusivity correlating with the actin cytoskeleton. In addition to single-cell studies, the bio-coreactant-enhanced ECL microscopy is expanded to image other organisms.

16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(6): 853-858, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236612

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the application of fluorescein videoangiography (FL-VA) and indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) in intracranial aneurysm surgery. Methods: A total of 65 patients who underwent aneurysm clipping in our hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were included in the study. FL-VA and ICG-VA were used during the surgery to determine whether the aneurysm is completely clipped and the artery bearing the aneurysm and the perforating artery around the aneurysm are unobstructed. Results: All 65 patients underwent both FL-VA and ICG-VA intraoperatively after aneurysm clipping. FL-VA was applied first. In 30 cases, FL-VA and ICG-VA provided the same results. In 10 cases, FL-VA performed obviously better over ICG-VA in visualizing small perforating arteries (2 cases of internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery aneurysms and 3 cases of anterior communicating artery aneurysm) and evaluating whether the aneurysm was completely clipped (3 cases of middle cerebral artery aneurysm, 1 case of internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery aneurysms and 1 case of distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm). In the remaining 25 cases, ICG-VA was repeatedly applied in a short period of time due to quick clearance of indocyanine green from the blood vessels, but this couldn't be done with FL-VA. Conclusions: Compared with ICG-VA, FL-VA can provide better visualization of perforating artery, and can determine whether the aneurysm was completely clipped more accurately. However FL-VA couldn't be repeatedly applied during a short period of time.

17.
Cancer Invest ; : 1-16, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176521

RESUMO

The specific roles of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulatory genes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) have not been fully elucidated. In present study, a novel risk signature was constructed by five m6A-related genes (including METTL3, METTL14, KIAA1429, ALKBH5 and YTHDF1) and was identified as an independent prognostic factor (HR = 13.192) via TCGA (185 samples) databases. The immune abundances of 22 leukocyte subtypes in each PAAD sample were exhibited via the CIBERSORT algorithm. High risk group promoted infiltration levels of Macrophages M0 and M2 cells and decreased that of B cells naive, T cells CD8 and T regulatory cells.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lipid abnormalities are prevalent among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) and contribute to increasing risk of cardiovascular events. This study aims to investigate the incidence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in PLWH after receiving different first-line free antiretroviral regimens. METHODS: PLWH who sought care at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from January 2014 to December 2018 were included, and the baseline characteristics and clinical data during the follow-up were collected, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The risk factors of dyslipidemia after antiretroviral therapy were analyzed with the generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS: Among the 7623 PLWH included, the mean levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were 4.23 ±â€Š0.85 mmol/L, 1.27 ±â€Š0.29 mmol/L and 2.54 ±â€Š0.65 mmol/L, respectively, and the median TG was 1.17 (IQR: 0.85-1.68) mmol/L. Compared with that in PLWH receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC) + ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), zidovudine (AZT) + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r, the incidence of dyslipidemia was lower in PLWH receiving TDF + 3TC + EFV. In multivariate analysis, we found that the risks of elevations of TG, TC, and LDL-C were higher with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: odds ratio [OR] = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-3.11, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.14-1.35, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12, P = 0.041), AZT + 3TC + EFV (TG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.28-1.55, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.31-1.56, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12-1.25, P < 0.001), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 2.65-3.59, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.96-2.94, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.37-1.69, P < 0.001) than with TDF + 3TC + EFV, while treatment with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r was less likely to restore HDL-C levels compared with TDF + 3TC + EFV (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97, P < 0.001). In addition to antiretroviral regimens, antiretroviral therapy duration, older age, overweight, obesity and other traditional factors were also important risk factors for dyslipidemia. CONCLUSION: The incidence of dyslipidemia varies with different antiretroviral regimens, with TDF + 3TC + EFV having lower risk for dyslipidemia than the other first-line free antiretroviral regimens in China.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081060

RESUMO

Soil salinization, which is primarily due to excessive Na+ levels, is a major abiotic stress adversely affecting plant growth and development. The Na+/H+ antiporter (NHX) is a transmembrane protein mediating the transport of Na+ or K+ and H+ across the membrane to modulate the ionic balance of plants in response to salt stress. Research regarding NHXs has mainly focused on the vacuolar-type NHX family members. However, the biological functions of the endosomal-type NHXs remain relatively uncharacterized. In this study, 22 NHX family members were identified in Gossypium hirsutum. A phylogenetic analysis divided the GhNHX genes into two categories, with 18 and 4 in the vacuolar and endosomal groups, respectively. The chromosomal distribution of the NHX genes revealed the significant impact of genome-wide duplication during the polyploidization process on the number of GhNHX genes. Analyses of gene structures and conserved motifs indicated that GhNHX genes in the same phylogenetic cluster are conserved. Additionally, the salt-induced expression patterns confirmed that the expression levels of most of the GhNHX genes are affected by salinity. Specifically, in the endosomal group, GhNHX4A expression was substantially up-regulated by salt stress. A yeast functional complementation test proved that GhNHX4A can partially restore the salt tolerance of the salt-sensitive yeast mutant AXT3. Silencing GhNHX4A expression decreased the resistance of cotton to salt stress because of an increase in the accumulation of Na+ in stems and a decrease in the accumulation of K+ in roots. The results of this study may provide the basis for an in-depth characterization of the regulatory functions of NHX genes related to cotton salt tolerance, especially the endosomal-type GhNHX4A. Furthermore, the presented data may be useful for selecting appropriate candidate genes for the breeding of new salt-tolerant cotton varieties.

20.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086631

RESUMO

Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a variety of purposes. Our previous study indicated the antibacterial mechanism of the essential oil (EO) from C. camphora leaves; however, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanism have not been clearly demonstrated. Thus, the present study investigated its anti-inflammatory property. Our data revealed that EO significantly decreased the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cells. EO also attenuated LPS-induced increase in the mRNA expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, IL-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Furthermore, the metabolic profiles of LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells treated with or without EO were explored. Thirty-nine metabolites were identified with significantly different contents, including 21 upregulated and 18 downregulated ones. Five pathways were enriched by shared differential metabolites. Compared with the control cells, the glucose level was decreased, while the lactate level was increased, in the culture supernatant from LPS-stimulated cells, which were reversed by EO treatment. Moreover, compared to the LPS-treated group, the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in EO group were decreased. In summary, the current study demonstrated that EO from C. camphora leaves acts as an anti-inflammatory agent, which might be mediated through attenuating the glycolysis capacity of microglial cells.

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