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1.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839578

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the associations between COVID-19 school closures and school readiness skills for Chinese kindergarteners. DESIGN: We utilized the natural experimental condition created by local COVID-19 outbreaks in 2022 (Study 1) to compare school readiness skills of children whose kindergartens were closed for 5 months (Group 1) with children whose kindergartens stayed open (Group 2). We further compared the school readiness skills of one pre-COVID-19 cohort (Cohort 2019) with one COVID-19 cohort (Cohort 2021) from a fifth kindergarten (Study 2). SAMPLES: For Study 1, Group 1 included 445 children and Group 2 included 584 children aged 4-6 years. For Study 2, Cohort 2019 included 156 children and Cohort 2021 included 228 children aged 3-6 years. MEASURES: For both studies, survey data on four school readiness skills were collected from parents. Additionally, Study 1 collected parental locus of control data from parents. RESULTS: Controlling for covariates, Study 1 revealed that Group 1 and Group 2 did not differ in terms of language and emergent literacy or approaches to learning. However, Group 1 scored lower than Group 2 on health and well-being and arts and imagination. Study 2 revealed that Cohort 2021 scored higher than Cohort 2019 on language and emergent literacy but lower on the other three skills. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of COVID-19 school closures with Chinese children's school readiness skills were not uniform, with a positive relation with language and emergent literacy and negative associations with health and well-being, approaches to learning, as well as arts and imagination.

2.
Nat Med ; 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839897

RESUMO

Gene therapy is a promising approach for hereditary deafness. We recently showed that unilateral AAV1-hOTOF gene therapy with dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 carrying human OTOF transgene is safe and associated with functional improvements in patients with autosomal recessive deafness 9 (DFNB9). The protocol was subsequently amended and approved to allow bilateral gene therapy administration. Here we report an interim analysis of the single-arm trial investigating the safety and efficacy of binaural therapy in five pediatric patients with DFNB9. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity at 6 weeks, and the secondary endpoint included safety (adverse events) and efficacy (auditory function and speech perception). No dose-limiting toxicity or serious adverse event occurred. A total of 36 adverse events occurred. The most common adverse events were increased lymphocyte counts (6 out of 36) and increased cholesterol levels (6 out of 36). All patients had bilateral hearing restoration. The average auditory brainstem response threshold in the right (left) ear was >95 dB (>95 dB) in all patients at baseline, and the average auditory brainstem response threshold in the right (left) ear was restored to 58 dB (58 dB) in patient 1, 75 dB (85 dB) in patient 2, 55 dB (50 dB) in patient 3 at 26 weeks, and 75 dB (78 dB) in patient 4 and 63 dB (63 dB) in patient 5 at 13 weeks. The speech perception and the capability of sound source localization were restored in all five patients. These results provide preliminary insights on the safety and efficacy of binaural AAV gene therapy for hereditary deafness. The trial is ongoing with longer follow-up to confirm the safety and efficacy findings. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry registration: ChiCTR2200063181 .

3.
Pharm Res ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844745

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cinchoninze hydrochloride solves the problem of the low solubility of cinchonine, but it is unstable and susceptible to deliquescence. In this study, we designed and prepared cinchonine cocrystal salts or cinchonine salts with better stability, solubility and antioxidant activity than cinchonine. METHOD: We successfully synthesized and characterized three cinchonine salts, namely, cinchonine-fumaric acid, cinchonine-isoferulic acid, and cinchonine-malic acid. The high humidity (92.5% RH) and high temperature (60°C) tests were conducted to determine the physical stability and hygroscopicity of cinchonine hydrochloride, cinchonine and three cinchonine salts. And the ultraviolet spectrophotometry was conducted to determine the equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate of cinchonine and salts. Moreover, the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays determined the antioxidant activity of cinchonine and salts. RESULT: Compared with cinchonine hydrochloride and cinchonine, all three cinchonine salts exhibited good physical stability over 15 days under high humidity (92.5% RH) and high temperature (60°C) conditions. While cinchonine and cinchonine hydrochloride are categorized as hygroscopic and deliquescent, respectively, three cinchonine salts are classified as slightly hygroscopic, meaning that they have a lower hygroscopicity than cinchonine and cinchonine hydrochloride. And three cinchonine salts had higher equilibrium solubility, faster intrinsic dissolution rates, and higher antioxidant activity in comparison to cinchonine. Moreover, they showed a "spring and parachute" pattern in the phosphate buffer (pH = 6.8). CONCLUSION: Cocrystallization technology is a viable option for improving cinchonine's poor physicochemical qualities.

4.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613241259284, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847401

RESUMO

A variety of diseases can affect the nasal vestibule. It might be challenging to diagnose and treat a nasal vestibular tumor due to the anatomical characteristics of the nasal vestibule. Neurilemmoma is a tumor derived from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath. Less than 4% of these tumors invade the nasal cavity and sinuses. Nasal vestibule neurilemmoma is rare, it is often overlooked when a mass discovered. The diagnosis of it is mainly based on clinical symptoms, nasal endoscopy, and imaging, The mainstay of treatment is complete resection surgery. Pathological examination provides the final diagnosis. We present a patient with nasal vestibule neurilemmoma who underwent a successful endoscopic surgery without cosmetic deformity, and discuss the clinical manifestations, histological features, imaging features, differential diagnosis, treatment options, then reviewed relevant literature of this rare benign lesion.

5.
Nanoscale ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847559

RESUMO

Multicolor fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have received extensive attention due to their excellent fluorescence tunable performance. In this study, multicolor CDs with color tunable and high fluorescence quantum yields (QYs) were successfully prepared under the same conditions by a one-step solvothermal method using 2-aminoterephthalic acid (ATA) and Nile Blue A (NBA) as reaction reagents, achieving a wide color field coverage. Detailed studies on the relevant mechanisms have been carried out for blue, green and red CDs, indicating that the regulating mechanism of multicolor luminescence is determined by the size of the sp2 conjugated domains, which is due to the increase of particle size that causes an increase in the size of the sp2 conjugated domains, resulting in the narrowing of the band gap and the red-shift of the emission wavelength. It was found that the CDs have the advantages of simple preparation, high photostability and high quantum yield. They were used as fluorescent ink and mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form CD/PVA composites, which were successfully applied in the field of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting. This work provides a new strategy for the synthesis of panchromatic tunable fluorescent CDs and their application in the field of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting.

6.
J Virol ; : e0041323, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864728

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a type A coronavirus that causes severe watery diarrhea in piglets, resulting in severe economic losses worldwide. Therefore, new approaches to control PEDV infection are essential for a robust and sustainable pig industry. We screened 314 small-molecule drug libraries provided by Selleck and found that four drugs had obviously inhibitory effects on PEDV in Vero cells. PA-824, which had the highest SI index and the most reliable clinical safety, was selected for in vivo experiments. Animal attack tests showed that PA-824 effectively alleviated the clinical signs, intestinal pathological changes, and inflammatory responses in lactating piglets after PEDV infection. To further investigate the antiviral mechanism of PA-824, we measured the inhibitory effect of PA-824 on PEDV proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. By exploring the effect of PA-824 on the PEDV life cycle, we found that PA-824 acted directly on viral particles and hindered the adsorption, internalization, and replication phases of the virus, followed by molecular docking analysis to predict the interaction between PA-824 and PEDV non-structural proteins. Finally, we found that PA-824 could inhibit the apoptotic signaling pathway by suppressing PEDV-induced p53 activation. These results suggest that PA-824 could be protective against PEDV infection in piglets and could be developed as a drug or a feed additive to prevent and control PEDV diseases.IMPORTANCEPEDV is a highly contagious enteric coronavirus that widely spread worldwide, causing serious economic losses. There is no drug or vaccine to effectively control PEDV. In this study, we found that PA-824, a compound of mycobacteria causing pulmonary diseases, inhibited PEDV proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo. We also found that PA-824 directly acted on viral particles and hindered the adsorption, internalization, and replication stages of the virus. In addition, we found that PA-824 could inhibit the apoptotic signaling pathway by inhibiting PEDV-induced p53 activation. In conclusion, it is expected to be developed as a drug or a feed additive to prevent and control PEDV diseases.

7.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 308, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831451

RESUMO

Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is emerging as an important player in autoimmune diseases, but its exact role in lupus nephritis (LN) remains controversial. Here, we identified markedly elevated GSDMD in human and mouse LN kidneys, predominantly in CD11b+ myeloid cells. Global or myeloid-conditional deletion of GSDMD was shown to exacerbate systemic autoimmunity and renal injury in lupus mice with both chronic graft-versus-host (cGVH) disease and nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis. Interestingly, RNA sequencing and flow cytometry revealed that myeloid GSDMD deficiency enhanced granulopoiesis at the hematopoietic sites in LN mice, exhibiting remarkable enrichment of neutrophil-related genes, significant increases in total and immature neutrophils as well as granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs). GSDMD-deficient GMPs and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-stimulated human promyelocytes NB4 were further demonstrated to possess enhanced clonogenic and differentiation abilities compared with controls. Mechanistically, GSDMD knockdown promoted self-renewal and granulocyte differentiation by restricting calcium influx, contributing to granulopoiesis. Functionally, GSDMD deficiency led to increased pathogenic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in lupus peripheral blood and bone marrow-derived neutrophils. Taken together, our data establish that GSDMD deletion accelerates LN development by promoting granulopoiesis in a calcium influx-regulated manner, unraveling its unrecognized critical role in LN pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Nefrite Lúpica , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/deficiência , Cálcio/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Feminino , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Gasderminas
8.
Front Genet ; 15: 1363197, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859937

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a substantial global health burden. Tumorinfiltrating B lymphocytes (TIL-Bs) contribute to tumor progression and significantly impact the efficacy of tumor therapy. However, the characteristics of TIL-Bs in HCC and their effect on HCC therapy remain elusive. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) was applied to investigate the heterogeneity, cellular differentiation and cell-cell communication of TIL-Bs in HCC. Further, the Cancer Genome Atlas-liver hepatocellular carcinoma (TCGA-LIHC) and liver cancer institutes (LCI) cohorts were applied to construct and validate the plasma cell marker-based prognostic risk model. The relationship between the prognostic risk model and the responsiveness of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with HCC were estimated by OncoPredict and tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) algorithm. Finally, we established nomogram and calibration curves to evaluate the precision of the risk score in predicating survival probability. Our data identified five subtypes of TIL-Bs in HCC, each exhibiting varying levels of infiltration in tumor tissues. The interactions between TIL-Bs and other cell types contributed to shaping distinct tumor microenvironments (TME). Moreover, we found that TIL-Bs subtypes had disparate prognostic values in HCC patients. The prognostic risk model demonstrated exceptional predictive accuracy for overall survival and exhibited varying sensitivities to immunotherapy and chemotherapy among patients with HCC. Our data demonstrated that the risk score stood as an independent prognostic predictor and the nomogram results further affirmed its strong prognostic capability. This study reveals the heterogeneity of TIL-Bs and provides a prognostic risk model based on plasma cell markers in HCC, which could prove valuable in predicting prognosis and guiding the choice of suitable therapies for patients with HCC.

9.
Theranostics ; 14(8): 3193-3212, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855185

RESUMO

As a developing radiation treatment for tumors, neutron capture therapy (NCT) has less side effects and a higher efficacy than conventional radiation therapy. Drugs with specific isotopes are indispensable counterparts of NCT, as they are the indespensable part of the neutron capture reaction. Since the creation of the first and second generations of boron-containing reagents, NCT has significantly advanced. Notwithstanding, the extant NCT medications, predominantly comprised of small molecule boron medicines, have encountered challenges such monofunctionality, inadequate targeting of tumors, and hypermetabolism. There is an urgent need to promote the research and development of new types of NCT drugs. Bio-nanomaterials can be introduced into the realm of NCT, and nanotechnology can give conventional medications richer functionality and significant adaptability. This can complement the advantages of each other and is expected to develop more new drugs with less toxicity, low side effects, better tumor targeting, and high biocompatibility. In this review, we summarized the research progress of nano-drugs in NCT based on the different types and sources of isotopes used, and introduced the attempts and efforts made by relevant researchers in combining nanomaterials with NCT, hoping to provide pivotal references for promoting the development of the field of tumor radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro/métodos , Compostos de Boro/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Boro/química , Compostos de Boro/farmacologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833382

RESUMO

Today's computing systems, to meet the enormous demands of information processing, have driven the development of brain-inspired neuromorphic systems. However, there are relatively few optoelectronic devices in most brain-inspired neuromorphic systems that can simultaneously regulate the conductivity through both optical and electrical signals. In this work, the Au/MXene/Y:HfO2/FTO ferroelectric memristor as an optoelectronic artificial synaptic device exhibited both digital and analog resistance switching (RS) behaviors under different voltages with a good switching ratio (>103). Under optoelectronic conditions, optimal weight update parameters and an enhanced algorithm achieved 97.1% recognition accuracy in convolutional neural networks. A new logic gate circuit specifically designed for optoelectronic inputs was established. Furthermore, the device integrates the impact of relative humidity to develop an innovative three-person voting mechanism with a veto power. These results provide a feasible approach for integrating optoelectronic artificial synapses with logic-based computing devices.

11.
Cancer Med ; 13(11): e7341, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the efficacy of a nomogram for predicting the pathology upgrade of apical prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A total of 754 eligible patients were diagnosed with apical PCa through combined systematic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy followed by radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively identified from two hospitals (training: 754, internal validation: 182, internal-external validation: 148). A nomogram for the identification of apical tumors in high-risk pathology upgrades through comparing the results of biopsy and RP was established incorporating statistically significant risk factors based on univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The nomogram's performance was assessed via the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: Univariable and multivariable analysis identified age, targeted biopsy, number of targeted cores, TNM stage, and the prostate imaging-reporting and data system score as significant predictors of apical tumor pathological progression. Our nomogram, based on these variables, demonstrated ROC curves for pathology upgrade with values of 0.883 (95% CI, 0.847-0.929), 0.865 (95% CI, 0.790-0.945), and 0.840 (95% CI, 0.742-0.904) for the training, internal validation and internal-external validation cohorts respectively. Calibration curves showed good consistency between the predicted and actual outcomes. The validation groups also showed great generalizability with the calibration curves. DCA results also demonstrated excellent performance for our nomogram with positive benefit across a threshold probability range of 0-0.9 for the training and internal validation group, and 0-0.6 for the internal-external validation group. CONCLUSION: The nomogram, integrating clinical, radiological, and pathological data, effectively predicts the risk of pathology upgrade in apical PCa tumors. It holds significant potential to guide clinicians in optimizing the surgical management of these patients.


Assuntos
Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Nomogramas , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Curva ROC , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/cirurgia , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(6): 20, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864812

RESUMO

Purpose: Lupus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) has been previously described, but the ocular findings have not been elucidated. Recipient mice in a lupus-like cGVHD model manifested notable and persistent ocular surface phenotypes. Herein, we further explored immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying these ocular phenotypes. Methods: A previously described lupus-like cGVHD model was established by intraperitoneal injection of splenocytes from bm12 mice into C57BL/6J mice. Systemic findings were evaluated for the presence of splenomegaly, proteinuria, and autoantibodies. Comprehensive evaluations were conducted on ocular manifestations and immunopathological features in this model. Results: The lupus-like cGVHD model was successfully constructed 2 weeks post-transplantation. The recipient mice developed lupus-like phenotypes, including splenomegaly, proteinuria, and increased autoantibodies, and their ocular presentations included corneal epithelial defects and decreased tear secretion. Histological analysis revealed a reduction in corneal nerve fiber density and corneal endothelial cells, along with conjunctival fibrosis and loss of goblet cells. Moreover, cGVHD induced progressive aggravation of immune cell infiltration and fibrosis in the lacrimal glands. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) results of the lacrimal glands demonstrated that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the control and cGVHD groups were associated with GVHD pathways. Immune infiltration analysis using RNA-seq and flow cytometry confirmed that CD8+ T lymphocytes predominantly constituted the inflammatory infiltrating cells within the lacrimal glands. Conclusions: This lupus-like cGVHD model (bm12→C57BL/6J) exhibited persistent ocular surface manifestations, characterized by immune infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the lacrimal glands. Thus, this ocular cGVHD model may be used to explore the underlying mechanisms and discover novel therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Animais , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Camundongos , Doença Crônica , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Feminino , Autoanticorpos , Síndrome de Bronquiolite Obliterante
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(6): 397, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844455

RESUMO

Integrin αvß6 holds promise as a therapeutic target for organ fibrosis, yet targeted therapies are hampered by concerns over inflammatory-related side effects. The role of αvß6 in renal inflammation remains unknown, and clarifying this issue is crucial for αvß6-targeted treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we revealed a remarkable positive correlation between overexpressed αvß6 in proximal tubule cells (PTCs) and renal inflammation in CKD patients and mouse models. Notably, knockout of αvß6 not only significantly alleviated renal fibrosis but also reduced inflammatory responses in mice, especially the infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages. Furthermore, conditional knockout of αvß6 in PTCs in vivo and co-culture of PTCs with macrophages in vitro showed that depleting αvß6 in PTCs suppressed the migration and pro-inflammatory differentiation of macrophages. Screening of macrophage activators showed that αvß6 in PTCs activates macrophages via secreting IL-34. IL-34 produced by PTCs was significantly diminished by αvß6 silencing, and reintroduction of IL-34 restored macrophage activities, while anti-IL-34 antibody restrained macrophage activities enhanced by αvß6 overexpression. Moreover, RNA-sequencing of PTCs and verification experiments demonstrated that silencing αvß6 in PTCs blocked hypoxia-stimulated IL-34 upregulation and secretion by inhibiting YAP expression, dephosphorylation, and nuclear translocation, which resulted in the activation of Hippo signaling. While application of a YAP agonist effectively recurred IL-34 production by PTCs, enhancing the subsequent macrophage migration and activation. Besides, reduced IL-34 expression and YAP activation were also observed in global or PTCs-specific αvß6-deficient injured kidneys. Collectively, our research elucidates the pro-inflammatory function and YAP/IL-34/macrophage axis-mediated mechanism of αvß6 in renal inflammation, providing a solid rationale for the use of αvß6 inhibition to treat kidney inflammation and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Integrinas , Macrófagos , Camundongos Knockout , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Fibrose
14.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recipient-area perifollicular erythema (RPE) may delay graft growth after hair transplantation. However, there is currently a lack of observational clinical studies of RPE. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features and risk factors associated with RPE while analyzing its correlation with graft growth. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study between June 2020 and January 2023. RESULTS: A total of 1090 participants were included, 178 (16.33%) showed mild RPE, 56 (5.14%) showed moderate RPE, and 10 (0.92%) showed severe RPE. Patients with RPE had severe hair shaft shedding (P < 0.001) and a lower survival rate (P < 0.001) of grafts. Logistic regression analysis showed that folliculitis is a significant risk factor for mild RPE (OR 6.061, 95% CI 3.343-10.991, P < 0.001) and moderate RPE (OR 3.397, 95% CI 1.299-8.882, P = 0.013). Besides, untimely first postoperative hair washing was associated with the development of moderate RPE (OR 0.724, 95% CI 0.553-0.947, P = 0.018) and severe RPE (OR 1.553, 95% CI 1.156-2.086, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: RPE is a postoperative complication closely related to high hair shaft shedding proportion and low graft survival rate. Both postoperative folliculitis and untimely first postoperative hair washing may induce the occurrence of RPE. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

15.
Langmuir ; 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836692

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) is obtained by the chemical treatment of graphene sheets, resulting in decoration with oxygen-containing functional groups. In the work presented here, we examined marked changes that occur in a thin film of parallel aligned GO sheets when exposed to water vapor at various pressures. It was found that exceptionally fast and substantial water uptake and release occur that is accompanied by major changes in GO interlayer spacing. These characteristics were obtained in situ with spectroscopic ellipsometry. At 99% relative humidity (RH) and 25 °C, the interlayer spacing became 1.41 nm, which recovers to ∼0.8 nm within 30 s when exposed to 10% RH. Besides layer thickness values, uniaxial optical constants for the GO vs RH were derived from the ellipsometry data. Molar refraction theory was applied that indicated monolayer water formation at ∼91% RH at 25 °C upon water adsorption. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the interaction between GO and its environment. The very outspoken effect of external water vapor pressure on GO water content, interlayer spacing, and optical properties can be utilized in sensing and separation devices, subnanometer positioning, chemical switches, and environmentally aware materials.

16.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 222: 130-148, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866192

RESUMO

The clinical application of the therapeutic approach in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remains an insurmountable challenge for the high propensity for progressing to acute myeloid leukemia and predominantly affecting elderly individuals. Thus, the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory network of different programmed cell death holds great promise for the identification of therapeutic targets and provides insights into new therapeutic avenues. Herein, we found that disulfiram/copper (DSF/Cu) significantly repressed the cell viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, destroyed mitochondrial morphology, and altered oxygen consumption rate. Further studies verified that DSF/Cu induces cuproptosis, as evidenced by the depletion of glutathione (GSH), aggregation of lipoylated DLAT, and induced loss of Fe-S cluster-containing proteins, which could be rescued by tetrathiomolybdate and knockdown of ferredoxin 1 (FDX1). Additionally, GSH contributed to the tolerance of DSF/Cu-mediated cuproptosis, while pharmacological chelation of GSH triggered ROS accumulation and sensitized cell death. The xCT-GSH-GPX4 axis is the ideal downstream component of ferroptosis that exerts a powerful protective mechanism. Notably, classical xCT inhibitors were capable of leading to the catastrophic accumulation of ROS and exerting synergistic cell death, while xCT overexpression restored these phenomena. Simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase, has beneficial effects in repurposing for inhibiting GPX4. Similarly, the combination treatment of DSF/Cu and simvastatin dramatically decreased the expression of GPX4 and Fe-S proteins, ultimately accelerating cell death. Moreover, we identified that the combination treatment of DSF/Cu and simvastatin also had a synergistic antitumor effect in the MDS mouse model, with the reduced GPX4, increased COX-2 and accumulated lipid peroxides. Overall, our study provided insight into developing a novel synergistic strategy to sensitize MDS therapy by targeting ferroptosis and cuproptosis.

17.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884189

RESUMO

The identification of new genes involved in regulating cold tolerance in rice is urgent because low temperatures repress plant growth and reduce yields. Cold tolerance is controlled by multiple loci and involves a complex regulatory network. Here, we show that rice jacalin-related lectin (OsJRL) modulates cold tolerance in rice. The loss of OsJRL gene functions increased phenylalanine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis under cold stress. The OsJRL knock-out (KO) lines had higher phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and greater flavonoid accumulation than the wild-type rice, Nipponbare (NIP), under cold stress. The leaves had lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and showed significantly enhanced cold tolerance compared to NIP. In contrast, the OsJRL overexpression (OE) lines had higher levels of ROS accumulation and showed lower cold tolerance than NIP. Additionally, the OsJRL KO lines accumulated more abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) under cold stress than NIP. The OsJRL OE lines showed increased sensitivity to ABA compared to NIP. We conclude that OsJRL negatively regulates the cold tolerance of rice via modulation of phenylalanine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis.

18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(4): 1073-1082, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884242

RESUMO

Understanding the spatiotemporal variations and driving factors of regional vegetation coverage is crucial for developing scientific plans for ecological environment protection and maintaining regional ecological balance. Based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform and using Landsat Collection 2 data, we investigated the spatiotemporal variation and driving factors of vegetation coverage in Shanxi Province, China, from 1990 to 2020, by employing methods such as pixel-based binary model, trend analysis, zonal statistics, and geodetector. The results showed that vegetation coverage in Shanxi Province showed a fluctuating upward trend from 1990 to 2020. Vegetation coverage in 44.4% of this region had been significantly improved, and the area with significant degradation accounted for 7.4%. Vegetation coverage in Shanxi Province was positively correlated with elevation, slope, and mountain terrain relief. The area proportion of vegetation coverage growth was the highest in the plateau and hilly regions. Factor detection results showed that land use type, landform type, annual average precipitation, and soil type were the main influencing factors of the spatial differentiation of vegetation coverage in Shanxi Province. Results of the interaction detection showed that the interaction between driving factors all showed enhancement. The interaction between natural factors showed a downward trend, while the interaction results of social factors showed an upward trend, reflecting that the impacts of human activities on vegetation coverage in Shanxi Province were gradually increasing.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Imagens de Satélites
19.
Res Sq ; 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854131

RESUMO

In the rodent, hippocampal neurogenesis plays critical roles in learning and memory1,2, is tightly regulated by inhibitory neurons3-7 and contributes to memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models8-10. In contrast, the mechanisms regulating neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus, the dynamic shifts in the transcriptomic and epigenomic profiles in aging and AD and putative niche interactions within the cellular environment, remain largely unknown. Using single nuclei multi-omics of postmortem human hippocampi we map the molecular mechanisms of hippocampal neurogenesis across aging, cognitive decline, and AD neuropathology. Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling of neural stem cells (NSCs), neuroblasts and immature neurons suggests that the earliest shift in the characteristics of neurogenesis takes place in NSCs in aging. Cognitive impairment was associated with changes in neuroblast profile. In AD, there was a widespread cessation of the transcription machinery in immature neurons, with robust downregulation of genes regulating ribosomal and mitochondrial function. Further, there was substantial loss of parvalbumin+ inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus in aging. The number of the rest of inhibitory neurons were reduced as a function of age and diagnosis. Notably, a similar system-level effect was observed between immature and inhibitory neurons in the transition from aging to AD, manifested by common molecular pathways that were ultimately lost in AD. The numbers of neuroblasts, immature and GABAergic neurons inversely correlated with extent of neuropathology. Using CellChat and NeuronChat, we inferred the ligands and receptors by which neurogenic cells communicate with their cellular environment. Loss of synaptic adhesion molecules and neurotransmitters, either sent or received by neurogenic cells, was observed in AD. Together, this study delineates the molecular mechanisms and dynamics of human neurogenesis, functional association with inhibitory neurons and a mechanism of hippocampal hyperexcitability in AD.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a key contributor to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but the relation between high-risk HPV genotypes and the location of CIN lesions remains unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the most frequent biopsy site of CIN lesions in women with different HPV infection and to analyze the biopsy times, CIN frequency, and the clustering of CIN frequency based on 12-o'clock sites and cervical quadrant locations. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective study of HPV detection and genotyping at the virology department of our hospital. Colposcopy exams were performed by specialists according to a standardized protocol, and all visually abnormal areas were further biopsied. Pearson chi-squared tests and cluster analyses were implemented to analyze the data. RESULTS: Among 1,381 women enrolled in this study, 933 cases infected with HPV. HPV16, HPV58, and HPV18 were the most common genotypes. The most frequent biopsy site was the 6 o'clock position. The highest frequency of high-grade CIN findings in single-genotype HPV groups was the 6 o'clock position and that for multiple-genotype HPV group was the 12 o'clock location. All CIN clusters were found in the 6 and 12 o'clock biopsy sites, except in the HPV18 group. Quadrant 2 and 4 were clustered in most groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 6 and 12 o'clock sites in cervical quadrant 2 and 4 should be targeted during cervical biopsy procedures. These findings can provide clinicians with specific recommendations on the optimal site for CIN biopsy when considering the HPV genotype.

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