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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124898, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557644

RESUMO

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, biomarkers of internal PAH exposure, are commonly used to explore the effects of PAH on human health. However, the correlation between environmental PAH exposure and the species or levels of urinary PAH metabolites remains unclear. We collected detailed information on PAH exposure sources, including cigarette smoking, cooking, traffic and diet habits via structured questionnaires, and determined 12 urinary monohydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) among 4092 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. Linear mixed models and generalized linear models were conducted to explore the associations of urinary metabolite levels with single or multiple PAH exposure sources. We also calculated the standardized regression coefficients to further compare the contributions of different sources to urinary OH-PAH levels. Our results showed that increasing levels of urinary 1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (1-, 2- OHNa) and 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHFlu) were significantly correlated with tobacco smoking (all P < 0.01). The concentrations of 1-, 2- OHNa and 9-hydroxyfluorene (9-OHFlu) were positively correlated with dietary intake (all P < 0.05). Individuals who spent a long time in traffic showed elevated levels of 9-OHFlu and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPh) compared with individuals who spent a short time in traffic (all P < 0.05). Self-cooking was associated only with elevated 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Moreover, good kitchen ventilation resulted in significantly decreased urinary low-molecular-weight OH-PAH levels. These findings suggested that cigarette smoking, self-cooking, high dietary PAH intake and a long time spent in traffic were associated with increased levels of specific urinary PAH metabolites, and good kitchen ventilation effectively reduced the exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in self-cooking participants.

2.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125101, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683431

RESUMO

Source diverted blackwater collected from toilets can be anaerobically digested to recover energy. The anaerobically digested blackwater (ADB) contains high levels of ammonium and low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In the present study, ADB was treated by a two-stage nitritation-denitrification/anammox process in an integrated fixed film activated sludge-continuous flow reactor (IFAS-CFR). NH4+-N, NO2--N, total nitrogen (TN), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were 80%, 82%, 76%, and 78%, respectively. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrification contributed to 44-48%, and 52-56% of total nitrogen removal, respectively. Both of the protein- and humic acid-like matters were removed during the process. An increase in feed load promoted the sustained growth of anammox bacteria-Candidatus Brocadia in the biofilm, as well as an increase of denitrifiers (Pseudomonas, Thermotonus, Phodanobacter, Caulobacter) in both biofilm and suspended biomass, which remained higher in the suspended biomass than in biofilm. Overall, biofilm had higher nitrogen removal efficiency than suspended biomass, while suspended biomass had a higher COD removal efficiency than biofilm.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691843

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose metabolism are important and significant factors in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. The objective of this study was to use quantitative hybrid PET/MR to evaluate the effects of surgery treatment on the symptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients diagnosed with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease were evaluated using a hybrid TOF PET/MR system (Signa, GE Healthcare). The CBF value measured by arterial spin labelling (ASL) and the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) measured by 18F-FDG PET were obtained, except for the infarct area and its contralateral side, before and after bypass surgery. The asymmetry index (AI) was calculated from the CBF and SUVR of the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The ΔCBF and ΔSUVR were calculated as the percent changes of CBF and SUVR between before and after surgery, and paired t tests were used to determine whether a significant change occurred. Spearman's rank correlation was also used to compare CBF with glucose metabolism in the same region. RESULTS: The analysis primarily revealed that after bypass surgery, a statistically significant increase occurred in the CBF on the affected side (P < 0.01). The postprocedural SUVR was not significantly higher than the preprocedural SUVR (P > 0.05). However, the postprocedural AI values for CBF and SUVR were significantly lower after surgery than before surgery (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between the AI values for preoperative CBF and SUVR on the ipsilateral hemisphere (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that a combination of ASL and 18F-FDG PET could be used to simultaneously analyse changes in patients' cerebral haemodynamic patterns and metabolism between before and after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery. This therefore represents an essential tool for the evaluation of critical haemodynamic and metabolic status in patients with symptomatic unilateral ischaemic cerebrovascular disease.

5.
Nutr Diabetes ; 9(1): 32, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to assess the efficacy of dapagliflozin combined with metformin for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). METHODS: A total of 36 patients with newly-diagnosed T2DM and OSAHS were randomized divided into two groups. Eighteen OSAHS patients with T2DM, who were treated with dapagliflozin and metformin, were assigned as the dapagliflozin group. These patients were given dapagliflozin and metformin for 24 weeks between February 2017 and February 2018. Another 18 OSAHS patients with T2DM, who were treated with glimepiride and metformin for 24 weeks, were assigned as the control group. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level, postprandial blood glucose (PPG), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), minimum oxygen saturation (LSpO2), and Epworth Somnolence Scale (ESS) score were measured before and at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. RESULTS: In the dapagliflozin group, triglyceride (TG), systolic pressure (SBP) and diastolic pressure (DBP) significantly decreased following treatment, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a reduction in AHI, an increase in LSpO2 and a decrease in ESS score were observed in the dapagliflozin group (P < 0.05), but not in the control group. Moreover, blood glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and BMI significantly decreased in these two groups, and the decrease was more significant in the dapagliflozin group. CONCLUSION: These present results indicate that dapagliflozin can significantly reduce glucose, BMI, blood pressure and AHI, and improve hypoxemia during sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness, which thereby has potential as an effective treatment approach for OSAHS.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744291

RESUMO

Herein we report a direct vicinal difunctionalization of thiophenes via the palladium/norbornene (Pd/NBE) cooperative catalysis. A series of mono- and disubstituted thiophenes can be difunctionalized site-selectively and regioselectively at the C4 and C5 positions in good yields, enabled by an arsine ligand and a unique amide-based NBE. The synthetic utility has been shown in derivatizations of complex bioactive compounds and an open-flask gram-scale preparation. Preliminary results have been obtained in the difunctionalization of furans and a direct C4-selective arylation of 2-substituted thiophenes.

7.
Hear Res ; 384: 107827, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683075

RESUMO

The association between shift work and hearing loss is unclear. We aimed to evaluate this association in a Chinese population independently and in combination with occupational noise. A total of 11,196 participants of the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were included. Shift work was self-reported and hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone mean of 25 dB or higher at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in any ear. The Robust Poisson method were used to assess the relationship between shift work and hearing loss, and the prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated. Compared to individuals who reported no shift work, the PRs of bilateral hearing loss were significantly higher for a shift work duration of fewer than 10 years in women, (PR = 1.024, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.002-1.053), but not in men (PR = 1.016, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.998-1.035). The association between short duration of shift work and bilateral hearing loss was just statistically significant in women when those with occupational noise exposure were excluded (PR = 1.067, 95%CI = 1.015-1.122). When shift work and occupational noise exposure were combined, the PRs for hearing loss were highest among individuals with the longest shift work (≥10 years) and longest noise exposure (≥20 years) durations, whether for bilateral (PR = 1.114, 95%CI = 1.068-1.162) or any ear (PR = 1.065, 95%CI = 1.034-1.096). A short duration of shift work may be a risk factor for hearing loss in women and could increase the prevalence of hearing loss when combined with occupational noise.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 265, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function pathogenic variants of the Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (ERBB3) gene contribute to the occurrence and development of a variety of human carcinomas through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. ERBB3 gene homozygous germline variants, whose loss of function may cause autosomal recessive congenital contractural syndrome, were recently identified. This study aims to identify the disease-causing gene in a Chinese pedigree with variable phenotypes involving multiple systems, including developmental delay, postnatal growth retardation, transient lower limb asymmetry, facial malformations, atrioventricular canal malformation, bilateral nystagmus and amblyopia, feeding difficulties, immunodeficiency, anemia, and liver damage, but without congenital contracture. METHODS: Trio-whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed to identify the disease-causing gene in a 24-month-old Chinese female patient. The pathogenicity of the identified variants was evaluated using in silico tools and in vitro functional studies. RESULTS: Trio-WES revealed compound heterozygous variants of c.1253 T > C (p.I418T) and c.3182dupA (p.N1061Kfs*16) in the ERBB3 gene. Functional studies showed that p.I418T resulted in normal expression of ERBB3, which was capable of interacting with ERBB2. However, the variant impaired ERBB3 phosphorylation, consequently blocking ERBB2 phosphorylation and AKT and ERK activation. The truncated protein resulting from the c.3182dupA variant also lacked the capacity to activate downstream signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first patient with a novel multisystem syndrome disorder without congenital contracture resulting from biallelic loss-of-function variants of ERBB3.

9.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8412-8421, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The imbalance between bone resorption and formation is the basic mechanism underlying osteoporosis in the elderly. Osteogenesis is the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoblasts. Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) regulates various biological functions, including differentiation. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that can be activated by physical and chemical stimulation. However, experimental data supporting the role of SIRT6 in osteogenic differentiation (OD) of hMSCs are lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS Differentiation of hMSCs was induced. The expressions of SIRT6, TRPV1, and CGRP were detected by Q-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA, respectively. SIRT6 was overexpressed in hMSCs by transfection. ALP activity and Alizarin Red staining were utilized to detect the effect of SIRT6 on hMSC OD. Then, capsaicin and capsazepine, the TRPV1 agonist and antagonist, respectively, were administrated to assess the role of TRPV1. RESULTS SIRT6 expression was downregulated during hMSC differentiation. SIRT6 overexpression was accompanied by reduced expression of specific genes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in osteoblasts. Furthermore, TRPV1 channel was also reduced by SIRT6 overexpression via ubiquitinating TRPV1. Capsaicin was utilized in SIRT6-overexpressed cells. Capsaicin therapy counteracted the effect of SIRT6 overexpression on OD, and markedly decreased OD. CONCLUSIONS The SIRT6-TRPV1-CGRP signal axis is the key to regulating OD in hMSCs, which could be a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and bone loss-related diseases.

10.
Genomics ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733270

RESUMO

In this investigation, whole-genome identification and functional characterization of the cotton dehydrin genes was carried out. A total of 16, 7, and 7 dehydrin proteins were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. raimondii, respectively. Through RNA sequence data and RT-qPCR validation, Gh_A05G1554 (GhDHN_03) and Gh_D05G1729 (GhDHN_04) were highly upregulated, and knockdown of the two genes, significantly reduced the ability of the plants to tolerate the effects of osmotic and salt stress. The VIGS-plants recorded significantly higher concentration levels of oxidants, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), furthermore, the four stress responsive genes GhLEA2, Gh_D12G2017 (CDKF4), Gh_A07G0747 (GPCR) and a transcription factor, trihelix, Gh_A05G2067, were significantly downregulated in VIGS-plants, but upregulated in wild types under osmotic and salt stress condition. The result indicated that dehydrin proteins are vital for plants and can be exploited in developing a more osmotic and salt stress-resilient germplasm to boost and improve cotton production.

11.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; : 105152, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740395

RESUMO

Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a promising target for a PET measure of cholinergic deficits which contribute to cognitive impairments. Dopamine D2-like agonists and antagonists are frequently used in the elderly and could alter cholinergic function and VAChT level. Therefore, pretreatment with dopamine D2-like drugs may interfere with PET measures using [18F]VAT, a specific VAChT radioligand. Herein, we investigated the impact of dopaminergic D2-like antagonist/agonist on VAChT level in the brain of macaques using [18F]VAT PET. PET imaging studies were carried out on macaques at baseline or pretreatment conditions. For pretreatment, animals were injected using a VAChT inhibitor (-)-vesamicol, a D2-like antagonist (-)-eticlopride, and a D2-like agonist (-)-quinpirole, separately. (-)-Vesamicol was injected at escalating doses of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.35 mg/kg; (-)-eticlopride was injected at escalating doses of 0.01, 0.10 and 0.30 mg/kg; (-)-quinpirole was injected at escalating doses of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50 mg/kg. PET data showed [18F]VAT uptake declined in a dose-dependent manner by (-)-vesamicol pretreatment, demonstrating [18F]VAT uptake is sensitive to reflect the availability of VAChT binding sites. Furthermore, (-)-eticlopride increased [18F]VAT striatal uptake in a dose-dependent manner, while (-)-quinpirole decreased its uptake, suggesting striatal VAChT levels can be regulated by D2-like drug administration. Our findings confirmed [18F]VAT offers a reliable tool to in vivo assess the availability of VAChT binding sites. More importantly, PET with [18F]VAT successfully quantified the impact of dopaminergic D2-like drugs on striatal VAChT level, suggesting [18F]VAT has great potential for investigating the interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in vivo.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and accurate staging are important to improve the cure rate and prognosis for pancreatic cancer. This study was performed to develop an automatic and accurate imaging processing technique system, allowing this system to read computed tomography (CT) images correctly and make diagnosis of pancreatic cancer faster. METHODS: The establishment of the artificial intelligence (AI) system for pancreatic cancer diagnosis based on sequential contrast-enhanced CT images were composed of two processes: training and verification. During training process, our study used all 4385 CT images from 238 pancreatic cancer patients in the database as the training data set. Additionally, we used VGG16, which was pre-trained in ImageNet and contained 13 convolutional layers and three fully connected layers, to initialize the feature extraction network. In the verification experiment, we used sequential clinical CT images from 238 pancreatic cancer patients as our experimental data and input these data into the faster region-based convolution network (Faster R-CNN) model that had completed training. Totally, 1699 images from 100 pancreatic cancer patients were included for clinical verification. RESULTS: A total of 338 patients with pancreatic cancer were included in the study. The clinical characteristics (sex, age, tumor location, differentiation grade, and tumor-node-metastasis stage) between the two training and verification groups were insignificant. The mean average precision was 0.7664, indicating a good training effect of the Faster R-CNN. Sequential contrast-enhanced CT images of 100 pancreatic cancer patients were used for clinical verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve calculated according to the trapezoidal rule was 0.9632. It took approximately 0.2 s for the Faster R-CNN AI to automatically process one CT image, which is much faster than the time required for diagnosis by an imaging specialist. CONCLUSIONS: Faster R-CNN AI is an effective and objective method with high accuracy for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800017542; http://www.chictr.org.cn.

13.
Analyst ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746823

RESUMO

Cancer is a major health problem in the United States with extremely high mortality. The detection and isolation of cancer cells are becoming increasingly important for cancer diagnosis. We describe a microfluidic device modified with silica nanoparticles to enhance the isolation of cancer cells using affinity separation. The isolation of seven different cancer cell lines spiked into liquid biopsies was demonstrated and compared with unmodified separation devices. Cancer cells were isolated using CD71 which has already been demonstrated to be a widespread "net" for capturing cancer cells of any phenotype as the affinity target. The capture efficiency of our nanoparticle (NP)-modified HB chip showed significant differences compared with the normal HB chip, exhibiting an average increase of 16%. The cell enrichment increased by a factor of 2 over unmodified chips. Patient-derived ALL cells, COG-LL-332, were spiked into blood with concentrations ranging from 1% to 20% of total leukocytes, and isolated with the purity of 41%-65%. The results of this study demonstrated that the increase of cell-chip interactions after nanoparticle modification improved capture efficiency and capture purity, and can be applied to a wide range of cell separations.

14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 304, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet (BP) active compound, BP total saponins (BPTS), on MDA-MB-231 cells, and investigate the underlying mechanism regarding BPTS-mediated attenuation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. METHODS: The effect of BPTS on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and migration on MDA-MB-231 cells at three different concentrations was investigated. A CCK-8 assay, wound-healing assay and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate the effects of BPTS. Additionally, expression of the primary members of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was assessed using western blotting. To verify the underlying mechanisms, a PI3K inhibitor and an mTOR inhibitor were used. RESULTS: BPTS inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value of 10 µg/mL at 48 h. BPTS inhibited migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and the western blot results demonstrated that BPTS reduced p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression levels in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, the results were confirmed using a PI3K inhibitor and an mTOR inhibitor. BPTS decreased proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells possibly through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the therapeutic potential of BPTS for treating patients with triple-negative breast cancer.

15.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 53: 50-56, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766002

RESUMO

Plant shoot apical meristems (SAMs) play essential roles in plant growth and development. Located at the growing tip of a plant stem, these dome-like structures contain stem cells, which serve to perpetuate themselves in an undifferentiated state while continually adding new cells that differentiate and eventually form all above-ground tissues. In a SAM, the pool of stem cells is dynamically maintained through a balance between cell division (self-renewal) and differentiation (loss of stem-cell identity). In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a negative feedback loop between WUSCHEL (WUS) and the CLAVATA3 (CLV3) plays important roles in maintaining the stem cell population. In this review, we highlight recent findings mainly from studies in Arabidopsis, and summarize the research progress on understanding how multiple transcriptional circuits integrate and function at different cell layers to control the WUS-CLV3 loop and stem cell homeostasis.

16.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res ; : 1-5, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774019

RESUMO

Although ecotropic viral integration site 2 A (EVI2A) plays key roles in several cancers, the expression and function of EVI2A in osteosarcoma (OS) have not been investigated. Hence, we explored the expression of EVI2A and its clinical significance of EVI2A of OS. Firstly, we investigated the expression of EVI2A in OS tissues. The relationship of EVI2A expression and survival time was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plotter. Then, we used quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm the expression level of EVI2A in OS cell lines. Cell proliferation, and wound-healing experiments were used to identify the biological function of EVI2A. Moreover, EVI2A-mediated MEK/ERK signaling pathway was evaluated using western blotting. Data suggested that EVI2A was highly expressed in OS tissues, and high-expression of EVI2A was associated with worse overall survival in OS patients. Moreover, the up-regulation of it was observed in OS cell lines (Saos2, and MG63). Knockdown of EVI2A suppressed cell proliferation and migration of OS. Western blotting revealed that the inactivation of MEK/ERK pathway was found in OS cells after EVI2A knockdown. Our data implicated the crucial role of EVI2A in the progression of OS, demonstrating that expression of EVI2A may offer an attractive novel prognostic signature for OS.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113341, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610512

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is widely distributed in the environment. However, the mechanisms linking Cd exposure and type 2 diabetes risks are not completely elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of C-reactive protein (CRP) on the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk. We determined urinary Cd and plasma CRP concentrations among 3,140 adults from Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. Dose-response relationships between urinary Cd, plasma CRP, and type 2 diabetes were explored using multivariate logistic regression and linear mixed regression models. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the role of plasma CRP in the associations between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk. With adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios (ORs) of type 2 diabetes showed an upward trend when urinary Cd concentration gradually increased (P trend <0.01). Significantly positive dose-response relationships were observed between urinary Cd and plasma CRP, as well as between plasma CRP and type 2 diabetes risk. Compared to those when both Cd and CRP levels were low, the adjusted ORs (95%CI) of type 2 diabetes was the highest [2.053(1.395-3.020)] in individuals with high levels of urinary Cd and plasma CRP. Mediation analysis estimated that plasma CRP mediated 4.01% of the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk [mediating effect: OR (95%CI) = 1.019(1.002-1.057)]. Individuals with high levels of urinary Cd and plasma CRP had a much higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Plasma CRP may serve as a mediator in the association between urinary Cd and type 2 diabetes risk, providing clues for further study on the biological pathway for type 2 diabetes related to Cd exposure.

18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(12): 3449, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578615

RESUMO

Unfortunately, the 9th author name was incorrectly published in the original publication. The complete correct name is given below.

19.
Org Lett ; 21(20): 8479-8484, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580686

RESUMO

Presented in this paper is photoinduced hydroxylation of organic halides, providing a mild access to a range of functionalized phenols and aliphatic alcohols. These reactions generally proceed under mild reaction conditions with no need for a photocatalyst or a strong base and show a wide substrate scope as well as excellent functional group tolerance. This work highlights the unique role of NaI that allows a challenging transformation to proceed under mild reaction conditions.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17252, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567995

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has shown that vitamin D deficiency may be related with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the association between vitamin D and the CAP.We conducted this meta-analysis though a systematic literature search of PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE up to 31 September 2018 with the following keywords 'vitamin D' or 'cholecalciferol' or '25-hydroxyvitamin D' or '25(OH)D' in combination with 'community-acquired pneumonia' or 'CAP' or 'pneumonia' with no limitations. This meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. The association between vitamin D levels and CAP were measured as odds ratio (OR) and weighted mean difference (WMD). Results were combined using a random-effect or a fix-effect meta-analysis, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore potential factors.Eight observational studies involving 20,966 subjects were included. In this meta-analysis, CAP patients with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of CAP (odds ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00, 2.67), and an obvious decrease of -5.63 ng/mL (95% CI: -9.11, -2.14) in serum vitamin D was demonstrated in CAP patients. Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect.The evidence from this meta-analysis indicates an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of CAP patients. However, well-designed trails are required to determine the explicit effect of vitamin D supplementation.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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