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1.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048590

RESUMO

Aloe vera (L.) Burm f. is a perennial herb belonging to the family liliaceae. It is widely grown for medicinal, cosmetic and vegetable use. In 2018 and 2019, a root rot disease occurred on potted A. vera plants in a nursery in the Hunan Province of China. Symptoms of the disease include water soaking lesions, brown spots on taproot or basal part of the stem. The plants were easy to pull out when the taproot is rotten or necrotic. As the disease progressed upward, leaves in the basal part of stems became red-brown and gradually fell off. In severe cases, the whole plants became rotten and wilted. For isolation purposes, diseased tissues were excised from the lesion margins, surface disinfested with 70% ethanol for 10 s, 0.1% HgCl2 for 2 min, rinsed with sterile water thrice, and then placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 26°C for 3 days in the dark. When cultured on PDA, fungal strains with similar morphology were consistently isolated and purified by single spore isolation. Colonies showed thick, pink aerial mycelium with a growth rate of 1.3 cm /day. The pigmentation was more intense in the colony center and became pale orange and white at the edge of colony. When cultured on SNA (Spezieller Nährstoffarmer agar), the fungus showed less pigmentation and thinner hyphae. Microconidia were abundantly produced, clavate and oval to kidney shaped, 7.1 to 15.2 µm × 2.5 to 5.1 µm, with 0 to 1 transverse septa. Macroconidia were sickle shaped, slender, slightly incurved in apical cell and foot-shaped in the basal cell, measured 27.9 to 53.2 µm × 2.5 to 3.5 µm, with 3 to 5 septa. These morphological characteristics were similar with those of Fusarium spp. (Booth 1971). For molecular identification, genomic DNA of the fungus was extracted by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide method. A portion of EF-1α (translation elongation factor 1-α) and RPB1 (the largest subunit of RNA polymerase) genes were amplified and directly sequenced using the EF-1/EF-2 and Fa/G2R primers (O'Donnell et al. 2010). The EF-1α and RPB1 were deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers MT755386 and MT755387. The EF-1α and RPB1 had 97.14% (ID FD_01334) and 99.62% identity (FD_03853), respectively, to F. xylarioides strains in the Fusarium-ID database (Geiser et al. 2004). In addition, the EF1-a showed 96.825% identity to the F. lateritium CBS 119871(AM295281) (a synonym of F. xylarioides), and the RPB1 showed 99.623% identity to the F. xylarioides NRRL 25486 (JX171517.1). Accordingly, the fungus was putatively identified to be F. xylarioides. For pathogenicity assay, A.vera seedlings were pot planted using sterilized nursery soil and inoculated with conidia suspension (1 × 105 conidia/ml), which were eluted from 7-day-old PDA cultures with sterilized water, according to the method described previously (Vakalounakis et al. 2015). The collar of each potted plant was poured with 20 ml of conidia suspensions. Plants mock inoculated with sterile water were used as control. All the inoculated plants were placed in a growth chamber at 25°C under 12/12 h light/dark cycle. The inoculation assays were carried out twice, with each one had three replicated plants. After 30 days, rot symptoms seen from the roots and basal part of stems were observed on the inoculated plants, but no visible symptoms were observed on control plants. The fungus was re-isolated from the inoculated plants and identified to be F. xylarioides by morphological and molecular characteristics, thus confirming Koch's postulates. As we know, many Fusarium species have been reported to cause root and stem rot disease in A.vera such as the F. oxysporum (Ji et al. 2007) and F. solani (Vakalounakis et al. 2015). However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of F. xylarioides causing root and stem rot disease of A.vera in China. The identification of the pathogen fungus might provide a foundation for taking appropriate control strategies to this disease.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 142595, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049534

RESUMO

The mineralization of soil organic matter is closely related to climate change. Labile organic matter and microbial community are vital intrinsic factors in controlling the mineralization of soil organic matter. Regulation of soil aggregate size on dissolved organic matter (DOM), the cellobiose hydrolyzing microbial community, and their roles in organic matter mineralization remains unclear. The mineralization of organic matter in large macroaggregates (LMA, >2 mm), small macroaggregates (SMA, 0.25-2 mm), and microaggregates (MI, <0.25 mm) from an Ultisol treated with long-term non-fertilizers (Ck), chemical fertilizers (NPK) and animal manure (AM) was observed in this study. The concentration and structure of DOM, activity of ß-glucosidase, and the abundance, diversity, and community composition of GH1 (glycoside hydrolase family 1) microbial ß-glucosidase encoding genes were investigated. The cumulative CO2-C emissions occurred in the order LMA < SMA < MI in each fertilization treatment and followed the sequence Ck < NPK < AM in each size of aggregate. The concentration of DOM in the soil aggregates increased as the aggregate size decreased, while the structural complexity of DOM followed the opposite trend. The activity of ß-glucosidase in the smaller aggregates was higher than that in the larger aggregates, and the abundance and diversity of the GH1 microbial ß-glucosidase genes generally echoed the same trend. The dominant microbial classes harboring GH1 ß-glucosidase genes in the soil aggregates were Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Sordariomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes revealed significant differences among the aggregates. Redundancy analysis confirmed that microbial GH1 ß-glucosidase community in the soil aggregates was primarily regulated by DOM concentration and pH. Structural equation modelling revealed that soil aggregates mainly regulated the ß-glucosidase activity and DOM concentration and then the abundance and diversity of the GH1 microbial ß-glucosidase genes in controlling organic matter mineralization.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 32(1): 012001, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043901

RESUMO

Since the launch of the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer by the National Cancer Institute in late 2004, several similar initiatives have been promoted all over the globe with the intention of advancing the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer in the wake of nanoscience and nanotechnology. All this has encouraged scientists with diverse backgrounds to team up with one another, learn from each other, and generate new knowledge at the interface between engineering, physics, chemistry and biomedical sciences. Importantly, this new knowledge has been wisely channeled towards the development of novel diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic nanosystems, many of which are currently at different stages of clinical development. This roadmap collects eight brief articles elaborating on the interaction of nanomedicines with human biology; the biomedical and clinical applications of nanomedicines; and the importance of patient stratification in the development of future nanomedicines. The first article reports on the role of geometry and mechanical properties in nanomedicine rational design; the second articulates on the interaction of nanomedicines with cells of the immune system; and the third deals with exploiting endogenous molecules, such as albumin, to carry therapeutic agents. The second group of articles highlights the successful application of nanomedicines in the treatment of cancer with the optimal delivery of nucleic acids, diabetes with the sustained and controlled release of insulin, stroke by using thrombolytic particles, and atherosclerosis with the development of targeted nanoparticles. Finally, the last contribution comments on how nanomedicine and theranostics could play a pivotal role in the development of personalized medicines. As this roadmap cannot cover the massive extent of development of nanomedicine over the past 15 years, only a few major achievements are highlighted as the field progressively matures from the initial hype to the consolidation phase.

4.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020615

RESUMO

Topological states of matter exhibit fascinating physics combined with an intrinsic stability. A key challenge is the fast creation of topological phases, which requires massive reorientation of charge or spin degrees of freedom. Here we report the picosecond emergence of an extended topological phase that comprises many magnetic skyrmions. The nucleation of this phase, followed in real time via single-shot soft X-ray scattering after infrared laser excitation, is mediated by a transient topological fluctuation state. This state is enabled by the presence of a time-reversal symmetry-breaking perpendicular magnetic field and exists for less than 300 ps. Atomistic simulations indicate that the fluctuation state largely reduces the topological energy barrier and thereby enables the observed rapid and homogeneous nucleation of the skyrmion phase. These observations provide fundamental insights into the nature of topological phase transitions, and suggest a path towards ultrafast topological switching in a wide variety of materials through intermediate fluctuating states.

5.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999455

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has achieved significant success in the treatment of hematological malignancies. In recent years, fast-growing CAR T clinical trials have actively explored their potential application scenarios. According to the data from the clinicaltrials.gov website, China became the country with the most registered CAR T trials in September 2017. As of June 30, 2020, the number of registered CAR T trials in China has reached 357. In addition, as many as 150 other CAR T trials have been registered on ChiCTR. Although CAR T therapy is flourishing in China, there are still some problems that cannot be ignored. In this review, we aim to systematically summarize the clinical practice of CAR T-cell therapy in China. This review will provide an informative reference for colleagues in the field, and a better understanding of the history and current situation will help us more reasonably conduct research and promote cooperation.

6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 118998, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032117

RESUMO

Thirteen Λ-S states of TlBr molecule are calculated by the method of multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) plus Davidson correction (+Q), and the spectroscopic constants of these states are fitted. The dipole moment of thirteen Λ-S states are also included and analyzed in this calculation. Two bound states split into five Ω states with the SOC effect. The interaction between the molecular configurations of TlBr is analyzed with spin orbit coupling. Considering the forbidden transition, transition dipole moment with SOC effect is considered. On account of the accurate potential energy curves and the transition dipole moment, the Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetime of the a3Π0+ ↔ Χ1Σ0++ transition are calculated. The feasibility of laser cooling of TlBr molecule is analyzed by comparing with the thallium compounds and the bromides of the group-IIIA.

7.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 75: 246-251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several complications of intravenous administration of Methylprednisolone in spine surgery have been reported previously. However, perioperative Addisonian crisis resulting from postoperative routine cessation of intravenous Methylprednisolone has been rarely reported. We here report a case of perioperative Addisonian crisis induced by postoperative routine cessation of intravenous Methylprednisolone. PRESENTATION OF CASE: To report a 56-year-old lady was diagnosed with Addisonian crisis on postoperative duration of lumbar spine surgery after routine cessation of intravenous Methylprednisolone on postoperative day 5. DISCUSSION: There are potential risk and medical complexity of the intravenous administration of Methylprednisolone perioperatively when patients underwent spine surgery, especially the patients with a history of adrenal insufficiency or hypothyroidism, and other endocrine diseases. The early diagnosis and effective replacement therapy after cessation of intravenous glucocorticoid to keep normal serum hormone levels can reduce risk and complication of Addisonian crisis. CONCLUSION: Addisonian crisis may be triggered by the discontinuation of exogenous glucocorticoid. Physicians need to be immediately aware of this potentially lethal complication in patients with endocrine system diseases.

8.
Chemistry ; 26(57): 12902, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870531

RESUMO

Invited for the cover of this issue is Jun Zhu, Miquel Solà and co-workers at Xiamen University, Jagiellonian University and the University of Girona. The image highlights the main roles in this study: ligands, metal centers, and adaptive aromaticity. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.202001830.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1991 AF patients were enrolled and divided into two groups according to whether they have DM at recruitment. Baseline information was collected and a mean follow-up of 1 year was carried out. The primary outcome was defined as all-cause mortality with the secondary outcomes including cardiovascular mortality, stroke and major adverse events (MAEs). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression were performed to estimate the association between BMI and 1-year outcomes in AF patients with and without DM. 309 patients with AF (15.5%) had comorbid DM at baseline. Patients with DM were more likely to have cardiovascular comorbidities, receive relevant medications but carry worse 1-year outcomes. Multivariable Cox regressions indicated that elevated BMI was related with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and major adverse events. Compared to normal weight, overweight [HR (95% CI): 0.548 (0.405-0.741), p < 0.001] and obesity [HR (95% CI): 0.541 (0.326-0.898), p = 0.018] were significantly related with decreased all-cause mortality for the entire cohort. Remarkably reduced all-cause mortality in the overweight [HR (95% CI): 0.497 (0.347-0.711), p < 0.001] and obesity groups [HR (95% CI): 0.405 (0.205-0.800), p = 0.009] could also be detected in AF patients without DM, but not in those with DM. CONCLUSION: Elevated BMI was associated with reduced mortality in patients with AF. This association was modified by DM. The obesity paradox confined to AF patients without DM, but could not be generalized to those with DM.

10.
Org Lett ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902287

RESUMO

The selective fusions with pyrene derivative to the rim and flank bonds of corannulene generated 4 and 7, respectively, which underwent a Scholl reaction to provide novel distorted PAHs CORA-1 and CORA-2, consisting of corannulene and dibenzocoronene units with different connections between them. The studies revealed that the properties of these PAHs are highly dependent on the fusing positions of corannulene.

11.
Nanoscale ; 12(38): 19597-19603, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996986

RESUMO

One-layer multi-arm junction (mAJ) motifs have been investigated extensively for many kinds of planar 2D (two-dimension) lattices, surface-curved 3D (three-dimension) polyhedra, and complex 3D wireframe and tensegrity structures. Herein, we report the weaving strategy to achieve two-layer stacked multi-arm junction tiles (abbreviated as mAJ2) of 3AJ2 and 4AJ2, and several primary tessellation nanostructures of nanocages and 2D rhombus lattices carrying beautifully embossed 4-point stars. Challenges for perfect tessellation are also raised regarding the increase of motif complexity from 2D to 3D.

12.
Genomics ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991963

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia-induced retinal vascular dysfunction is a complex pathological process. circRNAs are important regulators of biological processes and disease progression. However, the expression pattern of circRNAs in hyperlipidemia-induced retinal vascular dysfunction remains unclear. Herein, we used a murine model of hyperlipidemia and identified 317 differentially expressed circRNAs between hyperlipidemic retinas and normolipidemic retinas by circRNA microarrays. GO analysis indicated that the host genes of dysregulated circRNAs were targeted to cell differentiation (ontology: biological process), cytoplasm (ontology: cellular component), and protein binding (ontology: molecular function). Pathway analysis revealed that circRNAs-mediated network was mostly enriched in focal adhesion signaling. Notably, circLDB1 was significantly up-regulated in the serum of coronary artery disease patients and aqueous humor of age-related macular degeneration patients. circLDB1 regulated endothelial cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis in vitro. Thus, circRNAs are the promising targets for the prediction and diagnosis of hyperlipidemia-induced vascular diseases.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105159, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish and verify a model for predicting death within 2 days after spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage based on the patient's characteristics at the time of admission. METHODS: During 2015-2017, the records of a cohort of 397 patients with clinically diagnosed cerebral hemorrhage were collected for model development. Minimum absolute contraction and the selection operator (lasso) regression model were used to determine factors that most consistently and correctly predicted death after cerebral hemorrhage. Discrimination and calibration were used to evaluate the performance of the resulting nomogram. After internal validation, the nomogram was further assessed during 2017-2018 using a different cohort of 200 consecutive subjects. RESULTS: The nomogram included four predictors from the lasso regression analysis: Glasgow Coma Scale, hematoma location, hematoma volume, and primary intraventricular hemorrhage. The nomogram showed good discrimination and good calibration for both training and verification cohorts. Decision curve analysis showed that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: This prediction model can be used for early, simple, and accurate prediction of early death following cerebral hemorrhage.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930496

RESUMO

Activation of dinitrogen (N2 , 78%) and dioxygen (O2 , 21%) has fascinated chemists and biochemists for decades. The industrial conversion of N 2 to ammonia requires extremely high temperatures and pressure. Here we report the first example of N2 and O2 cleavage by a uranium complex, [N(CH2CH2NPiPr2)3U]2(TMEDA), under ambient conditions without an external reducing agent. The N2 triple bond breaking implies a U(III)-P(III) six-electron reduction. The hydrolysis of the N2 reduction product allows the formation of ammonia or nitrogen-containing organic compound. The interaction between U(III) and P(III) in this molecule allows an eight-electron reduction of two O2 molecules. This study establishes that the combination of uranium and a low-valent nonmetal is a promising strategy to achieve a full N2 and O2 cleavage under ambient conditions, which may aid the design of new system for small molecules activation.

15.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2901-2909, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. RESULTS: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

16.
Chin J Dent Res ; 23(3): 199-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the bilateral symmetry of double root canals, variation in root canal bifurcation and position of canal orifices in mandibular incisors in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 149 subjects with mandibular incisors with two canals were selected from 866 patients based on CBCT images and divided into three groups: group 1 (< 21 years), group 2 (21-40 years) and group 3 (> 40 years). The prevalence of bilateral symmetry of double root canals (type III and type V), the distance between the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the bifurcation (D1) and the distance between the two canal orifices (D2) were calculated and analysed. RESULTS: The bilateral symmetry of type III for mandibular central incisors (MCIs) (44.4%) was significantly lower than that for mandibular lateral incisors (MLIs) (63.4%). D1 was greater in group 1 (4.63 ± 1.35mm) than in group 2 (3.99 ± 1.02 mm) and group 3 (3.90 ± 1.95 mm). D2 was shorter in in MCIs (0.65 ± 0.20 mm) than in MLIs (0.74 ± 0.22 mm). CONCLUSION: Special attention is required in the root canal treatment of mandibular incisors, especially in patients aged above 21 years.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Incisivo , Adulto , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and high levels of viral RNA in the stool suggest active Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication within enterocytes. METHODS: Here, in multiple, large cohorts of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we have studied the intersections between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), intestinal inflammation and IBD treatment. RESULTS: A striking expression of ACE2 on the small bowel enterocyte brush border supports intestinal infectivity by SARS-CoV-2. Commonly used IBD medications, both biologic and non-biologic, do not significantly impact ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptor expression in the uninflamed intestines. Additionally, we have defined molecular responses to COVID-19 infection that are also enriched in IBD, pointing to shared molecular networks between COVID-19 and IBD. CONCLUSIONS: These data generate a novel appreciation of the confluence of COVID-19- and IBD-associated inflammation and provide mechanistic insights supporting further investigation of specific IBD drugs in the treatment of COVID-19.

18.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935470

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is accompanied by overactivation of multiple pro-inflammatory factors. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) has been shown to aggravate lung injury in response to hyperoxia. However, the relationship between CYP1A1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI is unknown. In this study, CYP1A1 was shown to be upregulated in mouse lung in response to LPS. Using CYP1A1-deficient (CYP1A1-/-) mice, we found that CYP1A1 knockout enhanced LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by increased TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and nitric oxide in lung; these effects were mediated by overactivation of NF-κB and iNOS. Furthermore, we found that aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine levels were elevated in serum of LPS-induced CYP1A1-/- mice. Altogether, these data provide novel insights into the involvement of CYP1A1 in LPS-induced lung injury.

19.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(9): 751-61, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effects of moxibustion on serum cytokines in experimental animals with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, and CBM were searched for animal experiments on moxibustion intervention for rheumatoid arthritis. Related data were extracted, and RevMan 5.3 was used to perform a meta-analysis of outcome measures, including serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), and degree of swelling of diseased joint. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies were included. The detection methods included radioimmunoassay and ELISA and the experimental animal species included rats and rabbits. The studies on serum TNF-α and degree of swelling of diseased joint had publication bias. Meta-analysis showed that the moxibustion group had significant reductions in the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, VEGF, IL-17, and RANKL, significant increases in the serum levels of TGF-ß and IFN-γ, and a significant reduction in the degree of swelling of diseased joints in model animals. CONCLUSION: Moxibustion can effectively regulate levels of the serum cytokines in experimental animals of rheumatoid arthritis and thus reduce inflammatory response and alleviate the swelling of diseased joints.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4789, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963247

RESUMO

Hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells offer possibility of adopting platinum-group-metal-free catalysts to negotiate sluggish oxygen reduction reaction. Unfortunately, the ultrafast hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) on platinum decreases at least two orders of magnitude by switching the electrolytes from acid to base, causing high platinum-group-metal loadings. Here we show that a nickel-molybdenum nanoalloy with tetragonal MoNi4 phase can catalyze the HOR efficiently in alkaline electrolytes. The catalyst exhibits a high apparent exchange current density of 3.41 milliamperes per square centimeter and operates very stable, which is 1.4 times higher than that of state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. With this catalyst, we further demonstrate the capability to tolerate carbon monoxide poisoning. Marked HOR activity was also observed on similarly designed WNi4 catalyst. We attribute this remarkable HOR reactivity to an alloy effect that enables optimum adsorption of hydrogen on nickel and hydroxyl on molybdenum (tungsten), which synergistically promotes the Volmer reaction.

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